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Basics of Weed Control &Turf ID Jennifer Davidson The University of Georgia College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences.

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Presentation on theme: "Basics of Weed Control &Turf ID Jennifer Davidson The University of Georgia College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences."— Presentation transcript:

1 Basics of Weed Control &Turf ID Jennifer Davidson The University of Georgia College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences

2 Attractive, Functional Landscape


4 What is a Weed? Plant out of place Plants causing economic loss Non-native plant (Privet, Ligustrum spp.) Plants whose virtues have not been discovered

5 Chinese Privet (Ligustrum sinense) Kudza (Pueraria lobata)

6 Weed Life Cycles Annual: Completes growth cycle in a single growing season (crabgrass). Perennial: A plant that can persist more than two years, and reproduce through roots or seeds (clover). Biennial: A plant that normally requires two growing seasons to complete its life cycle, flowering and fruiting in its second year (wild carrot).

7 Seed Germination Factors Oxygen Light Scarification (physical removal of the seed coat) Temperature Water

8 Weed Seed Production Seed / Plant Pigweed >200,000 Lambsquarters >30,000 Crabgrass 53,000 Annual Bluegrass 2,000

9 Weeds can be a problem 12 months a year!

10 Summer annual grasses

11 Southern crabgrass Smooth crabgrass

12 Goosegrass

13 Winter annuals

14 Annual bluegrass Boat shaped leaf tip

15 Common chickweed

16 henbit Henbit

17 Hairy bittercress

18 Summer annual broadleaf weeds

19 Prostrate spurge Milky sap

20 Perennial broadleaf weeds

21 Dandelion

22 Wild violet

23 Pennywort or Dollarweed

24 Perennial grassy weeds

25 Wild garlic bulbs and bulblets

26 Purple and Yellow Nutsedge Leaf tips differ Yellow nutsedge flower Purple nutsedge flower Purple nutsedge rhizome tuber system

27 Dallisgrass

28 Weed Management Strategy Identify weed, life cycle, habitat Integrated Pest Management 1.Preventive 2.Physical 3.Cultural 4.Biological 5.Chemical

29 Preventive Methods Weed-free seed and plant material Screened and sterilized topsoil and soil amendments Keep equipment clean

30 Physical Removal and Barriers Hoeing and hand removal Mowing Cultivation Mulches and landscape fabrics

31 Good control method for small weeds Generally easier to control annuals Hand Pulling and Hoeing

32 Mowing Useful in turf and pastures Mowing reduces seed production of weeds if done before flowering.

33 Cultivation Disadvantages: Can be expensive, delayed by weather, and may prune crop roots Advantages: Controls most weeds quickly and easily

34 Repeat cultivation to control each flush of weeds.

35 Cultural Methods Adapted plants Fertility and pH Water management Insect and disease control

36 Biological Methods Living organisms for weed control Insect (thistle weevil) Grazing animals (Geese) Fish (Grass carp)

37 Chemical Methods Herbicide - chemical that is used to control, suppress or kill weeds.

38 Herbicide Classification Preemergence: Applied before weed seed germination (trifluralin). Generally no control of emerged weeds. Postemergence: Applied after weed emergence. Generally no control of unemerged weeds.

39 Herbicide Classification Contact: Causes localized plant tissue injury. Does not readily move through the plant (glufosinate) Systemic: Readily moves through the plant tissue (glyphosate)

40 Herbicide Classification Selective: Kills some plant species, but does not damage others (2,4-D) Nonselective: Generally kills all plant species (glyphosate)

41 Preemergence Herbicide Application Dates Fall- Sept 1 – Oct 1, N.GA - Oct 1 – Nov 1, S.GA Spring- Mar 1 – Apr 1, N.GA - Feb 15 - Mar 15, S.GA

42 Advantages Postemergence Herbicides Flexible application time Spot treatment Small containers Fits well into IPM programs

43 Postemergence Herbicide Precautions Avoid windy days (spray drift) Do not apply dicamba mixtures over the root zone of ornamental trees and shrubs Read the label

44 Before You Use Herbicide 1.Identify weed. 2.Read and UNDERSTAND label. 3.Follow directions carefully. 4.Use only recommended amount! 5.Maintain and calibrate equipment. 6.Do not use on desirable plants not listed on label.

45 Turfgrass Herbicides

46 Preemergent Turfgrass Herbicides  Annual grass control in all turfgrasses –Balan (benefin) –Surflan (oryzalin) –XL (benefin + oryzalin) –Team Pro (benefin + trifluralin) –Halts (pendimethalin) –Dimension (dithiopyr)

47 Postemergent Turfgrass Herbicides

48 2,4-D Mixtures  Does not control weedy grasses  Good - dandelion, plantains, wild garlic  Poor to fair – common chickweed, henbit  Use on all turfgrasses except St. Augustine  Example = Weed-B-Gon

49 MSMA DSMA CMA  Postemergence control of weedy grasses  Use in tall fescue, zoysia, bermuda  Initially discolor tolerant turfgrass species  Avoid application above 90 o F  Do not use on centipede and St. Augustine  Example = Ortho Crabgrass Killer Formula II

50 Sethoxydim  Controls crabgrass, goosegrass, and sandbur  Suppresses bahiagrass  Use only on centipedegrass  Example = Vantage

51 Atrazine  Can be used on: Centipede, St. Augustine, Zoysia  Dormant bermudagrass  Cool-season grasses and bahiagrass are not tolerant  Comes in both sprayable and granular formulations  Depending on the weed, atrazine has both pre and post emergence activity

52 Turfgrass Fertilizer/Herbicide Combinations  Fertilizers can be combined with either pre- or postemergence herbicides.  Created so you don’t have to make separate applications of fertilizers and herbicides.  Products available from many manufactures selling nearly identical products.

53 Equipment Hand pump Sprayer Handheld rotary spreader

54 Equipment Drop spreader Broadcast spreader

55 Calibration Hand held granular spreaders:  Know the size of the area to be treated  Weight out granular herbicide needed for that area  Uniformly apply the pre- weighted granular herbicide to the designated area

56 Calibration Push type drop and broadcast spreaders:  Many companies sell spreaders to go along with there granular herbicides (i.e. Scott’s, Lesco, etc.).  There granular herbicide products will have the appropriate spreader setting listed on the bag.

57 Pump type sprayers: Calibration and Application  Measure the area to be treated.  Using the herbicide label, determine the amount of herbicide needed.  Measure out herbicide.  Mix water and herbicide concentrate.  Pressurize sprayer, and uniformly apply herbicide solution to the are. Hand pump sprayer

58 Weed management program 1.Diagnose problem 2.Evaluate methods 3.Select method 4.Initiate program

59 Always read and follow the herbicide label!

60 Warm-season Turfgrasses  Bermudagrass  Centipedegrass  Zoysiagrass  Seashore Paspalum  St Augustinegrass  Bahiagrass

61 Bermudagrass Cynodon dactylon Vegetative Tifway ‘419’ most used hybrid Tifway II Frost Tolerant TifSport New Cold Hardy Hybrid Non-preference to mole crickets

62 Bermudagrass Vegetative-types ‘Tifgreen’ (Tifton 328) Fine Textured Low growing ‘Tifton 10’ Coarse Textured Dark bluish-green Low maintenance areas ‘Midlawn’ Transition zone Cold tolerance

63 Bermudagrass Seeded types ‘Common’ Coarse Textured Low maintenance areas ‘Improved’ Finer textured Low maintenance areas

64 Zoysiagrass Zoysia spp. Vegetative ‘Meyer’ Slow growing ‘Emerald’ Fine texture ‘El Toro’ Faster establishment Better drought tolerance

65 Zoysiagrass Seeded J-36 Coarse texture Zenith Med. To coarse Zenith II Dark green Med. texture

66 Centipedegrass Eremochloa ophiuroides Medium Textured Low & Slow Growing Stolons & Seed Intermediate Shade Tolerance  Longer to Establish  Centipede Decline

67 Centipedegrass Vegetative & Seeded Common Coarse texture Minimum maintenance TifBlair Cold Hardy Low pH (4.2)

68 St. Augustinegrass Stenotaphrum secundatum Blue-green Color Deep, Dense Turf Stolons Shade Tolerant  Winter Injury  Chinch Bugs

69 St. Augustinegrass Varieties  Floratam Coarsest Texture Chinch Bugs & SADV Resistance Gray Leaf Spot

70 St. Augustinegrass Varieties  Bitter Blue Best Shade Tolerance  Chinch Bugs & SADV  Floratine Finest Leaf Texture  Chinch Bugs & SADV

71 Mowing Practices  1/3 rule  Gradually change height  Recycle (leave or compost)  Change directions  Keep mower in good working order

72 Rotary Mowers Disadvantages  Low quality of cut  No low heights 1-inch minimum  No striping Advantages Fewer man-hours Lower maintenance Grasscycling

73 Reel Mowers Disadvantages  Higher maintenance  More man-hours Reel Mowers High quality of cut Lower heights Minimal scalping Striping

74 Proper Mowing Height SpeciesMower Height (in) Frequency (days) Bermuda Common Rotary or Reel 1 to 25 to 7 Hybrid0.5 to 1.53 to 4 CentipedeEither1 to 25 to 10 St. AugustineRotary2 to 35 to 7 ZoysiaReel0.5 to 23 to 7

75 Irrigation  Water application based on soil or plant moisture status is more efficient than applying water based on a set schedule

76 1 st signs of water stress Visual Symptoms: Dull bluish green color Footprints remain Leaf blades roll So--When should you irrigate?

77 When is the best time to irrigate? After the dew falls and before it dries- Water losses lowest (Less wind and lower temps) Does not promote disease

78 How Much to Irrigate? Wet 6 to 8 inch depth  clay soils (1 to 1¾ inches per week)  sandy soils (½ inch, 3 times a week)

79 Proper Irrigation Cultural Practices Only wets the turfgrass rootzone Does not saturate the soil Does not allow water to run off



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