2210.The fight or flight response refers to physiological changes such as increased heart rate, accelerated breathing, dry mouth, and perspiration that occur in response to perceived threats or danger.
51Draw and LabelOn a sheet of paper (I will give you) DRAW AND LABEL a neuron.Under each part of the neuron, write its function.Number each part of the neuron to explain the where the impulse goes (for instance, Dendrites are number 1)MAKE IT PRETTY. USE COLORS!
53How do neurons communicate? Electrical stimulation!A neural impulse.An electrical current travels down the axon.
54Action PotentialAction potentials are created by changing CHARGES inside and outside the neuronIons: Some + and some are –Polarization: there is a difference between charges inside and outside the neuronOutside is POSITIVE; inside is NEGATIVE
55Action Potential They want to be equal (CHEMISTRY) There is excess Sodium outside the neuronThere is excess Potassium inside the neuronThey want to be equal (CHEMISTRY)Thus, when a neuron is stimulated by another neuron- depolarization occurs.
56DepolarizationWhen depolarization occurs, there is EXCITATION because there is a + charge inside the neuron, giving the neuron the stimulus it needs to begin the action potential.
57Depolarization Demonstration!! 6 people I will guide you through it once, and then the class will have to guide you through again.
58All-or-None LawA neuron either fires, or it doesn’t- there is no half firing.There is a base amount of excitation that the neuron needs, and if it gets that, it will ALWAYS fire.Each time it fires, it fires with the same intensity.If the base number is 30, it will fire the same at 30 , 31, and 500. If it is 29, it will not fire.
59Refractory PeriodAfter an action potential, there is a certain amount of time that the neuron is unable to fire again. (It needs to recharge!)Once the refractory period is complete, it can recharge again.
60Resting PotentialThe state of a neuron when it is at rest and capable of generating an action potentialThe neuron is set and ready to fire, but does not. It is RESTING.
64Can anyone think of any other examples that relate to the all-or- nothing?
65DOMINOES!!!!!Set up dominoes in groups and complete the sheet.
66Communication between Neurons Axon Terminals- Terminal ButtonsSynapse- point of communication between two neuronsSynaptic gap: Neurons do not touch each other, so there is a TINY fluid filled space separating them
68Neurotransmitters Neurons communicate through neurotransmitters. They are natural chemicals your brain produces that can affect your mood.When they are overproduced or under produced, they are involved in many psychological disorders.
70Acetylcholine (ACh) Enables muscle action, REM sleep, and memory Undersupply, as ACh-producing neurons deteriorate, marks Alzheimer’s disease
71Dopamine Reward and Motivation, Motor Control over Voluntary Movements Excessive dopamine receptor activity is linked to schizophrenia; a lack of dopamine produces the tremors and lack of mobility of Parkinson’s disease
72Serotonin Affects mood, hunger, sleep, and arousal Undersupply is linked to depression; Prozac and other anti-depressants raise serotonin levels
73Norepinephrine Helps to control alertness and arousal Undersupply can depress mood
74GABA Muscular movement; inhibition of brain activity Undersupply linked to seizures, tremors, and insomniaAnxiety disorders
75Glutamate Involved in memory Oversupply can over stimulate the brain, producing migraines or seizures
76EndorphinsNatural opiates that are released in response to pain and vigorous exercise
77Adrenaline Burst of Energy (small amounts in brain) EpinephrineAdrenaline Burst of Energy (small amounts in brain)