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Types of Energy Principles of Physics

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**Energy Objects have energy if they are able to do things**

A way of explaining why things happen Energy is a scalar quantity (no direction)

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**Kinetic energy Energy of Motion**

KE = ½ mv2 KE = Kinetic energy (Joules = J) m = mass (kg) v = velocity (m/s)

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Example A 5 kg block is sliding on a frictionless horizontal surface with a speed of 5 m/s. Calculate the kinetic energy of the block KE = ½ mv2 = ½ (5)(5)2 KE = 62.5 J

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**Potential energy Energy of position or condition**

Gravitational PE = mgh PE = potential energy (J) m = mass (kg) g = gravitational acceleration = 9.8 m/s2 h = height (m) Other types of PE: spring, electrostatic

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Example A 0.100kg egg is dropped from the top of the bleachers which are 5.5 m high. Calculate the potential energy of the egg. PE = mgh PE = (0.100)(9.8)(5.5) PE = 5.39 J

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**Mechanical energy Total mechanical energy of a system:**

All the potential energy and all of the kinetic energy that the system contains

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Example A toy airplane with a mass of 30 kg is travelling 35 m above the ground at 40 m/s. How much mechanical energy does the airplane have? KE = ½ mv2 PE = mgh KE = ½ (30)(40)2 PE = (30)(9.8)(35) KE = 24,000 J PE = 10,290 J Total Mechanical Energy = 24, ,290 = 34,290 J

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