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A Social Brain Interpretation of Psychotherapy Research Committee Group for the Advancement of Psychiatry (GAP) John Beahrs Other committee members: Russell.

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Presentation on theme: "A Social Brain Interpretation of Psychotherapy Research Committee Group for the Advancement of Psychiatry (GAP) John Beahrs Other committee members: Russell."— Presentation transcript:

1 A Social Brain Interpretation of Psychotherapy Research Committee Group for the Advancement of Psychiatry (GAP) John Beahrs Other committee members: Russell Gardner, Beverly Sutton, Jacob Kerbeshian, Fred Wamboldt, Morton Sosland, Alan Swann, Johan Verhulst, John Looney, Doug Kramer, Michael Schwartz, Carlo Carandang

2 Sources for this Presentation Based primarily on Beahrs JO: A social brain interpretation of psychotherapy. Psychiatric Annals 2005; 35(10):816-822 Revised & updated © JO Beahrs, April 7, 2008 Incorporates subsequent work: - Beahrs JO: Assessing attributive causation in psychiatry: psychotherapeutic results correlate with self-therapeutic activity. Clinical Neuropsychiatry 2006; 3(2):154-161 -Beahrs JO: The infrastructure of complex culture in humans, scientific article in advanced preparation -Beahrs JO: Psychotherapy and the Human Dilemma, book manuscript in advanced preparation

3 Introduction Mental dynamics vary with social milieu: –Permits therapeutic correction, if disordered, –by reframing their functions in the social milieu A “sociodynamics” concept –Causation proceeds from external  internal –Points to underappreciated research areas –Can guide more effective psychotherapy

4 Presentation will: 1.Address problems in traditional psychodynamics 2.Define constituents & rationale of sociodynamics 3.Review two underappreciated basic sciences 4.Show how a research-based conceptual framework aids treatment planning & practice. Note: all psychiatric treatment interactions utilize social influence & sociodynamics

5 Organization of Presentation 1.Problems in traditional psychodynamics 2.Two underemphasized sciences 3.Constituents & rationale of sociodynamics 4.How does a research-based conceptual framework aid treatment planning/practice

6 Physics Metaphor in Psychotherapy Definition: Psychotherapy = technologies that improve disordered psychological realities via applied social skills Traditional psychodynamic theory interprets these through internal mental mechanisms –Mechanistic causation metaphor of classical physics –Sx’s social effects seen as “secondary” gains & costs

7 Problem with Physics Metaphor Psychotherapy’s proven efficacy & efficiency arise –Because patients’ “psychological realities” vary with their social context 1 –Which can be reframed 2,3 –This reframability contrasts with the context- independent “objectivity” of classical physics 4 –Hence, different causal rules must apply

8 Sociodynamics Sullivan, 5 Berne, 6 Erickson, 3 Watzlawick et al 7 Sociodynamics focus on social influence Clinicians ask: –“What social payoffs do the symptoms provide?” –“What social reinforcers keep sx complex going?” External “interests” take priority over internal “drives” as causal forces 8 Adaptive modules or life strategies 9 replace defenses as modulators or determinants

9 Sociodynamics = Social Causation “Social brain” calculates/recalculates a person’s interests within his or her social milieu –Assesses one’s strategic armamentarium for strengths & weaknesses –Selects strategies most likely to win one’s interests –Largely outside conscious awareness (Unconscious) Sx’s social payoffs = primary, not 2 o gains 6,10 –Underlying “mental states” = secondary adaptations –Designed by brain in order to facilitate one’s strategy

10 Consciousness & Volition Are highly anomalous to classical mechanism –Further undermining the mechanistic metaphor Defined by contrast between polar opposites: –“Unconscious” awareness and “involuntary” action The opposing poles feel as if distinct, but Attempts to separate conscious from unconscious or voluntary from involuntary  “A/not-A Absurdities” –In which one pole is shown to be “really” the other 4,11

11 Examples from Hypnosis Research Illusion of choice –Post-hypnotic suggestion may be –experienced & defended as if a free choice 12 Hypnotic non-volition –May be constructed easily by voluntary actions 1,13 Conclusion: A/not-A absurdities –Experienced volition is “really” involuntary –& Involuntary action is “really” voluntary 14 –Same holds for conscious & unconscious

12 Paradox How do the dualities of consciousness & volition with their polar opposites, Though illusory, Remain ubiquitous & come to define human experience?

13 The Illusion of Conscious Will 12 New data: subjective volition can be –Decoupled from skeletal muscle movement –Does not cause our “voluntary” actions 12 “Volition” must serve other functions Such as regulation of social interaction 12,14

14 Internal Experience  Deception The fact that these data contrast so starkly with everyday experience suggests that a component of self-deception may contribute to the dynamics of our internal mental experience

15 Sociodynamic Hypothesis Human mentation = sociodynamic & complex –(1) involves at least 2 primary interacting parties –(2) occurs concurrently on more than 1 level Cultural transmission needs > 2 interactants –Third parties mediate, legitimize & extend –All communicate concurrently on > 1 levels “Mental states”  tacit social agreements –Added on after-the-fact, outside of awareness –Experienced as if substantive and causal

16 Levels of Interaction Berne: “overt” versus “covert” levels –roughly = “conscious” & “unconscious” 6 Watzlawick et al: overt “content” & covert “relationship” levels 7 –1 st = open information exchange, pastiming, & negotiation –2 nd a hidden web of mutual suggestion Defines personal identities & relative social status 7 Generally ratified by 3 rd party observers 3,7,15

17 Levels & Psychotherapy Incongruity between these levels  psychotherapeutic focal points 6 Therapist strategy –Search patients’ social networks for self- reinforcing patterns of mutual suggestion –& how these patterns become pathogenic –Pursue ways to redefine & redirect them Toward healthier patterns That also become self-sustaining

18 Organization of Presentation 1.Problems in traditional psychodynamics 2.Two underemphasized basic sciences 3.Constituents & rationale of sociodynamics 4.How does a research-based conceptual framework aid treatment planning/practice

19 Underemphasized Essential Basic Sciences 1.Human evolutionary biology –How did natural selection shape the quirks and foibles of “human nature”? 16 –Evolutionary biology clarifies the selective pressures that guided human evolution 2.Social influence research –How social milieus influence the form and direction of our evolved mental phenomena

20 Social Influence Research Studies 17 of Persuasion Ideology Socialization Advertising Hypnosis = paradigmatic data set 18

21 Beahrs Articles Tacit contracting for reciprocal autonomy & shared self-deception Contributes to “unconscious” awareness & “involuntary” action 14 to –“Psychological structures” 15 –Social etiquette 21 –Specific psychopathologies 22 –Malleability of personal memories 23

22 Psychosocial Trauma as Illustration Effects of psychosocial trauma –Another set of specific scientific questions and treatment dilemmas Relates these 2 scientific data bases both –To one another –To neurobiology

23 Reciprocity Homo sapiens cooperates to a unique extent among complex species –cooperation must be achieved in the face of conflicting interests 8 Reciprocity = bedrock of cooperation among unrelated people –One can benefit from doing a costly favor for another –Provided the favor is or will be returned 19

24 Reciprocity is Vulnerable to Defection & Deceit 20  Discriminative skills (specific individuals and their behaviors) Episodic and semantic memory Police functions Social emotions –E.g., love –E.g., moralistic rage

25 Shared Self-Deception Hypothesis All parties want to pursue self-interest, beyond group norms & thus punishable By direct reciprocity, they grant one another wiggle room for self-interest: 14 –Labeled as “freedom” & “autonomy” –Enhances common interest & social bonding Concealed by shared self-deception Enforced by threat of counter-betrayal

26 Illustrations of Tacit Contracts Shared social self-idealizations –E.g., “Sacred” or “politically correct” –Conceal sordid social reality that actually happens –Tacit social contract: aversion to whistleblowers Summary: one often detects others’ deceits –But tactfully acts deceived and respects the taboo –Often denies awareness even to the self “Conscious” parallels what’s open to discussion, “Unconscious” = what really happens & is taboo

27 Taboo Vs. Accurate Awareness Subtle & important point: Awareness remains, but is hidden even from its bearer This process predicts the anomalies of –An “unconscious” that’s “really” conscious at another level, and vice versa –Sociodynamics that masquerade as psychodynamics the illusion of conscious will –Equilibration through mutual suggestion individuals’ “conscious” parallels social self-idealizations “unconscious” parallels what really happens, but is taboo

28 Social Influence These sociodynamics pervade all human relationships They manifest themselves most dramatically in poorly-understood interactions that we call “hypnotic” 15,18 Hypnotic-like phenomena and transactions pervade everyday living, so Hypnosis provides a research paradigm

29 Hypnotic Transactions Exemplify Hypnotists’ illusion of control -conceals dependency on subjects’ response for what to do next Subjects’ illusion of non-volition -conceals the fact that only they decide whether and how to respond 24 These vividly-experienced illusions reinforce one another, like a folie a deux 15

30 3 rd Parties  Social Reality Legitimization by 3rd parties  emergent “psychological reality” 14,15 Social influence data 17,18 –Show that hypnotic elements pervade all waking mentation & social intercourse 1,4,11 –Hypnosis = non-hypnosis & vice versa –I.e., the A/not-A absurdities follow

31 Mutual Suggestion All communication carries elements of overt information exchange & covert mutual suggestion in tension 3,4,6,7 One can not avoid influencing and being influenced by mutual suggestion Any more than one can avoid communicating 7

32  Psychosocial Entanglements Mutual suggestion creates entanglements These extend from dyadic interactions to determine an entire society’s mores Largely outside of awareness, individuals adjust personal beliefs to these mores –These social mores are coercive –Awareness of what is socially “taboo” tends to be suppressed in one’s “unconscious” 8,14,15,21

33 Psychodynamics Emerge What is inherently social and contractual becomes experienced as if it comes from within –as though it were internally driven

34 Psychodynamics = “Real” At an emergent “psychological” level –Through the vividness of experience –Extent to which they are shared –Intensity with which they are mutually legitimized and defended by all participants & gain further stability –From subsequent “commitment” processes – that make individuals more trustworthy 25

35 Psychodynamics = 2 o Adaptations Not primary drivers, –e.g., “conscious will” = non-causal 12 Secondary adaptations, –to primarily social pressures –which arise primarily from reciprocity & deceit Social functions –conscious will as “emotion of authorship” 12 –convention for holding people responsible 14

36 Psychopathology People who fail to enact psychodynamics competently –do not adjust well, suffer, –& impose their suffering on others  psychopathology Many patients are inept at or violate reciprocity Anomalies described earlier arise from the necessary roles of deception and self-deception

37 Further Evolution of our Minds Once stabilized, yet-unidentified neurobiological mechanisms will have evolved to implement these processes “Consciousness” can then acquire new functions, such as long term planning 8 “Volition” may then mark those behaviors for which we hold offenders culpable 12,14

38 Cultural Relativity of Psychodynamics All cultures develop their idiosyncratic psychodynamic models, whose specific content vary over a yet ill-defined range 26 –Not as primary causal drivers, but as secondary adaptations to the pressures of reciprocity in human evolution

39 Narrative Summary I. The psychological anomalies described earlier arise from the necessary roles of deception and self-deception: what is inherently social and contractual becomes experienced as if internal drives. Psychodynamics thereby do become “real”, at an emergent “psychological” level, through the vividness with which they are experienced, the extent to which they are shared, and the intensity with which they are mutually defended by all participants.

40 Narrative Summary II. They are further stabilized by subsequent “commitment” processes that make successful individuals more trustworthy.25 Once so stabilized, yet-unidentified neurobiological mechanisms will have evolved to implement these processes.

41 Trauma and Re-Enactment Psychological trauma intensifies and rigidifies these processes. Re-enactment evolved as a learned instinct? Promotes adaptive rehearsal for emergencies that recur episodically and occasionally, and Becomes pathological in rapidly changing milieus such as today’s advanced cultures 27

42 Neurobiology of Re-Enactment Re-enactment resembles chemical addiction, and may operate through opioid, dopaminergic and related systems activated by trauma Which thus serve to reinforce its effects.

43 Sociodynamics of Re-Enactment Trauma  ruptured relationships  Extends to others through “contagion.” 28  Hypnotizability is enhanced, 29 and Patterns of mutual suggestion are now driven by the coercive power of traumatic affect. We often feel drawn either to “validate” others’ traumas or to deny them, and either way, to denigrate those who do the opposite. 30

44 Trauma  Intractable Conflict Competing groups reinforce themselves with hypnotic-like folies a deux, each strengthened by enmity with the other. Each increases the trauma: “ratifiers” fan the flame (positive reinforcement); “deniers” traumatize those who seek social validation. Intractable conflict may result Traumatic re-enactment is its fuel Without it, frontal lobes will learn to inhibit it 31

45 Trauma  Self-Deception I. Some traumatized individuals adjust their projected self-image downward, thus Assuring social dominants they’re no threat Image is made congruent by self-deception  a real posttraumatic disorder 22  -driven by traumatic affect & neural reinforcers -socially ratified by mutual suggestion

46 Trauma  Self-Deception II. Real illness & “illness role” often diverge. E.g., posttraumatic dissociative d/o’s. 22 Here, therapists may do better -not to validate the illness role, but -challenge intact competencies. 15,22,32 -within limits of safety in contrast to tx. of major mental illness

47 Psychotherapy: General Implications Most psychotherapies are sociodynamic Whatever be their stated rationale. “Mental states”  constitutional givens, neurobiology, experience, and social influence As per Engel’s biopsychosocial model. 33

48 Sociodynamic Perspective I. Emphasizes the social pull more overtly Looks toward mutual suggestion for -sources of symptomatic behavior, -payoffs and reinforcers thereof, & -focal points for tx. intervention.

49 Sociodynamic Perspective II. Utilizes 3 anomalies of psychological reality: 1 st : the evolved tension between our -sense of autonomous personhood & -hypnotic-like social entanglements Here, psychotherapists -respect autonomy via informed consent & contract for tx. roles, goals, & behavioral safety –in a way that utilizes indirect suggestion to imply optimum mental health to begin with. 34

50 Sociodynamic Perspective III. 2 nd : mental realities vary with the act of defining them  responsibility to reframe them toward positive change. 3 rd : causation works in opposing directions -defying attempts to define the primary cause, - granting flexibility to intervene at “focal points” that are sometimes remote from the target of desired change. 4 Breaking up self-reinforcing vicious circles = the key element -particularly relevant when traumatic reenactment is in play. Therapists challenge individual patients to -identify problem-maintaining reenactment behaviors, -voluntarily abstain from them, replacing them with coping skills -just as is done in the treatment of the addictions. Therapists support significant others in standing firm against patients’ passive control, thus further reinforcing health. 10

51 Relevant Initial Questions for Tx. What does this patient want therapist to believe? How does this symptom predictably affect others? What preferred strategies does this patient deploy? How do these cause problems in his/her current milieu? What principally reinforces one’s symptoms? How can the treatment redirect these reinforcers? How can one redefine this symptom complex -to increase the odds of + therapeutic change -occurring as if by itself, and safely?  To identify focal points for potent tx with enduring benefit

52 Utilizing significant others Assessing and utilizing patients’ immediate social context provides great instruction to the treater. I often invite new patients’ permission to bring a spouse or significant other to an early followup session, with explicit intent not to do couples therapy, but to hear how the patients are perceived by knowledgeable third parties, extending the assessment to other perspectives. Often the other’s report provides corroboration, but often not. When not, I now understand the context far more clearly, relatively soon, and interventions may become self- evident. Simply inviting the collateral visit respectfully implies an intention to keep the option open of viewing the problem from other perspectives than the presenting narrative only. This covert suggestion enhances therapeutic leverage for therapeutic change.

53 Intentionality of Patients’ Narratives Less the whole truth & nothing but; more How patients want to be perceived. Keeping this in mind helps us to shift -from problematic questions like truth, -to more productive questions, such as Identifying the patients’ social context, preferred strategies, and how these work or instead reinforce their problems

54 Passive Control Dynamics Therapists may identify “symptoms as power tactics,” -bolster significant others’ ability to stand firm, -thus putting the ball back in patients’ court. 10 Referring families for support in standing firm: -of substance abusers to Al-Anon -of acting out pts to mental health centers to learn “tough love” and related strategies. Neutralizing problem-maintaining social reinforcers  desirable therapeutic change Most patients welcome family involvement. -when not, many report what family would say, -enabling one still to address potential social payoffs

55 Implying Health and Competency “Treat another as he is, and he will remain as he is. If we treat him as what he ought to be and can be, then he will become what he ought to be and can be.” (attributed to Goethe). = indirect suggestion, the “relationship message” that pulls the person in the relevant direction. 7 -parental approaches imply pts’ impairment, and invoke child-like mental states. 6 -providing informed consent presumes their ability to make personal decisions, implying health & competency whatever the diagnosis. 34

56 Informed Consent as Therapy Far more than just a legal obligation, giving informed consent is a potent therapeutic technique that pulls patients toward the greater health that the process implies. 34 This process illustrates how treatment can utilize the suggestive component of communication even while negotiating at the most overt conscious level. Milton H. Erickson utilized this type of indirect suggestion most explicitly, 3 though he stated it was just “common sense psychology.”

57 Transference & Standing Firm I. Psychoanalysis is a sociodynamic tx. Concentrates interpersonal entanglement into a dyadic treatment relationship. “Transference” describes a hypnotic-like relationship in which patients re-enact symptomatic relational schemas. 35 This process creates a focal point for a comprehensive “working through.”

58 Transference & Standing Firm II. Critical to its efficacy is that the analyst stand firm against reinforcing disordered schemata. This requires that patients use other tactics. 10 In other words, the treatment interdicts and redirects vicious circles. Other techniques often accomplish this more efficiently, without the associated dependency.

59 Tx. Boundary-Setting I. Eric Berne provided a potent antithesis to “why don’t you, yes but” transactions, instead asking -“That’s an interesting problem; how are you going to solve it?” 36 Within this single communication, the therapist permits face saving, respects contrary motivations, speaks to more competent levels of function, declines to ratify a problem-maintaining behavior, asserts interpersonal boundaries and redirects responsibility onto the patient.

60 Tx. Boundary-Setting II. When declining to ratify perceived helplessness or to intrude on patients’ autonomous domain, treaters lessen the risk of regressive dependency, while enhancing their relational stimulus value. Paradoxically, by explicitly disavowing the role of essential change agent, treaters actually become potent stimuli for therapeutic change.

61 Strategic Self-Therapy 32 I. This dynamic may be used as tx modality Useful for posttraumatic disorders with extreme tension between help-seeking and help-rejecting behavior, at high risk of malignant regression. = “strategic self-therapy” 32 (SST) -patient = change agent -therapists = consultant only -independent system = crisis resource

62 Strategic Self-Therapy 32 II. Engagement phase: psychotherapists -de-emphasize their role as primary change agents, -turning responsibility back onto the patients SST Proper: patients challenged to define themselves: -who they are, what they stand for, where they’re headed – their goals, perceived roadblocks and plan -the very act of defining their personal identity serves to redefine and thereby change it. Utilizes the reframability of psychological reality Often proves safe & cost-effective for high-risk patients.

63 Reframing per se Strategic 2,10,32 and cognitive 37 therapies place more emphasis on utilizing reframability as a locus of change in its own right. Strategically, the treater gains rapport at hidden levels through relabeling a liability as an asset, a setback as an opportunity, or resistance as autonomy; casting character traits in more favorable light; and cautioning that any change should be well informed and not done too hastily. 2,3,4,10

64 Criteria for Reframing Although seemingly “paradoxical”, appropriate positive reframing is 1. equally or even more true, 2. feels better, and 3. implies desirable behavior change. There can be no positive reframing for blatantly destructive and disrespectful behaviors. Here, one confronts and holds patients responsible for their behavior, while continuing to reframe basic personal attributes positively. 4

65 Training Recommendations I. Add evolutionary biology and hypnosis to psychiatry & psychology core curricula Evolutionary biology: I particularly recommend -Trivers & Alexander on reciprocity and deceit help to understand how anomalies of consciousness and volition evolved. 8,19,20 -McGuire & Troisi offer a broad evolutionary framework for general psychiatry. 38

66 Training Recommendations II. Hypnosis It is equally essential that budding psychotherapists learn the core essentials of clinical and experimental hypnosis, They are thereby enabled to recognize and redirect hypnotic phenomena when they spontaneously occur, to master the therapeutic power and learn the limits of reframing within controlled settings, and to gain confidence in the full range of the applicability of this technique. 3,4,15,18,24,39,40 Respected professional societies provide ongoing forums in all of these areas.

67 Summary I. “Sociodynamics” describes mental dynamics and psychotherapy more accurately than the traditional term, “psychodynamics”. Internal “mental states” arise from external social causes, more than vice versa. A person’s brain calculates that individual’s interests in relation to his or her social milieu, assesses the strategic armamentarium for strengths and weaknesses, selects strategies likely to improve the odds of success, then brings beliefs, desires and behaviors into congruence. All occurs largely outside of conscious awareness. Two lines of research data are particularly relevant to this process, evolutionary biology and social influence, both curiously underemphasized in current psychiatry.

68 Summary II. These data point toward the likelihood that consciousness and volition arise as shared self- deceptions that promote social cooperation where interests otherwise conflict. Shared self-deception hypothesis predicts the anomalous duality of consciousness and volition Confirmatory data from reciprocity, hypnosis, and psychological trauma converge to show that Mutual suggestion mediates the social and psychological domains.

69 Summary III. Most importantly, psychological realities vary with how they are socially framed. Psychotherapy is made possible by therapists’ resulting ability to reframe patients’ symptomatology in its social context. It may be rendered more effective and efficient by identifying social payoffs of patients’ symptoms, utilizing significant others, redefining patterns of mutual suggestion to imply optimum health, and identifying symptom-reinforcing behavioral complexes that can be modified at biopsychosocial focal points toward greater social functionality, behavioral safety, and personal wellbeing.

70 References I. 1. Spanos NP: Hypnotic behavior: a social-psychological interpretation of amnesia, analgesia, and “trance logic.” Behav Brain Sci 9:449-502, 1986 2. Watzlawick P, Weakland J, Fisch R: Change: Principles of Problem Formation and Poblem Resolution. New York: Norton, 1974 3. Erickson MH; The Collected Works of Milton H. Erickson, M.D. Edited by Rossi EL. New York: Irvington, 1980 4. Beahrs JO: Limits of Scientific Psychiatry: The Role of Uncertainty in Mental Health. New York: Brunner/Mazel, 1986 5. Sullivan HS: The Interpersonal Theory of Psychiatry. New York: Norton, 1953 6. Berne E: What Do You Say After You Say Hello? New York: Grove Press, 1972 7. Watzlawick P, Beavin JH, Jackson DD: Pragmatics of Human Communication: A Study of Interactional Patterns, Pathologies, and Paradoxes. NY: Norton, 1967 8. Alexander RD: The Biology of Moral Systems. Hawthorne, NY: DeGruyter, 1987 9. Barkow J, Cosmides L, Tooby J (Eds.): The Adapted Mind. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992 10. Haley J: Strategies of Psychotherapy. New York: Grune & Stratton, 1963 11. Beahrs JO: Unity and Multiplicity: Multilevel Consciousness of Self in Hypnosis, Psychiatric Disorder, and Mental Health. New York: Brunner/Mazel, 1986 12. Wegner DM: The Illusion of Conscious Will. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2002 13. Barber TX: “Hypnosis”: an alternative paradigm, in Hypnosis: Research Developments and Perspectives. Ed. by Fromm E, Shor RE. Chicago/New York: Aldine-Atherton, 1972, pp. 115-182 14. Beahrs JO: Volition, deception, and the evolution of justice. Bull Am Acad Psychiatry Law 1991; 19:81-93

71 References II. 15. Beahrs, JO: Hypnotic transactions, and the evolution of psychological structure. Psychiat Med 1992; 10(1):25-39 16. Dennett DC: Darwin’s Dangerous Idea: Evolution and the Meanings of Life. New York: Touchstone, 1995 17. Zimbardo PG, Leippe MR: The Psychology of Attitude Change and Social Influence. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1991 18. Sheehan PW, Perry CW: Methodologies of Hypnosis: A Critical Appraisal of Contemporary Paradigms of Hypnosis. Hillsdale NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1976 19. Trivers RL: The evolution of reciprocal altruism. Quart Rev Biol 46:35-57, 1971 20. Trivers RL: Social Evolution. Menlo Park: Benjamin Cummins, 1985 21. Beahrs JO: Ritual deception: a window to the hidden determinants of human politics. Politics and the Life Sciences 1996; 15:3-12 22. Beahrs JO: Dissociative identity disorder: adaptive deception of self and others. Bull Am Acad Psychiatry Law 1994; 22:223-237 23. Beahrs JO: Memory as power: who is to decide? J Am Acad Psychiatry Law 1999; 27:462-470 24. Gill MM, Brenman M: Hypnosis and Related States: Psychoanalytic Studies in Regression. New York: International Universities Press, 1959 25. Nesse RM (Ed.): Evolution, and the Capacity for Commitment. New York: Russell Sage Press, 2001 26. Lillard A: Ethnopsychologies: cultural variations in theories of mind. Psychol Bull 1998; 123:3- 46 27. Beahrs JO: The evolution of post-traumatic behavior: three hypotheses. Dissociation 1990; 3:15-21

72 References III. 28. Terr LC: Too Scared to Cry: Psychic Trauma in Childhood. New York: Harper & Row, 1990 29. Spiegel D, Hunt T, Dondershine HE: Dissociation and hypnotizability in posttraumatic stress disorder. Am J Psychiatry 1988; 145:301-305 30. Beahrs JO: Posttraumatic polarization in psychiatry and law. J Am Acad Psychiatry Law 1999; 27:335-343 31. LeDoux JE: Emotion, memory, and the brain: the neural routes underlying the formation of memories about emotional experiences, such as fear, have been traced. Sci Am 1994; 270:50-57 32. Beahrs JO, Butler JL, Sturges SL, Drummond DI, Beahrs CH: Strategic self-therapy for personality disorders. J Strateg Syst Ther 1992; 11(2):33-59 33. Engel GL: The clinical application of the biopsychosocial model. Am J Psychiatry 1980; 137:535-544 34. Beahrs JO, Gutheil TG: Informed consent in psychiatry. Am J Psychiatry 2001; 158:4-10 35. Freud S: Group Psychology and the Analysis of the Ego. Edited and translated by Strachey J. New York: Norton, 1979 (originally published in 1921) 36. Berne E: Games People Play. New York: Grove Press, 1964 37. Beck AT, Freeman A, and Associates: Cognitive Therapy of Personality Disorders. New York: Guilford Press, 1990 38. McGuire MT, Troisi A: Darwinian Psychiatry. New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1998 39. Hilgard ER: The Experience of Hypnosis: A Shorter Version of Hypnotic Susceptibility, New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, 1968 40. Spiegel D, Spiegel HX: Trance and Treatment: Clinical Uses of Hypnosis, 2nd ed. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publications, Inc, 2004

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