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Introduction to the BRAIN

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Presentation on theme: "Introduction to the BRAIN"— Presentation transcript:

1 Introduction to the BRAIN
(And neurons)

2 Brain Brain Dump On the paper around the room, write what you know about the Brain, the Nervous System, a Neuron, and/or the Endocrine System. Everyone must write SOMETHING.

3 Preassessment Thumbs up for TRUE Thumbs down for FALSE

4 1. Plasticity refers to the brain tissues ability to take on new roles when a part of the brain has been damaged.


6 2. If Sammy (age 55) damages the same part of the brain as a Jenny (age 12), Sammy’s brain is more likely to recover faster and take on more roles then Jenny’s brain


8 3. The human brain produces its own natural opiates that elevate mood and ease pain.


10 We ordinarily use only 10% percent of our brain.
4. We ordinarily use only 10% percent of our brain.


12 Some people can write but are unable to read.
5. Some people can write but are unable to read.


14 6. Removal of an entire brain hemisphere would necessarily result in a person’s death.


16 7. When looking at human brains, researchers cannot tell the difference between people from different racial backgrounds. (European, American, Asian, African, etc.)


18 8. The central nervous system is a major division of the nervous system and consists of the brain and the spinal cord.


20 9. The pituitary gland is an endocrine gland which secretes hormones that do not affect anything but the sex glands


22 10. The fight or flight response refers to physiological changes such as increased heart rate, accelerated breathing, dry mouth, and perspiration that occur in response to perceived threats or danger.


24 11. The parasympathetic nervous system is a branch of the autonomic nervous system that produces rapid physical arousal in response to perceived emergencies or threats.


26 12. The all or none principle states that a neural message either fires or it doesn’t.


28 13. If you hook an EEG to a blob of jell-o, you will get EEG wave pattern that is almost identical to a human


30 14. When looking at human brains, researches cannot tell the difference between a male and female brain.


32 15. Electrically stimulating a cat’s brain at a certain point can cause the animal to cower in terror in the presence of a small mouse.


34 We are going to start small and go big

35 Neurons: The Building Blocks of the Nervous System

36 What IS a Neuron? A small thing in the nervous system that communicates. Kind of like a cell phone, or maybe even us. A neuron RECIEVES information, and then GIVES information to the next neuron.

37 The concept of a neuron is simple: It receives information, carries information, and sends information However, there are fancy words scientists use to label each part of the neuron.

38 This is what a neuron looks like

39 Here’s a different angle. 

40 Let’s start with the beginning…
Information comes to a neuron through the DENDRITES They’re branchy fibers that receive information

41 There they are.

42 Soma (Cell Body) LIFE GIVING FORCE!
It’s the reason the neuron is alive Information does not pass through the soma, but without it, the neuron would die. Oh no!

43 Filled with the juice of life.

44 Axons carry the message! It’s the long, skinny part.

45 See?

46 Fatty substance insulating the axon SPEEDS UP the communication
Myelin Sheath Fatty substance insulating the axon SPEEDS UP the communication FAST FAST FAST


48 Axon Terminal SENDS the information away to the new neuron
Contains neurotransmitters


50 STAND UP! We can become a neuron.

51 Draw and Label On a sheet of paper (I will give you) DRAW AND LABEL a neuron. Under each part of the neuron, write its function. Number each part of the neuron to explain the where the impulse goes (for instance, Dendrites are number 1) MAKE IT PRETTY. USE COLORS!

52 Neural Communication: The Neural Impulse

53 How do neurons communicate?
Electrical stimulation! A neural impulse. An electrical current travels down the axon.

54 Action Potential Action potentials are created by changing CHARGES inside and outside the neuron Ions: Some + and some are – Polarization: there is a difference between charges inside and outside the neuron Outside is POSITIVE; inside is NEGATIVE

55 Action Potential They want to be equal (CHEMISTRY)
There is excess Sodium outside the neuron There is excess Potassium inside the neuron They want to be equal (CHEMISTRY) Thus, when a neuron is stimulated by another neuron- depolarization occurs.

56 Depolarization When depolarization occurs, there is EXCITATION because there is a + charge inside the neuron, giving the neuron the stimulus it needs to begin the action potential.

57 Depolarization Demonstration!! 6 people
I will guide you through it once, and then the class will have to guide you through again.

58 All-or-None Law A neuron either fires, or it doesn’t- there is no half firing. There is a base amount of excitation that the neuron needs, and if it gets that, it will ALWAYS fire. Each time it fires, it fires with the same intensity. If the base number is 30, it will fire the same at 30 , 31, and 500. If it is 29, it will not fire.

59 Refractory Period After an action potential, there is a certain amount of time that the neuron is unable to fire again. (It needs to recharge!) Once the refractory period is complete, it can recharge again.

60 Resting Potential The state of a neuron when it is at rest and capable of generating an action potential The neuron is set and ready to fire, but does not. It is RESTING.




64 Can anyone think of any other examples that relate to the all-or- nothing?

65 DOMINOES!!!!! Set up dominoes in groups and complete the sheet.

66 Communication between Neurons
Axon Terminals- Terminal Buttons Synapse- point of communication between two neurons Synaptic gap: Neurons do not touch each other, so there is a TINY fluid filled space separating them


68 Neurotransmitters Neurons communicate through neurotransmitters.
They are natural chemicals your brain produces that can affect your mood. When they are overproduced or under produced, they are involved in many psychological disorders.


70 Acetylcholine (ACh) Enables muscle action, REM sleep, and memory
Undersupply, as ACh-producing neurons deteriorate, marks Alzheimer’s disease

71 Dopamine Reward and Motivation, Motor Control over Voluntary Movements
Excessive dopamine receptor activity is linked to schizophrenia; a lack of dopamine produces the tremors and lack of mobility of Parkinson’s disease

72 Serotonin Affects mood, hunger, sleep, and arousal
Undersupply is linked to depression; Prozac and other anti-depressants raise serotonin levels

73 Norepinephrine Helps to control alertness and arousal
Undersupply can depress mood

74 GABA Muscular movement; inhibition of brain activity
Undersupply linked to seizures, tremors, and insomnia Anxiety disorders

75 Glutamate Involved in memory
Oversupply can over stimulate the brain, producing migraines or seizures

76 Endorphins Natural opiates that are released in response to pain and vigorous exercise

77 Adrenaline Burst of Energy (small amounts in brain)
Epinephrine Adrenaline Burst of Energy (small amounts in brain)

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