Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Internationalization Status and Directions: IETF, JET, and ICANN John C Klensin October 2002 © 2002 John C Klensin.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Internationalization Status and Directions: IETF, JET, and ICANN John C Klensin October 2002 © 2002 John C Klensin."— Presentation transcript:

1 Internationalization Status and Directions: IETF, JET, and ICANN John C Klensin October 2002 © 2002 John C Klensin

2 Four topics today IETF Work and Status Opportunities, risks, and registry restrictions Registry restrictions for CJK strings: the JET work Another look at multilingual TLDs

3 Disclaimer Unless specified as a committee recommendation, policy recommendations have not been discussed enough in the ICANN IDN committee to know whether there is consensus

4 IETF Work and Status Several separate components Unicode handling and encoding –Stringprep –Punycode DNS-specific –Nameprep –IDNA Approved for publication as Proposed Standards

5 Unicode Handling Protocols Tables for matching and filtering –“Stringprep” Encoding to ASCII-compatible (ACE) form –“Punycode”

6 DNS-specific Internationalization Nameprep –A profile of “stringprep” for DNS internationalization IDNA –“Internationalizing Domain Names in Applications” –Base protocol, containing “ToUnicode” and “ToASCII” operations

7 Opportunities, risks, and registry restrictions IETF work is part of the solution –The problem it solves may still not be clearly understood –How to put a name into the DNS, and query it, given that name is appropriate Still leaves many risks, problems, and issues –Not IETF’s job to solve policy problems –ICANN recommendation to prohibit non-language characters was not accepted by IETF –Solution to these problems lies with ICANN and Zone administrators –“No solution” may equal chaos or effective Internet fragmentation

8 Risks, problems, and issues Character-related issues –Confusion of names –Alternative characters –Reserved name issues –Non-language characters –Mixed scripts … (not new … most discussed in Melbourne)

9 Extending existing remedies UDRP not prepared for this –Confusion of character appearances is not grounds for revocation WHOIS committee was asked to look at internationalization –Not reflected in report

10 Since the protocols won’t provide protection, some alternatives Registry restrictions: Per-zone or global restrictions on what can be registered Script homogeneity restrictions ? Letting the market sort it out

11 Registry restrictions for CJK strings: the JET work So far, most advanced work on registry restrictions and specific character handling is for CJK Recognized problems earlier and got started Good cooperative effort, focusing on special needs of Chinese characters

12 Other Languages and Scripts CJK has special problems –Language overlaying –Recent character reforms –Japanese and Korean are mixed-script But every language and script has traps and potential ambiguities –Even English and ASCII

13 What are the JET Guidelines about? Problems –Some Chinese characters are different in different areas – same words, different characters – but need to match –Matching rules cannot be applied simply on a per-character basis –Can’t “fix” Chinese and wreck Korean or Japanese –And Korean and Japanese have their own issues

14 JET Guideline Approach Registry restrictions on what can be registered: invalid forms not permitted Careful handling of “variant” characters: –If a string is registered, preferred form must be used. –Reservation “package” of preferred name and variants –Variants of string can be registered only by the same registrant (or not at all) Definitions of permitted characters, preferences, and variant tables are per-zone (typically per- country) Need not restrict to SLD registrations

15 Variants About characters: –Tables for each national use of language –E.g., not required to agree on one universal table for Chinese (important, e.g., some areas have not adopted Simplified forms) Variant labels –Generated by combining variants of all characters present –If have ABCD, with two variants for B (X and Y) and one for C (Z), six potential labels: ABCD, AXCD, AYCD, ABZD, AXZD, AYZD –Some may then be excluded

16 JET Guidelines and other languages/ scripts Details will differ, principles of what to look for may be useful Principle of registration restrictions is the important one: ultimately may be the only tool we have Zones bear some responsibility for overall stability of Internet, integrity of references, etc.

17 Restrictions by TLD Type Language and script restrictions are plausible for ccTLDs –Any such restrictions start with “this language (or script) is more important than that one” decision. –Harder with each additional supported script A generic TLD cannot prefer one language or script –So may not be able to adopt and use effective registration restriction rules. –Which makes IDNs much more dangerous.

18 Another look at multilingual TLDs TLDs with names other than Roman- derived ISO codes Motivation is not clear –Use of national language in country? –A “free” extra domain (or more than one) for commercial exploitation? – ??? Important to understand problem

19 Administrative hierarchy structure of DNS Very hard to accurately administer parallel structures. No “see also” construction TLDs are special – must be administratively heterogeneous These are not issues if the reason for a “multilingual TLD” is “free TLD with different administration”

20 Options and tradeoffs New TLDs anyway –But IDN Committee recommended normal approval process, not a free ride –The administrative problems happen –Allocation is a nasty problem –So are countries with multiple official languages Translation

21 The Translation Issue Presentation –Ultimately, users don’t care what is in the DNS –They care, greatly, about what they see and type Localization –For a limited namespace, users can see whatever the application-writer likes Two-letter code in, user-preference out (or national preference, or local language preference, or…) –Problem: users need to understand that there is an internal/global form But IDNA is already going to require this

22 The Role of the DNS Is the DNS the right place to solve these problems? –Many restrictions and requirements for central administrative hierarchy –Poor search support capability when exact name is not known, but “exact” gets harder with IDN Seeing evolution from product-name.TLD to product.company.TLD or There are alternatives and “search engines” are only one group of them.

23 The Role of a Domain Adminstration Responsibility to the overall Internet community and to users For ccTLDs, ICANN probably can not compel and should not try, but can recommend Registries who cause (or permit) messes that damage others will ultimately be held responsible.

24 IETF Specification of Name Validity Something of a myth –DNS Protocol does not require LDH – recommends as good/safe practice –Hostname rules were NIC document, not technical standards-track –DNS rules of late 80s and early 90s (including RFC 1591) were IANA documents, not IETF IETF provides “how to” register and look up, and systems/technical constrains Specific syntax and character constraints are a zone administration and IANA/ICANN issue.

25 Independent of ICANN Domain administrations who Care about the Internet Exist to serve users, registrants, and the Internet community –will develop and use registration restrictions that minimize the risk of confusion and mismatches (accidental or deliberate) No one said this would be easy but… –Internationalization is very important –So is stability and name integrity –This appears to be the price of having both

26 Some closing thoughts Are there localization solutions that are effective and that meet user needs? Localization does not require ICANN approval or involvement In looking at the DNS to solve a range of i18n issues, are we sure we are asking the right questions? The primary role of ICANN is preserve DNS stability. I hope it can examine this area, and move decisively, before it is too late. “Too late” could be only a month or two from now.

27 For further reading IETF Proposed Standards for IDN encoding –Final drafts: draft-hoffman-stringprep-03.txt draft-ietf-idn-nameprep-11.txt draft-ietf-idn-punycode-03.txt draft-ietf-idn-idna-14.txt JET Guidelines Current draft –Draft-jseng-idn-admin-01.txt Role of the DNS draft-klensin-dns-role-04.txt (and others) Local translation draft-klensin-idn-tld-00.txt Searching, not exact matching draft-klensin-dns-search-04.txt (and others)

28 Internet Drafts available from (and elsewhere)

29 For further reading IETF Proposed Standards for IDN encoding –Final drafts: draft-hoffman-stringprep-03.txt draft-ietf-idn-nameprep-11.txt draft-ietf-idn-punycode-03.txt draft-ietf-idn-idna-14.txt JET Guidelines Current draft –Draft-jseng-idn-admin-01.txt Role of the DNS draft-klensin-dns-role-04.txt (and others) Local translation draft-klensin-idn-tld-00.txt Searching, not exact matching draft-klensin-dns-search-04.txt (and others)


Download ppt "Internationalization Status and Directions: IETF, JET, and ICANN John C Klensin October 2002 © 2002 John C Klensin."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google