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Maximizing Your Health During and After Breast Cancer Treatment Julie R. Gralow, M.D. Associate Professor, Medical Oncology University of Washington School.

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Presentation on theme: "Maximizing Your Health During and After Breast Cancer Treatment Julie R. Gralow, M.D. Associate Professor, Medical Oncology University of Washington School."— Presentation transcript:

1 Maximizing Your Health During and After Breast Cancer Treatment Julie R. Gralow, M.D. Associate Professor, Medical Oncology University of Washington School of Medicine Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center Seattle Cancer Care Alliance

2 Regular Physical Activity and Good Nutrition Can Help Reduce: Heart diseaseHeart disease High cholesterol levelsHigh cholesterol levels High blood pressureHigh blood pressure ObesityObesity Nicotine addictionNicotine addiction DiabetesDiabetes DepressionDepression CancerCancer OsteoporosisOsteoporosis InsomniaInsomnia Age-related declines in muscular strengthAge-related declines in muscular strength

3 Exercise During Cancer Treatment

4 Maintaining an exercise program throughout cancer treatment is not only safe, but also an effective way to manage fatigue, depression, and treatment side effects Maintaining an exercise program throughout cancer treatment is not only safe, but also an effective way to manage fatigue, depression, and treatment side effects

5 Exercise Benefits Physical Health Improved healing and recovery from surgeryImproved healing and recovery from surgery Decreased lymphedemaDecreased lymphedema Higher energy levels, less fatigueHigher energy levels, less fatigue Weight loss/prevent weight gainWeight loss/prevent weight gain Decreased nauseaDecreased nausea Less painLess pain Decreased heart disease and osteoporosisDecreased heart disease and osteoporosis

6 Exercise Benefits Emotional Health Improved body and self-imageImproved body and self-image Decreased anxietyDecreased anxiety Improved social interactionImproved social interaction Better sense of controlBetter sense of control Improved depression and moodImproved depression and mood Better sleep patternsBetter sleep patterns

7 Fatigue and Quality of Life Outcomes of Exercise During Cancer Treatment Mock V et al, Cancer Pract 9: Patients: 52 breast cancer patients randomized to home-based walking program or usual care during adjuvant chemotherapy or radiation therapyPatients: 52 breast cancer patients randomized to home-based walking program or usual care during adjuvant chemotherapy or radiation therapy Results: Women who exercised > 90 minutes per week (divided over 3 or more days) reported significantlyResults: Women who exercised > 90 minutes per week (divided over 3 or more days) reported significantly –Less fatigue –Less emotional distress –Higher functional ability –Better quality of life

8 Exercise and Breast Cancer Post- Treatment

9 Exercise and Survival After Breast Cancer Diagnosis Holmes MD et al, JAMA 2005 Prospective observational studyProspective observational study –2987 nurses in the U.S. Nurses’ Health Study diagnosed with stage I, II or III breast cancer –Physical activity categories: »< 3 MET hours (metabolic equivalent tasks) per week »3-8.9 MET hours/week » MET hours/week »> 24 MET hours/week –3 MET hours per week is equal to walking at an average pace of 2-3 miles /hour for 1 hour

10 Exercise and Survival After Breast Cancer Diagnosis Holmes MD et al, JAMA 2005 Results:Results: –Compared to women with < 3 MET hours/week, risk of dying of breast cancer was: »20% less for 3-9 MET hours/week »40-50% less for > 9 MET hours/week of exercise Conclusion:Conclusion: –Physical activity after a breast cancer diagnosis may reduce the risk of death from this disease –The greatest benefit occurred in women who performed the equivalent of walking 3-5 hours/week at an average pace

11 What About Lymphedema (Arm Swelling After Lymph Node Surgery)?

12 Weight Training and Lymphedema in Breast Cancer Survivors Ahmed RL et al, J Clin Oncol 2005 Patients: 45 breast cancer survivors following axillary lymph node dissectionPatients: 45 breast cancer survivors following axillary lymph node dissection Study: Randomized to weight training program or notStudy: Randomized to weight training program or not –Weight training sessions 2x per week for 6 months –For upper body, initially used no weights or only wrist weights, weight gradually increased if no symptoms of lymphedema developed Results:Results: –None of the women in the weight training program experienced a noticeable change in arm swelling –Frequency of new lymphedema, or worsening of existing lymphedema, was similar in both groups

13 Nutrition, Body Weight and Breast Cancer -Maintain good body weight -Low fat diet -High fiber -Increase fruits and vegetables -Limit alcohol

14 Nutrition and Survival after the Diagnosis of Breast Cancer: A Review of the Evidence Rock CL et al, JCO 20: , 2002 Being overweight or obese is associated with poorer prognosis in a majority of studiesBeing overweight or obese is associated with poorer prognosis in a majority of studies Treatment-related weight gain influences survival, quality of life, other diseasesTreatment-related weight gain influences survival, quality of life, other diseases Dietary fat: 5 of 12 studies showed inverse relationship with survivalDietary fat: 5 of 12 studies showed inverse relationship with survival Fruits and vegetables: majority of studies showed favorable relationship with survivalFruits and vegetables: majority of studies showed favorable relationship with survival

15 Breast Cancer and Alcohol More than 2 drinks/day associated with increased breast cancer risk!

16 Women’s Intervention Nutrition Study (WINS) Chlebowski R et al, JNCI 98, 2006 Patients: 2,437 postmenopausal women with early stage breast cancer (age 48-79)Patients: 2,437 postmenopausal women with early stage breast cancer (age 48-79) Intervention: Randomized within 1 year of surgery to:Intervention: Randomized within 1 year of surgery to: – dietary intervention (8 biweekly counseling sessions by nutritionists and support throughout) –versus control Results:Results: Fat intake/day at 12 months Intervention group33.3 gms (+/- 16.7) Control group51.3 gms (+/- 24.4)

17 Women’s Intervention Nutrition Study (WINS) Chlebowski R et al, JNCI 98, 2006 Results (cont.):Results (cont.): Relapses (60 month follow-up) GroupDietControl All pts96/975 (9.8%)181/1462 (12.3%) 24% reduction in breast cancer recurrence in diet intervention group Conclusion: Lifestyle interventions can reduce recurrences in breast cancer patients

18 Optimizing Health After Breast Cancer Diagnosis and Treatment Exercise regularlyExercise regularly Avoid obesity, control weightAvoid obesity, control weight Eat a healthy diet: low fat, high fiber, low alcoholEat a healthy diet: low fat, high fiber, low alcohol Avoid smokingAvoid smoking Wear sunscreenWear sunscreen Reduce stressReduce stress Control known diseases: high blood pressure, diabetes, high cholesterol, osteoporosisControl known diseases: high blood pressure, diabetes, high cholesterol, osteoporosis

19 Optimizing Health After Breast Cancer Diagnosis and Treatment The majority of breast cancer patients can look forward to a long life after cancer diagnosis and treatmentThe majority of breast cancer patients can look forward to a long life after cancer diagnosis and treatment Cancer patients should not forget about all aspects of health and well- beingCancer patients should not forget about all aspects of health and well- being


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