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Chapter 17 Additional Aspects of Aqueous Equilibria Chemistry: The Central Science, 10th edition Theodore L. Brown, H. Eugene LeMay, Jr., and Bruce E.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 17 Additional Aspects of Aqueous Equilibria Chemistry: The Central Science, 10th edition Theodore L. Brown, H. Eugene LeMay, Jr., and Bruce E."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 17 Additional Aspects of Aqueous Equilibria Chemistry: The Central Science, 10th edition Theodore L. Brown, H. Eugene LeMay, Jr., and Bruce E. Bursten Todd Austell, The University of North Carolinai 2006, Pearson Prentice Hall

2 a. 1.[NH 4 + ] = M; [Cl – ] = M; [NH 3 ] = 0.12 M 2.[NH 4 + ] = 0.10 M; [Cl – ] = 0.10 M; [NH 3 ] = 0.12 M 3.[N 3– ] = 0.10 M; [H + ] = 0.30 M; [Cl – ] = 0.10 M; [NH 3 ] = 0.12 M 4.[NH 4 + ] = M; [Cl – ] = M; [NH 3 ] = M

3 a. 1.[NH 4 + ] = M; [Cl – ] = M; [NH 3 ] = 0.12 M 2.[NH 4 + ] = 0.10 M; [Cl – ] = 0.10 M; [NH 3 ] = 0.12 M 3.[N 3– ] = 0.10 M; [H + ] = 0.30 M; [Cl – ] = 0.10 M; [NH 3 ] = 0.12 M 4.[NH 4 + ] = M; [Cl – ] = M; [NH 3 ] = M

4 b. 1.There are no spectator ions. 2.Cl – 3.Both NH 4 + and Cl – 4.NH 4 +

5 b. 1.There are no spectator ions. 2.Cl – 3.Both NH 4 + and Cl – 4.NH 4 +

6 c. 1.NH 3(aq) + H 2 O (l) NH 4 + (aq) + OH – (aq) 2.NH 4 + (aq) + OH – (aq) NH 3(aq) + H 2 O (l) 3.H 3 O + (aq) + OH – (aq) 2H 2 O (l) 4.NH 4 + (aq) + H 2 O (l) H 3 O + (aq) + NH 3(aq)

7 c. 1.NH 3(aq) + H 2 O (l) NH 4 + (aq) + OH – (aq) 2.NH 4 + (aq) + OH – (aq) NH 3(aq) + H 2 O (l) 3.H 3 O + (aq) + OH – (aq) 2H 2 O (l) 4.NH 4 + (aq) + H 2 O (l) H 3 O + (aq) + NH 3(aq)

8 1.All acid-base pairs will function as buffers. 2.HCHO 2 and CHO 2 – will not work as a buffer because CHO 2 – is a spectator ion. 3.HCO 3 – and CO 3 2 – will not work as a buffer because HCO 3 – is a spectator ion. 4.HNO 3 and NO 3 – will not work as a buffer because NO 3 – is a spectator ion.

9 1.All acid-base pairs will function as buffers. 2.HCHO 2 and CHO 2 – will not work as a buffer because CHO 2 – is a spectator ion. 3.HCO 3 – and CO 3 2 – will not work as a buffer because HCO 3 – is a spectator ion. 4.HNO 3 and NO 3 – will not work as a buffer because NO 3 – is a spectator ion.

10 a. 1.There is no reaction because C 2 H 3 O 2 – / HC 2 H 3 O 2 is a buffer. 2.The NaOH reacts with C 2 H 3 O 2 – converting some of it into HC 2 H 3 O 2. 3.The NaOH reacts with HC 2 H 3 O 2 converting some of it into C 2 H 3 O 2 –. 4.The NaOH is neutralized and all concentrations (HC 2 H 3 O 2 and C 2 H 3 O 2 – ) remain unchanged.

11 a. 1.There is no reaction because C 2 H 3 O 2 – / HC 2 H 3 O 2 is a buffer. 2.The NaOH reacts with C 2 H 3 O 2 – converting some of it into HC 2 H 3 O 2. 3.The NaOH reacts with HC 2 H 3 O 2 converting some of it into C 2 H 3 O 2 –. 4.The NaOH is neutralized and all concentrations (HC 2 H 3 O 2 and C 2 H 3 O 2 – ) remain unchanged.

12 b. 1.There is no reaction because C 2 H 3 O 2 – / HC 2 H 3 O 2 is a buffer. 2.The HCl reacts with C 2 H 3 O 2 – converting some of it into HC 2 H 3 O 2. 3.The HCl is neutralized and all concentrations (HC 2 H 3 O 2 and C 2 H 3 O 2 – ) remain unchanged. 4.The HCl reacts with HC 2 H 3 O 2 converting some of it into C 2 H 3 O 2 –.

13 b. 1.There is no reaction because C 2 H 3 O 2 – / HC 2 H 3 O 2 is a buffer. 2.The HCl reacts with C 2 H 3 O 2 – converting some of it into HC 2 H 3 O 2. 3.The HCl is neutralized and all concentrations (HC 2 H 3 O 2 and C 2 H 3 O 2 – ) remain unchanged. 4.The HCl reacts with HC 2 H 3 O 2 converting some of it into C 2 H 3 O 2 –.

14 1.pH = pH = pH = pH = 1.80

15 1.pH = pH = pH = pH = 1.80

16 1.We need more information to determine pH when titrant is added. 2.The pH will remain the same when titrant is added. 3.The pH will decrease when titrant is added. 4.The pH will increase when titrant is added.

17 1.We need more information to determine pH when titrant is added. 2.The pH will remain the same when titrant is added. 3.The pH will decrease when titrant is added. 4.The pH will increase when titrant is added.

18 1.The nearly vertical equivalence point portion of the titration curve is large for a weak acid-strong base titration, and fewer indicators undergo their color change so quickly its difficult to monitor. 2.The nearly vertical equivalence point portion of the titration curve is smaller for a weak acid-strong base titration, and fewer indicators undergo their color change within this narrow range. 3.Many indicators do not change colors at the equivalence points of weak acid-strong base titrations. 4.Equivalence points at pHs other than 7.00 are difficult to determine.

19 1.The nearly vertical equivalence point portion of the titration curve is large for a weak acid-strong base titration, and fewer indicators undergo their color change so quickly its difficult to monitor. 2.The nearly vertical equivalence point portion of the titration curve is smaller for a weak acid-strong base titration, and fewer indicators undergo their color change within this narrow range. 3.Many indicators do not change colors at the equivalence points of weak acid-strong base titrations. 4.Equivalence points at pHs other than 7.00 are difficult to determine.

20 1.AgI is most soluble. 2.AgBr is most soluble. 3.AgCl is most soluble. 4.All of the compounds have equal solubility in water.

21 1.AgI is most soluble. 2.AgBr is most soluble. 3.AgCl is most soluble. 4.All of the compounds have equal solubility in water.

22 1.They are insoluble in water but dissolve readily in the presence of an acid or base. 2.They quickly liquefy if exposed to air at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. 3.They are insoluble in acid or base solutions but dissolve readily in pure water. 4.They give off hydrogen gas when mixed with water.

23 1.They are insoluble in water but dissolve readily in the presence of an acid or base. 2.They quickly liquefy if exposed to air at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. 3.They are insoluble in acid or base solutions but dissolve readily in pure water. 4.They give off hydrogen gas when mixed with water.

24 1.Increasing the pressure on the reaction will significantly lower the [Cu 2+ ]. 2.An elevated temperature will significantly lower the [Cu 2+ ]. 3.A high concentration of H 2 S and a low concentration of H + (high pH) will reduce [Cu 2+ ]. 4.A low concentration of H 2 S and a high concentration of H + (low pH) will reduce [Cu 2+ ].

25 1.Increasing the pressure on the reaction will significantly lower the [Cu 2+ ]. 2.An elevated temperature will significantly lower the [Cu 2+ ]. 3.A high concentration of H 2 S and a low concentration of H + (high pH) will reduce [Cu 2+ ]. 4.A low concentration of H 2 S and a high concentration of H + (low pH) will reduce [Cu 2+ ].

26 1.The solution definitely contains either Pb 2+ or Hg 2 2+ cation. 2.The solution definitely contains the Ag + cation. 3.The solution must contain one of the following cations: Cu 2+, Bi 3+, or Cd The solution must contain one of the following cations: Ag +, Pb 2+ or Hg 2 2+.

27 1.The solution definitely contains either Pb 2+ or Hg 2 2+ cation. 2.The solution definitely contains the Ag + cation. 3.The solution must contain one of the following cations: Cu 2+, Bi 3+, or Cd The solution must contain one of the following cations: Ag +, Pb 2+ or Hg 2 2+.


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