Presentation on theme: "Contraception and HIV Professor Helen Rees"— Presentation transcript:
1Contraception and HIV Professor Helen Rees Executive Director, WRHI, Wits Reproductive Health and HIV Institute &Ad Hominem Professor, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology,University of WitwatersrandHonorary Professor, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine
2“Love is the answer, but while you are waiting for the answer, sex raises some pretty good questions.” Woody Allen
3Women have a right to decide whether they want to become pregnant and bear children irrespective of their HIV status.Women must be enabled to make informed, voluntary decisions about contraception and then receive a safe, effective method of her choice.
4Trends in Maternal Mortality Ratios Avoidance of unintended pregnancy is most effective way of reducing number of deaths: 40% of global deaths averted in 2008 by contraception(Darroch & Singh 2011: Ahmed et al 2011)WHO 2010
5Over 150 million women use hormonal contraception worldwide, primarily oral contraceptives (OCs) and injectable depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA).
6The overall demand for contraception is increasing % of married women aged 15–49The demand for contraception worldwide is increasing, while unmet need is decreasing in most regions. As demand increases family planning programs have to satisfy not just unmet need, but also the growing number of users of family planning methods.Latin America & CaribbeanNorth Africa & West AsiaSouth & Southeast AsiaSub-Saharan Africa6
7Method mix: among currently married (CM) & sexually active not married (NM) women , % using specific methodSource: Demographic and Health Surveys
8The importance of some reasons for non-use has changed over time % of married women aged 15–49 with unmet needWe compare estimates from the earliest round of the Demographic and Health Surveys (late 1980s) with those from the most recent round (early 2000s). Nonuse due to lack of knowledge about family planning declined between the late 1980s and early 2000s. This suggests that programs to raise awareness about family planning are working. However, health concerns and fear of side effects have increased.Note: Earlier surveys asked women to provide only their primary reason for nonuse, whereas recent studies solicited all of their reasons for nonuse. However, since most women gave only one reason for nonuse in recent surveys, an informal comparison of trends can be undertaken. We explore trends in women’s reasons in the eight countries for which information was available in both time periods.1986–19892002–20058
9Adherence in contraceptive use 189 progestin injectable users followed up for 2 yearsin family planning clinic in SowetoStatus1 year2 years(%)nContinued42792139Lost to follow up30573567Discontinued28484178Withdrew25Of those who discontinued:40% ‘taking a break’>50% complained of side effectsBeksinska, Rees et al. Contraception 64(2001)
11The importance of contraception as part of PMTCT Prevention of HIV in women, especially young womenPrevention of unintended pregnancies in HIV-infected womenPrevention of transmission from an HIV-infected woman to her infantSupport for mother and familyContraceptionElement 1Element 2Element 3Element 4.Significant contribution coming from the provision of contraceptive information, services and counselling.
12Pregnancy Intentions & Incidence Study: Prospective Cohort Study of HIV Positive Women on ART in South Africa, Swartz S, Black V et al851 non-pregnant women on different ARV regimens recruited from 4 WRHI-supported sites between August 2009 – January 2010Contraceptive Usen (%)Consistent condom use540 (63.5%)Injectables175 (20.6%)Oral contraceptives45 (5.3%)Implants4 (0.5%)IUDs1 (0.1%)Dual (Condoms+HC)131 (15.4%)Overall631 (74.1%)519 initiation sites vs 332 down-referral sitesBaseline pregnancies: 38 (4.3%) pregnant at baseline and excluded – 32% EFV conceptionsEligibility criteria: , on ART, not pregnant, no prior sterilization/hysterectomies
13How far can we push Dual Method use How far can we push Dual Method use? Condom use at last sexual intercourse, amongst injectable contraception usersGlass ceiling?Source: Demographic and Health Surveys
14Contraception and HIV: What to consider Women at riskfor HIVWomen infectedwith HIVDiseaseprogressionDruginteractionsPreventionAcquisitionInfectiousness14
15Contraception and HIV: How WHO guidance has worked… DiseaseprogressionAcquisitionInfectiousness15
16WHO’s Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use
17WHO consultants & committee: ResearchWHO consultants & committee:Systematic review, Grading of scientific evidenceThe evidence is used to develop international recommendations and includes expert opinion where evidence is not availableInternational recommendations are adapted for national guidelinesJob aids (tools) are developed
18Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive use: WHO Classifications Classification of ConditionsDefinition1No restriction on use2Benefits generally outweigh risks3Risks generally outweigh benefits4Unacceptable health riskDefinition
19WHO Conclusions - 2008 “Intermediate” level of evidence COC – Category 1 - “No Restriction”DMPA – Category 1 for women at risk of HIV – Category 2 for youth (bone concerns) “Advantages Outweigh Risks”Review the problems with each of the existing studies.Source: WHO Medical Eligibility Criteria (2008)HC/HIV Update, August '11
20Hormonal contraceptive use for women at high risk of HIV DMPA – Category 1 - No RestrictionBalance of evidence suggests no association between progestin contraceptives and HIV acquisition, although studies of DMPA use conducted among higher risk populations have repeated inconsistent findings“Intermediate” level of evidenceReview the problems with each of the existing studies.Source: WHO Medical Eligibility Criteria fourth edition 2009HC/HIV Update, August '11
21ProgesteroneNature Med., 1996DMPAVirology, 2006DMPAJ. Infect. Dis., 2004- Genescà et al., J. Med. Primatol. , 2007- Mascola et al., Nature Med. 2000- Veazey et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2008- Pal et al., Virology 2009- Turville et al., PLoS One 2008
22Reported effects of progesterone and its derivatives on immune system & HIV-1 infection. Reported effect of progesterone or its derivativesReferencesInhibition of IgG and IgA production and trans-epithelial transport(78;87-96; )Decreased frequency of antibody-secreting cells in women and female macaques(90;96)Decreased specific IgG and IgA responses following mucosal immunization with attenuated HSV-2; induction of permissive conditions for intravaginal infectionof mice with HSV-2 and Chlamydia trachomatis( )Inhibition of T cell responses and cytotoxic activity( ;147)Inhibition of perforin expression in T cells( ; )Decreased proliferation and Th1-type cytokine production by VZV-specific CD4+T cells in HIV-1 patients(148)Altered migration and decreased activity of NK cells(105;106;106;135;159;251;252)PIBF-mediated shift towards Th2 cytokine expression profile(133; )Altered migration and infiltration of lymphocytes, macrophages, and NK cells into the female genital tract tissues(117;118;157;158;183;191;253)Increased expression of CCR5 on cervical CD4+ lymphocytes(81;82)Thinning of cervico-vaginal epithelium in rhesus macaques(42;66)Increased frequency of Langerhans cells in vaginal epithelium(76;77)Regulation of HIV replication and LTR activity(254)Suppression of IL-1, IL-2, and IL-6 release by human lymphocytes(148;177)Inhibition of TLR-9-induced IFN-α production by human and mouse pDCs(162)Increased shedding of HIV-1 in the genital tract(35-37)Decreased FcγR expression on monocytes(159;160)Decreased vaginal colonization with H2O2-producing Lactobacillus(70)Hel Z. et al., Endocrine Rev., 2010,
23Hormones and HIV Possible Mechanisms Vaginal and cervical epithelium (ectopy, etc.)Cervical mucusMenstrual patternsVaginal and cervical immunologyViral (HIV) replicationAcquisition of other STISlide 3: Possible Mechanisms - Susceptibility: This slide shows some of the possible mechanisms by which the risk of HIV acquisition might be enhanced or in some cases reduced by hormonal contraception.Changes in the vaginal/cervical epithelium: For example cervical ectopy appears to be associated with oral contraceptive use and the glandular and vascular nature of columnar epithelium associated with cervical ectopy may enhance a woman’s susceptibility to the virus. Also, thinning of the vaginal epithelium associated with DMPA use could enhance risk of HIV transmission. Also DMPA use may lead to a reduction in hydrogen-peroxide producing lactobacilli in the vagina. The corresponding increase in vaginal pH may be enhance HIV acquisition.Cervical mucus: Thick cellular cervical mucus associated with OC use may increase the number of HIV target cells and thus increase women’s susceptibility to HIV. Increased numbers of lymphocytes may also increase a woman’s infectiousness to her sex partner.Menstrual Patterns: Irregular uterine bleeding may lead to an increased risk of HIV while reduced volume of menstrual flow and reduced retrograde menstruation among hormonal users may serve to reduce HIV susceptibility..HC/HIV Update, August '11
24Studies of Injectables & HIV Acquisition Kumwenda 2008Ungchusak 1996Feldblum 2010Heffron 2011Bulterys 1994Baeten 2007Watson-Jones 2009Kilmarx 1998Morrison 2010Myer 2007Reid 2010Kiddugavu 2003Kleinschmidt 2007Kapiga 1998Source: Adapted from Polis (2011)
25Prospective cohort study of 3790 HIV-1 discordant couples from East and southern Africa Renee Heﬀron, Deborah Donnell, Helen Rees, Connie Celum, Edwin Were, Nelly Mugo, Guy de Bruyn, Edith Nakku-‐Joloba, Kenneth Ngure, James Kiarie and Jared BaetenJuly 2011 – Partners in Prevention Study on HIV acquisition and HC presented at IAS Conference, Rome
26Contraception and HIV acquisition from men to women Adjusted Cox PH Regression analysisHIV incidence per 100 person yearsHR (95% CI)P-valueNo hormonal contraception3.781.00Any hormonal contraception6.611.98(1.06 – 3.68)0.03Injectables6.852.05(1.04 – 4.04)0.04Oral contraceptives5.941.80(0.55 – 5.82)0.3321.2% of women used HC at least once during study
27Contraception and HIV acquisition from women to men Adjusted Cox PH Regression analysisHIV incidence per 100 person yearsHR (95% CI)P-valueNo hormonal contraception1.511.00Any hormonal contraception2.611.97 (1.12 – 3.45)0.02Injectables2.641.95 (1.06 – 3.55)0.03Oral contraceptives2.502.09 (0.75 – 5.84)0.16
28ConclusionMounting evidence that hormonal contraceptives – particularly injectable methods - increase a woman’s risk of acquiring HIV-1First study to demonstrate that hormonal contraceptives increase an HIV‐1 infected woman’s risk of transmitting HIV‐1 to her partner
29The Dilemma for an Uninfected Woman If she uses DMPA,Less risk of pregnancyMore risk of HIV acquisitionIf she stops DMPADoes she have other contraceptive options?If not, she may become pregnantMore risk of pregnancy morbidity & mortalityUnwanted pregnancy may have worse infant outcomes
30The Dilemma for the Infected woman If she uses hormonal contraceptionLess risk of pregnancyMore risk of HIV transmission to partnerIf she stops hormonal methodsDoes she have other contraceptive options?If not she may become pregnantMore risk of pregnancy Morbidity & MortalityPotential for transmission to infantUnwanted HIV infected babies have higher morbidity and mortality than wanted infants
32Studies of Injectables & HIV Acquisition Kumwenda 2008Ungchusak 1996Feldblum 2010Heffron 2011Bulterys 1994Baeten 2007Watson-Jones 2009Kilmarx 1998Morrison 2010Myer 2007Reid 2010Kiddugavu 2003Kleinschmidt 2007Kapiga 1998Source: Adapted from Polis (2011)
33WHO Expert Consultation on HC and HIV 4/6/2017WHO Expert Consultation on HC and HIVJanuary 2012, Geneva, 75 participants from 18 countriesHIV AcquisitionHIV TransmissionHIV ProgressionGRADE rating of the evidenceDiscussion of MEC criteriaProgrammatic implicationsResearch agendaHC/HIV Update, August '11
36WHO Consultation – GRADE Rating HC/HIV acquisition evidence8 cohort studies met minimum quality criteriaRated “low overall quality” but better studies tended towards harmMajor focus of meeting
37Contraception and HIV acquisition from men to women Adjusted Cox PH Regression analysisHIV incidence per 100 person yearsHR (95% CI)P-valueNo hormonal contraception3.781.00Any hormonal contraception6.611.98(1.06 – 3.68)0.03Injectables6.852.05(1.04 – 4.04)0.04Oral contraceptives5.941.80(0.55 – 5.82)0.3321.2% of women used HC at least once during study
38The Great DebateObservational data Possible selection bias Potential for Confounding Not always primary study endpoint HC use not always well documented Self reported condom use unreliable Condom use differed between non-HC arms and HC arms
39Progestin injectables and HIV acquisition: The Great debate 1. If left an MEC 1 – no change implies that the data are not convincing enough to support even theoretical concerns about injectable progestins and HIV acquisition2. If moved to MEC 2 – a change implies that there are theoretical concerns which still allows use but if misunderstood might scare women and jeopardize global use without many alternatives being available3. The meeting was divided between 1 & 2
41The WHO statement on Progestin-only injectables and HIV acquisition, 2012 ………the group concluded that the World Health Organization should continue to recommend that there are no restrictions (MEC Category 1) on the use of any hormonal contraceptive method for women living with HIV or at high risk of HIV. However…..
42The WHO statement on Progestin-only injectables and HIV acquisition, 2012 ……..because of the inconclusive nature of the body of evidence on possible increased risk of HIV acquisition, women using progestogen-only injectable contraception should be strongly advised to also use condoms and other preventive measures. The group further wished to draw the attention of policy-makers and programme managers to the potential seriousness of the issue and the complex balance of risks and benefits.
44What then happened……Some activists, women's organisations and journalists said they did not understand the Category ‘1’ and the clarificationRequested clarity on the messaging that should be given to women usersSome researchers and donors considering an RCT as a definitive studyWidespread calls for increasing the method mix in developing countriesAnd the modellers are involved……
45Where does high HIV prevalence coincide with high use of injectable hormonal contraceptives? HIV prevalence among year-old women*The overlap between use of injectables and HIV prevalence*Adult HIV prevalence given for China.Injectable hormonal contraceptive use among year-old womenOverlap in southern and eastern Africa. Current use taken form world contraceptive use data table over last five years. Sources DHS onwards but took most recent available data. Older countries DMPA not sued mus=ch.HIV: ‘high’ = > 1%; IHC: ‘high’ = upper quartile.From: AR Butler, JA Smith, D Stanton, TB Hallett. The global impact of an interaction between injectable hormonal contraception and HIV risk (subm.).
46Number of HIV infections attributable to hypothesised IHC-HIV interaction per year Excess infections in past year attributed to HC - % of new infectionsNumber countries with generalised epidemics this is stronger data. Be more cautiois eg with Thailand becvasue of cocnentrated epidcmics. annotated next to each bar is the rank out of all countries with available data (116 total). Looking at 205 onwards. Taken country numbers form tow maps above.Regions with high HIV incidence and high IHC use have the most HIV infections attributable to use of injectable hormonal contraceptivesFrom: AR Butler, JA Smith, D Stanton, TB Hallett. The global impact of an interaction between injectable hormonal contraception and HIV risk (subm.)
47Net effect: balance of reduced AIDS deaths & increased maternal deaths Absolute change in the number of maternal and AIDS deaths on cessation of IHC useAbsolute numbers.Overall, stopping all IHC use would reduce the total deaths per year globally by 45,000 with an odds ratio of 2.19, but would result in an increase of 5,700 deaths with the more modest estimate of 1.2. If there is no real effect of IHC on HIV acquisition then stopping IHC would cause at least 18,000 more maternal deaths per year worldwide, spread primarily through Africa and South and South-East Asia. Need to be more certain about recommending stopping.Maximum benefits of stopping or reducing HC in regions of high HIV incidence and low maternal mortalityIncrease in total number of deaths in areas of high HC use and high maternal mortalityFrom: AR Butler, JA Smith, D Stanton, TB Hallett. The global impact of an interaction between injectable hormonal contraception and HIV risk (subm.)
49WHO’s programmatic and research recommendations Based on current evidence, family planning programmes delivering services to women at risk of, or living with, HIV infection can continue to offer all methods of hormonal contraception. However, as none of these methods protects against HIV, the use of condoms or other HIV preventive measures should always be strongly recommended.
50WHO’s programmatic and research recommendations Provide easy-to-understand and comprehensive information to women and their partners about the benefits of contraceptive options available to them as well as any associated risks, including information regarding the inconclusive nature of the evidence on possible increased risk of HIV acquisition among women using progestogen only injectables.
51WHO Recommendations: Research Produce definitive epidemiological evidence about HC and HIV acquisition, transmission & disease progression, evaluating longer-acting methods (e.g. implants, IUDs, injectables) & newer methods not previously includedAn RCT?
53From a Women’s health perspective…… If millions of men were on a high dose of a first generation statin when newer statins with the same efficacy and fewer side effects was available, and the higher dose made men……Put on weightMade their hair temporarily stop growingAnd it took 9 months to return to normalAND may possibly increase HIV riskHow long would the marketplace tolerate this?
54Thank You Ward Cates Jenny Smith Tim Hallett John Cleland Ellen CrabtreeChelsea PolisVivian BlackSharon PhillipsMary Lyn GaffieldMitchell WarrenCharlie MorrisonMaggie Kilbourne-BrookZdenek HelMelanie Pleanar