3 Our goal is to share information with those that could find themselves in one of these critical events and provide training for an “active shooter” incident and a frame of reference.In the last 6 months of 2012, some of the worst A/S events in our history occurred. A place of worship (Sikh Temple WI), a movie theater (Aurora, CO), a mall (Portland, OR) and an elementary school (Newtown, CT).A study by NYPD looked at 230 active shooter cases between The study confirmed that schools are the target in approximately 25% of the cases. Other high probabilities include “other” (29%), “open commercial” (24%), “Factory/Warehouse” 12% and “Office Building” 11%. Schools are a high value target.
4 Presentation Outline Case Studies Situational Awareness Mind-set of an Active ShooterRun, Hide & FightLaw Enforcement Response
5 Columbine High School1 Teacher Murdered 12 Students Murdered 20 Students Injured Characteristics of Shooters During Incident Deliberate Robotic No Fear
8 Jared Cano Friend tipped police active shooter plan Cano expelled Fantasized killing more than Virgina Tech/Columbine/Norway Summer Camp 2011 Planned to commit suicide Cano video taped his plans prior to his arrest
9 Newtown, CT December 14, 2012 Sandy Hook Elementary School Adam Lanza – 20 years oldKilled MotherSemi-auto AR-15 Assault Rifle2 hand guns28 dead including 20 childrenSuicideLonerAsperger SyndromeSpent most of time on a computer playing violent video gamesQuiet to a depth which could not be penetratedDecember 14, 09:35Armed with .223 Rifle and 2 handguns20 children (6-7 year olds) and 6 adults killedSuspect shot his way into locked buildingTeachers were heroic and tried to protect children
10 Waseca Junior/Senior High School Minnesota 2013The PlanKill familyDiversionary fire in rural area to distract first respondersViolent plans in 180 page notebook filled with notes on school shootings and massacresCritiqued other school events Promised a bigger shooting event Practiced setting off bombs at a nearby playgroundNeighbor tipped police after seeing Ladue entering storage unit filled with suppliesThe Goal“Take out as many students he could”
11 The Clock is Ticking…. 5 Year Study of 65 Events: Someone dies every 15 secondsTypical event is over in 3 to 4 minutesPolice response is 5 to 7 minutesA 5 year study published by Tactical Response Magazine examined:24 school shootings in 18 States and41 workplace shootings in 12 StatesBased on the time between each shooting and the number of victims shot on average, one victim dies every 15 seconds15 second intervalsFirst shot fired and dial into 911 (15 seconds)Phone call ringing and connecting to 911 (15 seconds)Dialog of details between caller and 911 dispatcher(15 seconds)Call being dispatched and answered by police (15 seconds)Equals to 4 are dead before police unit begins to respondAverage police response time is 5 to 7 minutes (equals victims).Average time of an Active Shooting event - 3 to 4 minutes (equals15-20 victims).We cannot count on the police to be there in time.To make a difference, you need to have a prepared response and act immediately.Every minute counts.
12 FRAME OF REFERENCE You have a frame of reference when; You have Thoughts, Feelings about an issueYou have a strong frame of reference when:You have personal experiences with an issueIt is difficult to have a Frame of Reference about an issue if :Have no feelings about itYou have no personal experience (behavioral) with itYou have never thought about itDO NOT BELIEVE IT COULD EVER HAPPEN TO YOU
13 GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF AN ACTIVE SHOOTER They “told” some oneShooting is plannedMotive is revenge- “make it fair”History of depression78% suicidal at time of shootingStudent was “different”Acting out their emotional needs
14 LIFE EXPERIENCES OF AN ACTIVE SHOOTER (CASE STUDIES) Abused and or felt abusedSocially isolatedSocially anxiousAggressive as childrenChronically depressed“Odd kids” have few friends if any“Odd kids” are teased“Odd kids” try their parents’ patience and love
15 LIFE EXPERIENCES OF AN ACTIVE SHOOTER (CASE STUDIES) CONT..ThreatsAllusions to violenceExcessive or intimidating reference to mass murder or shooting sprees, real or fictionIntimidating weapon commentsDepression or suicidal thoughtsParanoiaRepeatedly accusing other people of causing one’s problemsUnreasonable complaints
16 With their guns they are acting out EMOTIONAL NEEDS To be heard/seenTo be recognizedTo be seen as powerfulTo have their unbelievable pain and rage acknowledged
17 BIOLOGYNORMAL BRAIN ACTIVITY- Proactive Killers-kill to achieve a thought out goal–ie robberyABNORMAL BRAIN ACTIVITY- Reactive Killers-kill in response to real or imagined- insults-ie school shooters
19 MIDDLE SCHOOL vs HIGH SCHOOL Middle School shooters: are usually alive when first responders arriveHigh School/College shooters: are usually not alive when first responders arrive
20 What you can expect of yourself 1. Hyperventilation2. Accelerated Heart Rate3. Adrenaline Rush4. Loss of Peripheral Vision5. Diminished hearing
21 This Can’t Be Happening Three Phases of Our Mental Disaster ResponseDenialDeliberationDecisive MomentRipley, A. (2008). The Unthinkable: Who Survives When Disaster Strikes And Why. New York: Three Rivers Press.We need to understand how our body and mind works when we are under extreme stress. Once we understand that, we can train ourselves to act before an event occurs to help increase the odds of our survival.Very good book. She interviewed hundreds of survivors of critical situations including fires, 9/11, airplane crashes, stampedes, etc. She writes about why people behave a certain way during a crisis such as an active shooter and why they survive and why some do not.She boils it down to these three stages: Denial, deliberation and ultimately the decisive act
22 Denial…Underestimating the severity Denial is delaying actionDelaying action costs timeDelaying action can cost livesThe owner of this computer is in denial and believes his compaq laptop is an Apple Macbook.One of biggest things Ripley found was that people deny something bad is happening. When seconds mean the difference between surviving or dying, there is no time to deny you are in the middle of a disaster….or active shooter. We have to get past denial ASAP.In some A/S events, victims and survivors have said the shots sounded like “firecrackers” or a car backfiring. How often do you hear firecrackers at school? On the 8th floor of an office building? In the mall? In a movie theater? Never probably. If not 100% sure it is nothing go into your RUN mode. You can always come back…no harm no foul.
23 Denial and Social Proof Group Think. We are very hesitant to act if no one else around us is acting. We are conforming to the rules and norms of the temporary group we are in. Once someone else changes “groups” and starts acting, we are more likely to join that group.Remind the students what teacher David Benke from Deer Creek Middle School said about his preparing for the day he would need to stop a gunman…FIGHT THE BYSTANDER EFFECTDiffusion of ResponsibilityIn ambiguous situations we look at others for cues on how to actIf they do nothing, you will do nothingIf they act, you will act
24 Deliberation We made it past Denial Now decide what to do…. Fear enters the equationBrain not working wellWe have made it past Denial. What next?Our brain is not working because of stress. Since we have gotten past the denial phase, we now understand something bad is happening and therefore fear can enter at this point.Use the definition to show that deliberation by definition is designed as a slow process…and this is no time for a slow processIf we have not programmed a response with prior training, we are in trouble. Fight/flight/freeze are default responses. We would rather override those actions with thoughtful, pre-planned actions.
25 Ability to think is seriously impaired DeliberationStress Side EffectsAbility to think is seriously impairedVision narrowsTime distortionAuditory exclusionFine motor skills deteriorateWe really need our brains working at 100% at this moment in time. Unfortunately it will not and cannot happen due to the effects of stress on our body.How do we change this? Can we do something before hand that will help?
26 Programming Responses Think through events before a disasterPlan your responsePractice your responseRick Rescorla (on PA) was the Director of Security for Morgan Stanley. Photo from 9/11 in twin towers. He sang songs during evacuation to keep people calm. Predicted 9/11 after 1993 attacks. Insisted on training all Morgan Stanley employees on evacuation procedures.For 8 years he ran surprise fire drills. Employees did not like having to run the drills. These were multi-millionaire stock brokers who he made get up from the phone/computer/meeting and do fire drills. All visitors were trained on emergency procedures upon arrival.Only 13 Morgan Stanley employees died on 9/11 including Rick and 4 of his security officers. 2,687 made it out alive. Rick was last seen going back up the stairs to look for more Morgan Stanley employees.Police officers are trained to always do “what if” thinking or “if/then” thinking. If at a convenience store getting coffee, always thinking what we will do if robber comes in, if fight breaks out, etc. Pre-program a response.Rick made his employees PRACTICE their responses. When they had to do it for real on 9/11, they had all done it many, many times before. They knew where to go, how long it would take, etc.“The best way to get the brain to perform under extreme stress is to repeatedly run it through rehearsals beforehand…”
27 Decisive Moment Denied Deliberated Time to ACT! Be Prepared We have denied, we have deliberated. Now it is time to act! Act with a purpose.“The one thing you don’t ever want to do is have to think in a disaster”….9/11 Survivor
29 RUN! Always Be Aware Know Escape Routes Exits Windows Decide to Leave at First Opportunity and ReportGo into Lockdown ModeAvoiding the problem by running should be our first option.Run should not always be a physical action but also a mental action.Always be in a state of awareness. Know where you would run to at any given moment to avoid a life/death situation.
30 LOCK! Lock Doors Barricade access points Door stops Furniture Rope doors closedCover windowsDarken roomGo into Run mode againIf we cannot escape the situation by running, or we have escaped to a point where we can go no further, it is time to lockdown and barricade our position.You will need to be able to recognize how the door functions in order to successfully barricade.We will work on this just before and after lunch out in the school.
31 Lockdown Considerations Barricading doors:Outward openingEye boltsRopeInward openingFurnitureKick barsDoor stopsWe will demonstrate and have you work with different methods of barricading doors during the next modules.This photo appears to be a closet with no way to really barricade the door or run to. If you are in this room and see the shooter outside like this, what should you be thinking at this point?
32 FIGHT!! Have a survivor’s (not a victim’s) mindset Decide right now that your are going to do whatever it takes to surviveGetting shot does not mean that you are deadYou can and must keep going!Kristina Anderson, Virginia Tech survivor. She was in room 211 and was shot 3 times. She never gave up
33 Law EnforcementThe older tactics used were to contain the suspect and wait for tactical teams to arrive to make entry.Today, rapid deployment by all law enforcement personnel should be used to minimize harm to innocent persons.
34 Law Enforcement Assessment ActivityOn-going violence (active shooter)Placing or detonating explosives designed to cause injuryNumber of Suspects involvedIncreased potential for mass casualties
35 Immediate Action / Rapid Deployment Rapid Deployment Objectives:Save livesLocate the threatNeutralize the threatRemove the threatContain the threat
36 HOSTAGE RESCUE If suspect alone Treat as barricaded gunman Contain Prevent ability to move negotiationIf suspect with hostagesContainNegotiationsLaw Enforcement concealment, close enough to enter areaIf suspect begins to endanger hostages –SWAT Members will immediately intervene-Glass breaking, explosions, bright lights, smoke – speed, shock, surpriseHostage Compliance
37 J.P. Coroner OfficeTeen Life Counts2013/2014 School Year2,963 Students Interviewed462 ReferralsDepressionAnxietyCuttingBurningSuicidalSelf ReferralPeer Referral
38 School System Pro-Active Approach Communicate with students encouraging reporting of suspicious activityUse technology to create a mechanism indicators of potentially violent behavior and sending alerts about incidentsPolicy to immediately report suspicious persons on campus grounds especially anyone scaling fencesAutomated notification system if an event developsPlans for the arrival of law enforcementOpen lines of communication with students family
39 Department of Justice-Strategic Approach Post-event evidence identified that changes in the subjects’ behavior were not effectively communicate in ways that could have prevented tragedies.Many recent events have involved offenders who were knows to have mental health problems. Mental health problems are contributing factors to the violenceNatural order of family unit is to protect and care for its members; however the family has the potential to serve as first source of identifying problemsCultural shift-reporting abnormal behavior is in best interest of society – a civic responsibility -
40 Final ThoughtIN AN ACTIVE SHOOTER INCIDENT, IT IS TEAMWORK AND PREPARATION, WHICH WILL PROTECT INNOCENT PERSONS AND SAVE LIVES.