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Presentation on theme: "ACTIVE SHOOTER SCHOOL TRAINING 2014"— Presentation transcript:


2 Fog of Terror Chaos Fear

3 Our goal is to share information with those that could find themselves in one of these critical events and provide training for an “active shooter” incident and a frame of reference. In the last 6 months of 2012, some of the worst A/S events in our history occurred. A place of worship (Sikh Temple WI), a movie theater (Aurora, CO), a mall (Portland, OR) and an elementary school (Newtown, CT). A study by NYPD looked at 230 active shooter cases between The study confirmed that schools are the target in approximately 25% of the cases. Other high probabilities include “other” (29%), “open commercial” (24%), “Factory/Warehouse” 12% and “Office Building” 11%. Schools are a high value target.

4 Presentation Outline Case Studies Situational Awareness
Mind-set of an Active Shooter Run, Hide & Fight Law Enforcement Response

5 Columbine High School 1 Teacher Murdered 12 Students Murdered 20 Students Injured Characteristics of Shooters During Incident Deliberate Robotic No Fear



8 Jared Cano Friend tipped police active shooter plan Cano expelled Fantasized killing more than Virgina Tech/Columbine/Norway Summer Camp 2011 Planned to commit suicide Cano video taped his plans prior to his arrest

9 Newtown, CT December 14, 2012 Sandy Hook Elementary School
Adam Lanza – 20 years old Killed Mother Semi-auto AR-15 Assault Rifle 2 hand guns 28 dead including 20 children Suicide Loner Asperger Syndrome Spent most of time on a computer playing violent video games Quiet to a depth which could not be penetrated December 14, 09:35 Armed with .223 Rifle and 2 handguns 20 children (6-7 year olds) and 6 adults killed Suspect shot his way into locked building Teachers were heroic and tried to protect children

10 Waseca Junior/Senior High School
Minnesota 2013 The Plan Kill family Diversionary fire in rural area to distract first responders Violent plans in 180 page notebook filled with notes on school shootings and massacres Critiqued other school events Promised a bigger shooting event  Practiced setting off bombs at a nearby playground Neighbor tipped police after seeing Ladue entering storage unit filled with supplies The Goal “Take out as many students he could”

11 The Clock is Ticking…. 5 Year Study of 65 Events:
Someone dies every 15 seconds Typical event is over in 3 to 4 minutes Police response is 5 to 7 minutes A 5 year study published by Tactical Response Magazine examined: 24 school shootings in 18 States and 41 workplace shootings in 12 States Based on the time between each shooting and the number of victims shot on average, one victim dies every 15 seconds 15 second intervals First shot fired and dial into 911 (15 seconds) Phone call ringing and connecting to 911 (15 seconds) Dialog of details between caller and 911 dispatcher(15 seconds) Call being dispatched and answered by police (15 seconds) Equals to 4 are dead before police unit begins to respond Average police response time is 5 to 7 minutes (equals victims). Average time of an Active Shooting event - 3 to 4 minutes (equals15-20 victims). We cannot count on the police to be there in time. To make a difference, you need to have a prepared response and act immediately. Every minute counts.

12 FRAME OF REFERENCE You have a frame of reference when;
 You have Thoughts, Feelings about an issue You have a strong frame of reference when: You have personal experiences with an issue It is difficult to have a Frame of Reference about an issue if : Have no feelings about it You have no personal experience (behavioral) with it You have never thought about it DO NOT BELIEVE IT COULD EVER HAPPEN TO YOU

They “told” some one Shooting is planned Motive is revenge- “make it fair” History of depression 78% suicidal at time of shooting Student was “different” Acting out their emotional needs

Abused and or felt abused Socially isolated Socially anxious Aggressive as children Chronically depressed “Odd kids” have few friends if any “Odd kids” are teased “Odd kids” try their parents’ patience and love

CONT.. Threats Allusions to violence Excessive or intimidating reference to mass murder or shooting sprees, real or fiction Intimidating weapon comments Depression or suicidal thoughts Paranoia Repeatedly accusing other people of causing one’s problems Unreasonable complaints

16 With their guns they are acting out EMOTIONAL NEEDS
To be heard/seen To be recognized To be seen as powerful To have their unbelievable pain and rage acknowledged

17 BIOLOGY NORMAL BRAIN ACTIVITY- Proactive Killers-kill to achieve a thought out goal–ie robbery ABNORMAL BRAIN ACTIVITY- Reactive Killers-kill in response to real or imagined- insults-ie school shooters

18 Aggressive- Obsessive- No empathy-
BIOLOGY REACTIVE KILLERS ..\..\All Users\Documents\My Pictures\Kodak Pictures\ \102_0446.jpg Low prefrontal activity High limbic activity High cingulate gyrus activity Aggressive- Obsessive- No empathy-

Middle School shooters: are usually alive when first responders arrive High School/College shooters: are usually not alive when first responders arrive

20 What you can expect of yourself
1. Hyperventilation 2. Accelerated Heart Rate 3. Adrenaline Rush 4. Loss of Peripheral Vision 5. Diminished hearing

21 This Can’t Be Happening
Three Phases of Our Mental Disaster Response Denial Deliberation Decisive Moment Ripley, A. (2008). The Unthinkable: Who Survives When Disaster Strikes And Why. New York: Three Rivers Press. We need to understand how our body and mind works when we are under extreme stress. Once we understand that, we can train ourselves to act before an event occurs to help increase the odds of our survival. Very good book. She interviewed hundreds of survivors of critical situations including fires, 9/11, airplane crashes, stampedes, etc. She writes about why people behave a certain way during a crisis such as an active shooter and why they survive and why some do not. She boils it down to these three stages: Denial, deliberation and ultimately the decisive act

22 Denial…Underestimating the severity
Denial is delaying action Delaying action costs time Delaying action can cost lives The owner of this computer is in denial and believes his compaq laptop is an Apple Macbook. One of biggest things Ripley found was that people deny something bad is happening. When seconds mean the difference between surviving or dying, there is no time to deny you are in the middle of a disaster….or active shooter. We have to get past denial ASAP. In some A/S events, victims and survivors have said the shots sounded like “firecrackers” or a car backfiring. How often do you hear firecrackers at school? On the 8th floor of an office building? In the mall? In a movie theater? Never probably. If not 100% sure it is nothing go into your RUN mode. You can always come back…no harm no foul.

23 Denial and Social Proof
Group Think. We are very hesitant to act if no one else around us is acting. We are conforming to the rules and norms of the temporary group we are in. Once someone else changes “groups” and starts acting, we are more likely to join that group. Remind the students what teacher David Benke from Deer Creek Middle School said about his preparing for the day he would need to stop a gunman…FIGHT THE BYSTANDER EFFECT Diffusion of Responsibility In ambiguous situations we look at others for cues on how to act If they do nothing, you will do nothing If they act, you will act

24 Deliberation We made it past Denial Now decide what to do….
Fear enters the equation Brain not working well We have made it past Denial. What next? Our brain is not working because of stress. Since we have gotten past the denial phase, we now understand something bad is happening and therefore fear can enter at this point. Use the definition to show that deliberation by definition is designed as a slow process…and this is no time for a slow process If we have not programmed a response with prior training, we are in trouble. Fight/flight/freeze are default responses. We would rather override those actions with thoughtful, pre-planned actions.

25 Ability to think is seriously impaired
Deliberation Stress Side Effects Ability to think is seriously impaired Vision narrows Time distortion Auditory exclusion Fine motor skills deteriorate We really need our brains working at 100% at this moment in time. Unfortunately it will not and cannot happen due to the effects of stress on our body. How do we change this? Can we do something before hand that will help?

26 Programming Responses
Think through events before a disaster Plan your response Practice your response Rick Rescorla (on PA) was the Director of Security for Morgan Stanley. Photo from 9/11 in twin towers. He sang songs during evacuation to keep people calm. Predicted 9/11 after 1993 attacks. Insisted on training all Morgan Stanley employees on evacuation procedures. For 8 years he ran surprise fire drills. Employees did not like having to run the drills. These were multi-millionaire stock brokers who he made get up from the phone/computer/meeting and do fire drills. All visitors were trained on emergency procedures upon arrival. Only 13 Morgan Stanley employees died on 9/11 including Rick and 4 of his security officers. 2,687 made it out alive. Rick was last seen going back up the stairs to look for more Morgan Stanley employees. Police officers are trained to always do “what if” thinking or “if/then” thinking. If at a convenience store getting coffee, always thinking what we will do if robber comes in, if fight breaks out, etc. Pre-program a response. Rick made his employees PRACTICE their responses. When they had to do it for real on 9/11, they had all done it many, many times before. They knew where to go, how long it would take, etc. “The best way to get the brain to perform under extreme stress is to repeatedly run it through rehearsals beforehand…”

27 Decisive Moment Denied Deliberated Time to ACT! Be Prepared
We have denied, we have deliberated. Now it is time to act! Act with a purpose. “The one thing you don’t ever want to do is have to think in a disaster”….9/11 Survivor


29 RUN! Always Be Aware Know Escape Routes Exits Windows
Decide to Leave at First Opportunity and Report Go into Lockdown Mode Avoiding the problem by running should be our first option. Run should not always be a physical action but also a mental action. Always be in a state of awareness. Know where you would run to at any given moment to avoid a life/death situation.

30 LOCK! Lock Doors Barricade access points Door stops Furniture
Rope doors closed Cover windows Darken room Go into Run mode again If we cannot escape the situation by running, or we have escaped to a point where we can go no further, it is time to lockdown and barricade our position. You will need to be able to recognize how the door functions in order to successfully barricade. We will work on this just before and after lunch out in the school.

31 Lockdown Considerations
Barricading doors: Outward opening Eye bolts Rope Inward opening Furniture Kick bars Door stops We will demonstrate and have you work with different methods of barricading doors during the next modules. This photo appears to be a closet with no way to really barricade the door or run to. If you are in this room and see the shooter outside like this, what should you be thinking at this point?

32 FIGHT!! Have a survivor’s (not a victim’s) mindset
Decide right now that your are going to do whatever it takes to survive Getting shot does not mean that you are dead You can and must keep going! Kristina Anderson, Virginia Tech survivor. She was in room 211 and was shot 3 times. She never gave up

33 Law Enforcement The older tactics used were to contain the suspect and wait for tactical teams to arrive to make entry. Today, rapid deployment by all law enforcement personnel should be used to minimize harm to innocent persons.

34 Law Enforcement Assessment
Activity On-going violence (active shooter) Placing or detonating explosives designed to cause injury Number of Suspects involved Increased potential for mass casualties

35 Immediate Action / Rapid Deployment
Rapid Deployment Objectives: Save lives Locate the threat Neutralize the threat Remove the threat Contain the threat

36 HOSTAGE RESCUE If suspect alone Treat as barricaded gunman Contain
Prevent ability to move negotiation If suspect with hostages Contain Negotiations Law Enforcement concealment, close enough to enter area If suspect begins to endanger hostages –SWAT Members will immediately intervene-Glass breaking, explosions, bright lights, smoke – speed, shock, surprise Hostage Compliance

37 J.P. Coroner Office Teen Life Counts 2013/2014 School Year 2,963 Students Interviewed 462 Referrals Depression Anxiety Cutting Burning Suicidal Self Referral Peer Referral

38 School System Pro-Active Approach
Communicate with students encouraging reporting of suspicious activity Use technology to create a mechanism indicators of potentially violent behavior and sending alerts about incidents Policy to immediately report suspicious persons on campus grounds especially anyone scaling fences Automated notification system if an event develops Plans for the arrival of law enforcement Open lines of communication with students family

39 Department of Justice-Strategic Approach
Post-event evidence identified that changes in the subjects’ behavior were not effectively communicate in ways that could have prevented tragedies. Many recent events have involved offenders who were knows to have mental health problems. Mental health problems are contributing factors to the violence Natural order of family unit is to protect and care for its members; however the family has the potential to serve as first source of identifying problems Cultural shift-reporting abnormal behavior is in best interest of society – a civic responsibility -



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