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Energy and CO 2 Implications of Music Delivery Options Jonathan Koomey Visiting Professor, Yale University School of Forestry and Environmental Studies.

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Presentation on theme: "Energy and CO 2 Implications of Music Delivery Options Jonathan Koomey Visiting Professor, Yale University School of Forestry and Environmental Studies."— Presentation transcript:

1 Energy and CO 2 Implications of Music Delivery Options Jonathan Koomey Visiting Professor, Yale University School of Forestry and Environmental Studies October 6, 2009

2 Outline  Introduction  This talk adapted from one given by Chris Weber of Carnegie Mellon University in early October 2009  Report itself downloadable at  Previous work of environmental effects of ICT  Modeled Scenarios  Data and Assumptions  Results  Sensitivity and Uncertainty Analysis  Summary

3 3 World data center electricity use doubled between 2000 and 2005 Source: Koomey 2008

4 Environmental Implications of ICT  Increasing interest of how informational and communication technology (ICT) effects the environment  Previous studies have assessed:  Telecommuting vs. commuting (Atkyns 2002)  Online vs. traditional retail (Matthews 2001, Abukhader 2004)  Electronic delivery of news (Toffel 2004)  Online vs traditional DVD rental (Sivaraman 2007)  Material intensity of online music (Turk 2003)  Generally ICT has won by:  Dematerialization  Reduced Logistics  However, continuing energy use rise of internet data centers and personal ICT products -> renewed interest in issue 4

5 Goal and Scope of this study  Examine as realistically as possible cumulative energy and CO 2 emissions for delivery of 1 album of music via 6 alternative scenarios:  1)Album packaged on CD and delivered via traditional retail methods  2)Album published on CD and delivered by light-duty truck through an online e-tail provider  3)Album published on CD and delivered by express air through an online e-tail provider  4)Album downloaded as mp3/mp4 files from an online music service and used digitally  5)Album downloaded as mp3/mp4 files from an online music service and burned to CD-R for digital and CD use (no CD packaging)  6)Album downloaded as mp3/mp4 files from an online music service and burned to CD-R for digital and CD use, stored in individual CD packaging, i.e., slimline jewel cases  System Diagrams shown below

6 Traditional Retail Model Recording Liner Printing CD Production Plastic Wrap Jewel Case Vis Artist CD Printing Warehousing Retailing Disposal Use System Boundary Packaging Logistics along arrows

7 E-commerce Delivery Model Recording Liner Printing CD Production Plastic Wrap Jewel Case Vis Artist CD Printing Warehousing Home CPU and - ordering Logistics Warehouse Use Disposal System Boundary Packaging Logistics along arrows

8 Online Music Model Recording Vis Artist Digital Music Server Home CPU and DC- ordering Use Online Music System Boundary

9 Functional Unit Question  Assumption: After burning digital album on CD, functionally equivalent  Can use in either digital or CD format  Because of this, can ignore production of laptop, CD player, iPod, etc.  Sound quality not similar but do consumers care?  In practice, probably used differently  Digital downloads used more in computers and digital music players  CDs used more in cars, CD decks, etc

10 Assumptions and Data  Gather >3 primary data points and assume triangular distribution Monte Carlo simulation  Production location varied through assumed grid mix uncertainty ( g CO2e/kWh)  Data gathered for  CD and packaging production (reports, Ecoinvent, IO-LCA)  Cardboard packaging for retail/etail (EPA WARM, EDF Paper Calculator)  Distances and delivery energy (Logistics companies, GREET, previous work), large range  Warehouse and Retail store energy use (gov’t sources, previous work)  Home CPU use for ordering (assumption range, Energy Star data)

11 Internet Backbone Energy Use  Taylor and Koomey (2008)  Assume MB album size (iTunes, Amazon averages)

12 Customer Transport  Shown in previous work to be significant in logistics  Difficult to model given large variation in fuel economy, distance, etc  Assumed model simulates distance, fuel economy, passengers per vehicle, and purchased items per person using realistic ranges  Assumed correlation in distance and items/person-trip and distance to retail/distance for etail delivery

13 Results

14 Cumulative Energy Demand/album

15 Similar for CO2 emissions

16 Summary Statistics  CD/packaging production: 32-69% of total  Customer Transport and Last Mile: 52% of retail, 24-28% etail  Other significant contributors (Retail/Etail)  Warehousing  Retail Store  Individual cardboard packaging (Etail)  Upstream internet usage:  As important as CD/CD-R production

17 Uncertainty and Variability  Rank correlation importance shows variable’s contribution to uncertainty/variability

18 Effect of Correlated Errors

19 Discussion  Dematerialization increases environmental performance but partially offset by internet energy use  Sensitivity—what parameters could flip result  Retail with zero customer transport emissions (bicycle/walk)  5 hours of web browsing for online shopping  260 MB data transfer (lossless files)  Suggested Future Work:  Customer usage patterns: are they different?  Other types of online music: single song vs album, subscription, etc  Energy use of streaming audio/video—large upstream data transfer

20 Questions  Contact:  Reference for article: Weber, Christopher, Jonathan G. Koomey, and Scott Matthews The Energy and Climate Change Impacts of Different Music Delivery Methods. Analytics Press. August 17.

21 References  Abukhader, S., and G. Jonson "E-tail and the Environment: a Gateway to the Renewal of Greening Supply Chains." International Journal of Technology Management. vol. 28, pp  Atkyns, Robert, Michele Blazek, and Joseph Roitz "Measurement of environmental impacts of telework adoption amidst change in complex organizations: AT&T survey methodology and results." Resources, Conservation, and Recycling. vol. 36, no. 3. October. pp  Koomey, Jonathan "Worldwide electricity used in data centers." Environmental Research Letters. vol. 3, no September 23.  Matthews, H. Scott, Chris T. Hendrickson, and Denise L. Soh "Environmental and Economic Effects of E-Commerce: A Case Study of Book Publishing and Retail Logistics." Transportation Research Record pp  Sivaraman, D, S Pacca, K Mueller, and J Lin "Comparative Energy, Environmental, and Economic Analysis of Traditional and E-Tail DVD Rental Networks." Journal of Industrial Ecology. vol. 11, pp  Taylor, Cody, and Jonathan Koomey Estimating energy use and greenhouse gas emissions of Internet advertising. Working paper for IMC 2. February 14.  Toffel, M.W., and A. Horvath "Environmental Implications of Wireless Technologies: News Delivery and Business Meetings." Environmental Science & Technology. vol. 38, no. 11. pp  Turk, V., V. Alakeson, M. Kuhndt, and M. Rithoff The Environmental and Social Impacts of Digital Music: A Case Study with EMI. Wuppertal, Germany: Digital Europe.


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