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(And neurons).  On the paper around the room, write what you know about the Brain, the Nervous System, a Neuron, and/or the Endocrine System. ◦ Everyone.

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Presentation on theme: "(And neurons).  On the paper around the room, write what you know about the Brain, the Nervous System, a Neuron, and/or the Endocrine System. ◦ Everyone."— Presentation transcript:

1 (And neurons)

2  On the paper around the room, write what you know about the Brain, the Nervous System, a Neuron, and/or the Endocrine System. ◦ Everyone must write SOMETHING.

3  Thumbs up for TRUE  Thumbs down for FALSE

4  Plasticity refers to the brain tissues ability to take on new roles when a part of the brain has been damaged.

5  TRUE

6  If Sammy (age 55) damages the same part of the brain as a Jenny (age 12), Sammy’s brain is more likely to recover faster and take on more roles then Jenny’s brain


8  The human brain produces its own natural opiates that elevate mood and ease pain.

9  TRUE

10  We ordinarily use only 10% percent of our brain.

11  FALSE

12  Some people can write but are unable to read.

13  TRUE

14  Removal of an entire brain hemisphere would necessarily result in a person’s death.

15  FALSE

16  When looking at human brains, researchers cannot tell the difference between people from different racial backgrounds. (European, American, Asian, African, etc.)

17  TRUE

18  The central nervous system is a major division of the nervous system and consists of the brain and the spinal cord.

19  TRUE

20  The pituitary gland is an endocrine gland which secretes hormones that do not affect anything but the sex glands

21  FALSE

22  The fight or flight response refers to physiological changes such as increased heart rate, accelerated breathing, dry mouth, and perspiration that occur in response to perceived threats or danger.

23  TRUE

24  The parasympathetic nervous system is a branch of the autonomic nervous system that produces rapid physical arousal in response to perceived emergencies or threats.

25  FALSE

26  The all or none principle states that a neural message either fires or it doesn’t.

27  TRUE

28  If you hook an EEG to a blob of jell-o, you will get EEG wave pattern that is almost identical to a human

29  TRUE

30  When looking at human brains, researches cannot tell the difference between a male and female brain.

31  FALSE

32  Electrically stimulating a cat’s brain at a certain point can cause the animal to cower in terror in the presence of a small mouse.

33  TRUE


35  Neurons: The Building Blocks of the Nervous System

36  A small thing in the nervous system that communicates.  Kind of like a cell phone, or maybe even us.  A neuron RECIEVES information, and then GIVES information to the next neuron.

37  The concept of a neuron is simple: It receives information, carries information, and sends information  However, there are fancy words scientists use to label each part of the neuron.



40  Information comes to a neuron through the DENDRITES  They’re branchy fibers that receive information


42  LIFE GIVING FORCE!  It’s the reason the neuron is alive  Information does not pass through the soma, but without it, the neuron would die. Oh no!


44  Axons carry the message!  It’s the long, skinny part.


46  Fatty substance insulating the axon  SPEEDS UP the communication  FAST FAST FAST


48  SENDS the information away to the new neuron  Contains neurotransmitters


50  We can become a neuron.

51  On a sheet of paper (I will give you) DRAW AND LABEL a neuron. ◦ Under each part of the neuron, write its function. ◦ Number each part of the neuron to explain the where the impulse goes (for instance, Dendrites are number 1) ◦ MAKE IT PRETTY. USE COLORS!

52  Neural Communication: The Neural Impulse

53  Electrical stimulation! ◦ A neural impulse. An electrical current travels down the axon.

54  Action potentials are created by changing CHARGES inside and outside the neuron  Ions: Some + and some are –  Polarization: there is a difference between charges inside and outside the neuron ◦ Outside is POSITIVE; inside is NEGATIVE

55  There is excess Sodium outside the neuron  There is excess Potassium inside the neuron  They want to be equal (CHEMISTRY)  Thus, when a neuron is stimulated by another neuron- depolarization occurs.

56  When depolarization occurs, there is EXCITATION because there is a + charge inside the neuron, giving the neuron the stimulus it needs to begin the action potential.

57  Demonstration!!  6 people  I will guide you through it once, and then the class will have to guide you through again.

58  A neuron either fires, or it doesn’t- there is no half firing.  There is a base amount of excitation that the neuron needs, and if it gets that, it will ALWAYS fire.  Each time it fires, it fires with the same intensity.  If the base number is 30, it will fire the same at 30, 31, and 500. If it is 29, it will not fire.

59  After an action potential, there is a certain amount of time that the neuron is unable to fire again. (It needs to recharge!)  Once the refractory period is complete, it can recharge again.

60  The state of a neuron when it is at rest and capable of generating an action potential  The neuron is set and ready to fire, but does not. It is RESTING.




64  Can anyone think of any other examples that relate to the all-or- nothing?

65  Set up dominoes in groups and complete the sheet.

66  Axon Terminals- Terminal Buttons  Synapse- point of communication between two neurons  Synaptic gap: Neurons do not touch each other, so there is a TINY fluid filled space separating them


68  Neurons communicate through neurotransmitters.  They are natural chemicals your brain produces that can affect your mood.  When they are overproduced or under produced, they are involved in many psychological disorders.


70  Enables muscle action, REM sleep, and memory  Undersupply, as ACh-producing neurons deteriorate, marks Alzheimer’s disease

71  Reward and Motivation, Motor Control over Voluntary Movements  Excessive dopamine receptor activity is linked to schizophrenia; a lack of dopamine produces the tremors and lack of mobility of Parkinson’s disease

72  Affects mood, hunger, sleep, and arousal  Undersupply is linked to depression; Prozac and other anti-depressants raise serotonin levels

73  Helps to control alertness and arousal  Undersupply can depress mood

74  Muscular movement; inhibition of brain activity  Undersupply linked to seizures, tremors, and insomnia  Anxiety disorders

75  Involved in memory  Oversupply can over stimulate the brain, producing migraines or seizures

76  Natural opiates that are released in response to pain and vigorous exercise

77  Adrenaline Burst of Energy (small amounts in brain)

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