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Photographers often want to communicate a thought or emotion with their work. Although the camera lens views the world impartially, the photographer constantly.

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Presentation on theme: "Photographers often want to communicate a thought or emotion with their work. Although the camera lens views the world impartially, the photographer constantly."— Presentation transcript:


2 Photographers often want to communicate a thought or emotion with their work. Although the camera lens views the world impartially, the photographer constantly judges, deciding what to photograph and how to photograph it -- focusing on creating a strong image that will communicate the desired message. The words that accompany a photograph may also influence the way we "read" the picture. The examples in the web ‘s presentation: have been drawn from Alexander Gardner's 1865 Gardner's Photographic Sketch Book of the War. They reveal that in order to achieve a more striking effect or to cater to the interest of the public, Gardner sometimes rearranged the elements in his photographs or departed from the facts in his writing

3 Puzzles and Word Searches:

4 Arlington National Cemetary

5 Arlington continued….


7 The Aftermath 620,000 people died during the war; about two-thirds died from diseases, wounds, or military prison hardships Healing of emotional wounds took far longer than the war itself The North or the South would never be the same again

8 Go to the following web site and take the quiz – record your score in your journal

9 Conditions in Georgia at the end of the war:
farms were in ruins homes, railways, bridges,roads were destroyed or in need of repair not enough food banks were closed – Confederate money was worthless the state owed $20,000,000 in war debt 25,000 Georgians had died of wounds or disease – many more were crippled and could not work

10 **What was life like for the soldiers returning home to Georgia?
The landscape was greatly changed – fields lay in ruins, railroad tracks were twisted, factories closed or burned, little food supplies. Confederate money was worthless – banks closed.

11 ***What was the amount of the Confederate War debt and the debt of Georgia after the War?
The Confederacy had a war debt of over $700 million, and Georgia faced a debt of $20 million.

12 ***How many Georgians died in the war, compared to the number who served in the war
Of the 125,000 Georgians who fought in the war, 25,000 did not return due to battle deaths and disease.

13 ***Who were the freedman?
Former slaves were freedmen

14 ***What was the Freedman’s Bureau?
The Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands was founded in March 1865 by the Federal Government. The original purpose of the agency, which soon became known as the Freedmen’s Bureau, was to help both former slaves and poor whites cope with their everyday problems by offering them clothing, food, and other necessities. After a while, the bureau’s focus changed; it became concerned mainly with helping the freedmen adjust to their new circumstances.

15 ***What were some of the accomplishments of the Bureau?
An important focus of the bureau was education. The bureau set up over 4,000 primary schools, 64 industrial schools, and 74 teacher-training institutions for young African Americans in addition to spending over $400,000 to help establish teacher-training centers.

16 ***What was Lincoln’s plan for rebuilding the South known as and what did it consist of?
Reconstruction. Lincoln’s plan had two simple steps: (1) All southerners, except for high-ranking Confederate civil and military leaders, would be pardoned after taking an oath of allegiance to the United States; and (2) when 10 percent of the voters in each state had taken the oath of loyalty, the state would be permitted to form a legal government and rejoin the Union

17 How was Lincoln’s plan received in the North
***How was Lincoln’s plan received in the North? Did everyone agree with it? Many in the North thought the South should be punished for its actions. The Wade Davis bill, which Lincoln refused to sign into law, was an attempt to punish the South.

18 Assassination of Lincoln
John Wilkes Booth A young actor Planned a well thought out assassination. Shot Lincoln during the play “Our American Cousin” – a comedy. Shot Lincoln during laughter. Southern Sympathizer – believed he “saved the South from Lincoln” however he ended up killing the South’s best friend.

19 Assassination of Lincoln
Four people were in the Presidential Box. President & Mrs. Lincoln Clara Harris & Colonel Rathbone None of the three survivors ever fully recovered from witnessing the assassination. VP Johnson and Sec. Of State Seward also had attempts on their lives.

20 John Wilkes Booth Booth and Herold departed from Dr. Mudd's during the afternoon of April 15 and traveled south. Federal authorities caught up with them at Garrett's farm near Port Royal, Virginia, early in the morning of April 26. Hiding in a barn, Harold gave up. Booth refused, so the barn was set on fire. Booth still didn't come out and was shot to death by Sergeant Boston Corbett. Corbett had not been under orders to do this but felt other soldiers might be shot by Booth. Booth's body was searched, and a diary was among the things found. Booth's remains were returned to Washington where positive identification was made and an autopsy performed On January 13, 1903 a man in Enid, Oklahoma, by the name of David E. George died. in his last dying statement, the man confessed to his landlord, Mrs. Harper, that he was in fact John Wilkes Booth. This was soon the topic of discussion around town.

21 Assassination of Lincoln
Mary Surratt – Owned the boarding house where Booth stayed. First woman to be executed for war crimes.

22 Dr. Samuel Mudd introduced John Surratt to John Wilkes Booth on December 23, 1864 in Washington.  Surratt joined the Confederate conspiracy to abduct President Lincoln and participated in the March 15 meeting with other conspirators at Gautier's Restaurant on Pennsylvania Avenue, where plans were laid for a March 17 kidnapping. On the night of April 14, 1865, Surratt--by his own account--was in Elmira, New York on a spying mission for General Edwin Lee.  He fled to Canada upon learning of the President's assassination.  He remained in Canada until after his mother's execution on July 7, 1865. John Surratt on Trial In September, 1865, Surratt crossed the Atlantic, settling first in England, then later in Rome, where he joined the Papal Zouaves.  While visiting Alexandria, Egypt in late 1866, Surratt was identified as the wanted Lincoln assassination conspirator and arrested. Surratt was brought back to the United States for trial in a civilian--not a military--court.  The trial began on June 10, 1867.  After listening to testimony from 170 witnesses, the trial ended on August 10 with a hung jury.  The federal government eventually dropped all charges against Surratt and he was released from custody in the summer of 1868.  


24 Assassination Of Lincoln
Dr. Mudd – Doctor who set Booth’s broken leg. Sentenced to life in prison but later pardoned (helped prison during yellow fever epidemic) Ford’s Theater – 4/14/1865 Site of the Assassination.

25 Assassination of Lincoln
Booth shot him with a 44 caliber pistol during the play. Booth jumped from the presidential box and broke his leg. He escaped for 12 days. The group who planned the assassinations were all hanged. He was shot by a Union soldier. Mary T. Lincoln – The president’s wife later was admitted into an insane asylum. Andrew Johnson who was Vice Pres at the time became President. There was no Vice Pres.

26 What was Johnson’s reconstruction plan like
***What was Johnson’s reconstruction plan like? (PRESIDENTIAL RECONSTRUCTION) Johnson’s Reconstruction plan was much like Lincoln’s plan except that Johnson expanded the groups of southerners not granted a general pardon. Those who had owned property worth more than $20,000 or those who had held high civil or military positions had to apply directly to the president for a pardon.

27 ***What additional terms did Johnson add to the reconstruction plan?
After some pressure, President Johnson added several more requirements. First, the southern states had to approve the Thirteenth Amendment, which made slavery illegal. Second, the southern states had to nullify (declare invalid) their ordinances of secession. Third, the southern states had to promise not to repay the individuals and institutions that had helped finance the Confederacy.

28 Intro to Reconstruction

29 *** In June 1865, President Johnson appointed James Johnson, an attorney from Columbus, as provisional (temporary) governor of Georgia because the president remembered that Johnson had opposed succession as a state congressman. Six months after Lee’s surrender at Appomattox, the president directed Governor Johnson to hold a constitutional convention in Milledgeville, Georgia’s capital.

30 What is the Thirteenth Amendment? Why was this necessary?
13th – Abolished Slavery 14th – Granted citizenship and Due Process 15th – Suffrage for Black Males

31 What is the Fourteenth Amendment? Why was this necessary?
13th – Abolished Slavery 14th – Granted citizenship and Due Process 15th – Suffrage for Black Males

32 What was the fifteenth amendment?
13th – Abolished Slavery 14th – Granted citizenship and Due Process 15th – Suffrage for Black Males

33 ***What was the Constitutional Convention of 1865?
The convention repealed the ordinance of secession and voted to abolish slavery. The delegates wrote a new constitution that, although quite similar to the constitution of 1861, was acceptable to the president. In November, the state elected Charles Jenkins as governor. Jenkins, who was the only candidate, was a Unionist judge from Augusta. In the following months, the legislature met and formally ratified the Thirteenth Amendment. In December 1865, after President Johnson removed the provisional governor, the state inaugurated Jenkins. The Georgia General Assembly met in January 1866 and elected two U.S. senators—Alexander Stephens, former vice president of the Confederacy, and Herschel Johnson.

34 ***What were black codes?
Although the Thirteenth Amendment abolished slavery, it did not abolish discrimination (unfair treatment of a person or group because of prejudice). By 1865, most of the southern states, including Georgia, had passed a number of laws known as Black Codes, which were designed to restrict the rights of the freedmen. The codes included regulations that controlled the types of employment freedmen could have, permitted whipping as punishment, and established labor periods from sunrise to sunset, six days a week.  Because these codes permitted the imprisonment of jobless blacks, freedmen were forced to take whatever jobs they could find regardless of low wages or other conditions. Other sections of the Black Codes did not allow freedmen to vote, to serve on juries, or to testify in court against whites. The codes also declared marriage between the races illegal. By the time Georgia attempted to re enter the Union, however, Congress had the power to change the requirements and used that power to punish the South.

35 ***How did Congress react to the Black Codes?
Reaction to the Black Codes was fairly swift. Congress, overriding a presidential veto, passed the Civil Rights Act of This law not only extended citizenship to African Americans, it also gave the federal government the right and responsibility to intervene any time civil rights were taken away from the newly freed men and women. To ensure this, Congress passed the Fourteenth Amendment, which granted citizenship to the freedmen and forbade any state from denying anyone the “equal protection of the law.”

36 ***How did the Southern states react to the new restrictions?
All the Southern States except Tennessee refused to ratify the Fourteenth Amendment.

37 Meanwhile…… Because of General Sherman’s Special Field Order No. 15, land from Coastal South Carolina to Florida was redistributed to the newly freed slaves – “Forty Acres and a Mule” Tunis Campbell, born in New Jersey to a blacksmith, educated for 12 years in a white Episcopal School, opposed the removal of blacks from America to West Africa (Liberia was formed from this) and instead was commissioned to organize, educate and settle newly freed slaves in Coastal Georgia.

38 Challenges…. President Johnson revokes Sherman’s special field order Number 15 and land is returned to the planters. Tunis Campbell and his settlers leave St. Catherine’s (some stayed and entered into work contracts with white planters) Tunis Campbell secures land on the Sapelo River and enters into a sale agreement with C. H. Hopkins Jr. - begins settlement here

39 A Change in Government Politics
Following the election of 1867, radicals controlled the United States Congress and brought an end to conservative presidential reconstruction. Beginning of Congressional reconstruction

40 ***How did Congress react to this?
Congress acted quickly to invalidate the state governments and re-establish military rule in March Each state was assigned to a region under the command of a federal general. Georgia, Alabama, and Florida were placed in the Third Military District, governed by General John Pope. One of Pope’s first tasks was to register all eligible male voters— black and white—who swore allegiance to the United States.

41 The End of Congressional Reconstruction, 1869-1871

42 continued…. The community set up by Tunis Campbell…
own constitution and authorities to prevent discrimination and mistreatment of blacks elected to senate white democrats decide Tunis Campbell becoming too strong and needs to be removed conspiracy/false accusations – imprisoned 1875 C.H. Hopkins goes to court and gets land back

43 ***Who were Carpetbaggers
Carpetbaggers were northerners who moved south after the war. Southerners claimed that they came with all of their possessions in a bag made of carpet material.

44 ***Who were Scalawags? Scalawags - a term used to describe Southerners who supported the Republicans. Supported reconstruction policies as quickeset way to remove military occupation of north and return south to self government – included General James Longstreet – Some, however, worked with capetbaggers to rob the south

45 ***The Constitutional Convention of 1867
During the fall of 1867, Georgians held an election to determine if there should be a constitutional convention and, if so, who should be selected as delegates. For African American males, it was the first time they were allowed to vote in Georgia (although housing was denied to blacks attending the convention.  General Pope ordered the convention location changed to Atlanta, thus changing the State’s capital from Milledgeville to Atlanta).

46 *** Did Georgia succeed in meeting the new requirements?
Yes, Georgia met the requirements for re admission to the Union and in April 1868 federal troops left the area.

47 ***What happened to the black men elected to the House of Representatives?
In 1867, African Americans voted for the first time in Georgia. In 1868, they helped elect a Republican governor. They also helped elect twenty-nine African Americans to the Georgia house of representatives and three African Americans to the Georgia senate. Some of those elected were Tunis G. Campbell, Jr., Henry McNeal Turner, and Aaron A. Bradley. However, all of these men were expelled in September 1868 on the grounds that although the constitution had given them the right to vote, it did not specifically give them the right to hold political office.

48 ***Who was the Ku Klux Klan
During this same time period, the Ku Klux Klan became a force in Georgia.  The Klan, as it was called, was one of several secret organizations that tried to keep freedmen from exercising their new civil rights. The group began in Pulaski, Tennessee, in 1865 as a social club for returning soldiers.  However, it quickly changed into a force of terror. Its members dressed in robes and hoods so no one would recognize them. They terrorized and intimidated African Americans to keep them from voting and, by doing so, to return control of the state to the Democrats. There were numerous reports of beatings, whippings, and murders.

49 ***What was the Georgia Act?
This act returned Georgia to military control for the third time. General Alfred Terry became Georgia’s new military commander, and Rufus Bullock became the provisional governor.

50 ***When was Georgia admitted back into the Union and what were the circumstances surrounding this?
The Georgia supreme court ruled that blacks were eligible to hold office.  When the General Assembly met in January 1870, it reseated the African American representatives who had been expelled from the General Assembly in September The legislature again approved the Fourteenth Amendment and ratified the Fifteenth Amendment.

51 ***What is sharecropping?
Sharecropping. Under this system, the landowners provided land, a house, farming tools and animals, seed, and fertilizer. The workers agreed to give the owner a share of the harvest. Until the workers sold their crop, the owners often let them have food, medicine, clothing, and other supplies at high prices on credit.

52 ***How did this compare to tenant farming?
Tenant farming was similar to sharecropping.  The main difference was that tenants usually owned some agricultural equipment and farm animals, such as mules. They also bought their own seed and fertilizer. At the end of the year, tenant farmers either paid the landowner a set amount of cash or an agreed-upon share of the crop.

53 It’’s Your Turn Section 2: Reconstruction in Georgia 309 1. How did Black Codes restrict the freedmen? 2. Why do you think the majority of southern states refused to ratify the Fourteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution? 3. Do you think the constitutional convention of 1867 was a failure, a success, or both? Explain your answer. 4. If you had been a freedmen in this period, would you have gone to the polls to vote? Why or why not? 5. Was Georgia, and the rest of the South, “adequately reconstructed”? What would you have done differently if you had been in charge of Reconstruction? 6. What was the difference between a sharecropper and a tenant

54 It’s Your Turn 1. Black Codes regulated working conditions, types of jobs, salaries, and working hours of freedmen. They prohibited freedmen from voting, serving on juries, or testifying in court against whites. They restricted marriages between races. 2. While most southern states accepted the Thirteenth Amendment ending slavery, they did not believe that ending slavery had to result in giving equal rights to the former slaves. 3. Students’ answers will vary but they should point out that the delegates did write a new constitution giving civil rights to all citizens, approving free public education for all children, and even allowing married women to control their own property. 4. Students’ answers will vary but they should include fear of terrorism from white supremacy groups in their responses. 5. Students’ answers will vary. 6. Sharecroppers had nothing to offer but their labor, so they worked other people’s land for a share of the crops and a place to live. Tenant farmers usually owned some farming equipment or farm animals, bought their own seed and fertilizer, and paid the landowners either a set price or an agreed-upon share of the crops.

55 ***What is meant by Georgia’s Redemption period and what was it characterized by?
Georgia’s Redemption period followed its Reconstruction period. During the Redemption period, the state struggled to overcome the hardships that Reconstruction had brought to the state and a faltering economy. The redeemers also wanted to take back the control of the state government from the Republicans.

56 ***What was “The Bourbon Triumvirate
The Bourbon Triumvirate refers to three Georgian leaders:  Joseph E. Brown, Alfred H. Colquitt, and John B. Gordon. All of these leaders wanted stronger economic ties with the industrial North in order to expand Georgia’s economy. They also wanted to keep many old southern traditions including white supremacy(the belief that the white race is superior to any other race). Brown, Colquitt, and Gordon were active in Georgia politics from 1872 to 1890, but their influence carried over well into the twentieth century

57 ***Governor Joseph E. Brown
Governor before and during the Civil War – lost his position when Union military law was in place – appointed Chief Justice of the Georgia Supreme Court and then elected to the senate – worked in railroad industry – trustee of University of Georgia, President of Atlanta Board of Education

58 ***Alfred H. Colquitt Friend of Governor Joseph E. Brown – military leader during the Civil War – rose to rank of major general. Colquitt was elected governor in 1876 and served until During his administration, the state’s debt was reduced and, in 1877, a new state constitution was approved. The 1877 constitution was not rewritten until Colquitt was elected to the U.S. Senate in 1883 and He died in March1894, three months after the death of his political ally (one who shares a common cause) Joseph E. Brown.

59 ***John B. Gordon Gordon worked in the newspaper industry and in mining – he served as lieutenant general for the CSA.  In 1872, he defeated Alexander Stephens to become a Georgia US senator.  In 1886 he began the first of his two terms as governor of Georgia.  While governor, he reduced the state’s debt and brought in new industry.  He returned to the senate and served until 1897

60 ***How is the Bourbon legacy controversial?
While bringing about debt relief, the men themselves did little to help the poor or improve education and working conditions.  They personally profited from the use of prison labor.

61 ***Who were the Independent Democrats?
A new political group – stated in the Seventh Congressional District of North Georgia in Cartersville – tried to challenge the Bourbons and push for democratic assistance with the poor and lower middle class.

62 ***Who were the Feltons?
Independent Democrat leader William Felton was a doctor, farmer, Methodist preacher and public speaker.  He and his wife used their family owned newspaper to challenge the Bourbons.  Felton was eventually elected to the Georgia General Assembly and championed for reforms in education and prisons.

63 ***Who was Rebecca Latimer Felton?
Wife of William Felton, she had a newspaper column in the Atlanta Journal.  She used her column to expose injustices existing in the Bourbon triumvirate.

64 ***What was the Convict Lease System?
Plan to remedy lack of prisons in Georgia, this plan allowed prisons to be leased out to people who provided them with housing and food in exchange for labor.  Many prisoners were leased to one of three large companies, two of which were owned by Bourbons Joseph E. Brown and John B. Gordon.  Each company agreed to pay the state $25, no matter how many convicts it used.

65 ***Who was Henry Grady? In 1880, Grady became managing editor of the Atlanta Constitution.  He quickly became known for his insightful, timely, and sometimes controversial editorials. Grady visited northern cities and spoke frequently about the “New South.” In one of his most famous speeches, he spoke about the need for industry in Georgia

66 Read Henry Grady’s Speech (attached at the end of this packet) and answer the question: 
Describe how the three major transportation systems of Georgia have helped to alleviate the circumstances described in Grady’s speech.

67 Describe education in The New South era.
Georgia’s 1868 constitution had called for “free public education for all children of the state.” The state established a system of public instruction in 1870 but did not fund it until Over 49,000 students enrolled, and the state agreed to spend $175,000 a year.  Current budget for GA schools:  $696,988,390

68 How did the Constitution of 1777 make education unequal?
Called for segregated schools

Immediate Problems Economic – Millions of $ were needed to rebuild. Political – Does the government still exist in the south? NO! They must reelect their Representatives and Senators. Social – What do we do with 4 million freed slaves?

70 Presidential Reconstruction
Lincoln 10% Plan (Dec 1863) 1. Amnesty (pardon) for all southerners who took an oath of loyalty to the Union. Pardon means to excuse or forgive. 2. Recognition by the President of any state government established by 10% of the voters, as of 1860, if the state accepts the abolition of slavery and repudiated the principle of secession.

71 Presidential reconstruction
Johnson adopts Lincoln’s Policies By late 1865 every southern state except Texas met the requirements. In late December, Congress rejects Johnson’s plan. Why did Congress do this? Congress lost power during the war. This was their way of gaining power back.

72 Congressional Reconstruction
**** North – Republicans South – Democrats Aims of Radical Republicans Get Congress’ power restored. Punish southern leaders Keep Southern democrats out of Congress Protect “Freedman” – Freed slaves

73 Congressional Reconstruction
B. The Freedman’s Bureau This was established by Congress to provide food, clothing, and medicine to the poor. Who was Otis Howard? Founded Howard University in Washington D.C. The first all black university.

74 Congressional Reconstruction
C. Civil Rights Act (1866) It gave citizenship to blacks. D. 14th Amendment (1866) Same as Civil Rights Act, but amended. This stated that states could have their representation in the House of Representatives reduced if discrimination took place. Excluded former confederate officials from holding office.

75 Civil Rights Amendments
13th – Abolished Slavery 14th – Granted citizenship and Due Process 15th – Suffrage for Black Males Who was Hiram Revels? First Black Senator elected to Congress From Mississippi Replaced Jefferson Davis Tennessee was exempt because they accepted the 14th Amendment

76 Congressional Reconstruction
Carpetbaggers – Northerners that move to the south to make money. Scalawag – Southern white Republican – A negative term – means dirty rotten scoundrel.

77 Congress and Reconstruction

78 Congressional Reconstruction
E. Military Reconstruction (1867) The 10 “unreconstructed” states were to be divided into 5 districts. #3 was GA, AL & FL To gain admission into the Union, each southern state was required to… Ratify the 14th amendment. Establish a state constitution. Disqualify former confederates from voting.

79 Era of Reconstruction (1865-1877)
Readmission of the Southern States Readmission (1868 – 1870) By 1870, all southern states had been readmitted. Georgia was last. Bt the time they were readmitted, the states had to ratify the 15th amendment. Upon readmission, the military governors gave control of the government to the newly elected state officials.

80 Era of Reconstruction (1865-1877)
Congress Impeaches Johnson Impeach – To charge a government official with a crime. A. Tenure of Office Act (There is no Vice President now – Congress wanted this southerner out. There should be no leadership) 1. This act prohibited the President from removing government officials without the consent of the Senate.

81 Era of Reconstruction (1865-1877)
B. Johnson removes Stanton (1868) **(Johnson deliberately disobeys Office of Tenure Act) 1. In 1868, Johnson removed his Secretary of War – Ed Stanton. 2. Stanton opposed Johnson’s Policy 3. Impeachment of Johnson (1868) a. The House of Representative immediately passed a resolution calling for impeachment for high crimes and misdemeanors. b. Chief Justice Salmon P Chase presides over the case.

82 Era of Reconstruction (1865-1877)
D. Johnson’s Acquittal – (a vote of 36 to 18 was needed for removal) Johnson was found NOT GUILTY after two months of debate. Vote: 35 for removal and 19 against. One vote short of the necessary 2/3rd majority required for removal from office. *Edmund Ross of Kansas had the deciding vote. He was offered a bribe, threatened, home was burned, had to move to New Mexico. **JOHNSON REMAINED IN OFFICE

83 Era of Reconstruction (1865-1877)
E. Decline of the Radical Republicans Radical Republicans began to lose strength. In the presidential election of 1868, Grant (Rep) defeated Horatio Seymour In 1872, Grant defeated Horace Greely

84 The Freedmen Problems of freedmen (former slaves):
homeless hungry uneducated free for the 1st time no property or goods Many former slaves feared re-enslavement Most whites had difficulty treating freeman as free persons

85 The Freedmen’s Bureau Started as the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands by U.S. government in 1865 Its job was to help freed slaves and poor whites with basic needs of food, clothing, and shelter The purpose shifted to education Set up 4,000 primary schools Started industrial schools for jobs training Started teacher-training schools Missionaries started schools like Atlanta University, Morehouse College, and Clark College

86 Lincoln’s Plan for Reconstruction
Lincoln wanted to rebuild and return the south to the Union as soon as possible “Reconstruction” would have two parts: Southerners would be pardoned after taking an oath of allegiance; When 10% of voters had taken the oath, the state could rejoin the Union and form a state government. Lincoln was assassinated in April 1865 during a play at Ford’s Theater by actor John Wilkes Booth. Vice President Andrew Johnson took over as President.

87 Lincoln’s Plan for Reconstruction
Lincoln’s plan to reconstruct the south was challenged. Some northerners called “Radical Republicans” thought the south should be more severely punished. The Radical Republicans wanted to make sure the freedmen retained their new rights. Confederate President Jefferson Davis was captured and imprisoned.

88 Johnson’s Reconstruction Plan
In addition to Lincoln’s requirements, President Johnson added a few more. Southern states had to: approve (ratify) the 13th Amendment (outlawing slavery); nullify their ordinances of secession; promise not to repay money borrowed during the war. Click to return to the Table of Contents


90 The Constitutional Convention of 1865
President Johnson appointed James Johnson as Georgia’s provisional Governor. Governor Johnson held a Constitutional Convention. The representatives voted to abolish slavery and repeal the ordinance of secession. Elections were held in November 1865 for a new legislature. The General Assembly voted to extend rights to freedmen.

91 Black Codes Black Codes were laws passed to keep freedmen from having the same rights as whites. Didn’t allow blacks: the same jobs as whites, the right to vote, the right to marry a white person, jury service, or the right to testify. Blacks could be: whipped as punishment, forced to work from sunrise to sunset six days per week, or put in jail if they didn’t have a job.

92 Congressional Reconstruction
Congress was angry about Georgia’s Black Codes, so it passed the Civil Rights Act of This law gave: citizenship to all freedmen; the federal government power to intervene any time civil rights were taken from freedmen. The 14th Amendment was passed granting citizenship to freedmen and required “equal protection under the law.”

93 Congressional Reconstruction
Congress required southern states to ratify the 14th Amendment. Georgia and most of the other southern states refused. Congress abolished these states’ governments and put them under military rule. Georgia was ruled by General John Pope. Pope was required to register all male voters – black and white. These voters would elect new representatives to form a new state government.

94 Constitutional Convention of 1867
Georgia male voters elected delegates to the convention to create a new state constitution. Delegates were carpetbaggers (northerners who had moved south), scalawags (southerners who sided with the Republicans), and blacks. Accomplishments of the Convention: A new constitution ensuring civil rights for all citizens; Free public education for all children; Women were allowed to control their own property. Georgia had satisfied Congress, so General Pope and his troops left the state.

95 African Americans in Politics
The election of 1867 was the first time African Americans had voted. Several African Americans were elected to Georgia’s General Assembly. Rev. Henry McNeal Turner was one of the first black men elected in Georgia. The African Americans elected to the General Assembly were expelled in 1868. It was argued by whites that civil rights laws gave blacks the right to vote but not to be elected.

96 Ku Klux Klan Secret organization – originally started as a social club for men returning from the war. Members hid behind robes and masks. The group terrorized blacks to keep them from voting. As a result, Congress passed “The Georgia Act” and sent troops back to Georgia. The act required Georgia to pass the 15th Amendment giving all males the right to vote.

97 Economic Reconstruction
Without slaves, landowners needed laborers to work their large farms. Two systems emerged: tenant farming and sharecropping. Cotton was Georgia’s most important crop. Continuous growing of tobacco and cotton ruined the soil on many farms. Railroads expanded across the state. Savannah and Brunswick became important shipping ports. Atlanta began its growth into an important business center.

98 Tenant Farming and Sharecropping
Landowner provides a house, land, equipment, animals, fertilizer and seeds. The landowner issued credit to the worker to buy medicine, food, clothing and other supplies. The landowner gets a share of the crop and crops to pay any debt owed. Sharecroppers rarely had any cash. Landowner provides house and land. Landowner received a set amount of cash or a portion of the crop at the end of the season. Tenant farmers usually made a small profit.

99 The End of Reconstruction
The African Americans who had been expelled from the General Assembly in 1868 were readmitted by the Georgia Supreme Court in 1870. The Assembly approved the 14th and 15th Amendments. Georgia was readmitted to the Union, again, ending Reconstruction. Click to return to the Table of Contents


101 The Bourbon Triumvirate
Democrats controlled Georgia’s government after Reconstruction. Powerful Democratic leaders, known as the “Bourbon Triumvirate” were Joseph E. Brown, Alfred H. Colquitt, and John B. Gordon. Their goals were: expand Georgia’s economy and ties with industries in the North; maintain the tradition of white supremacy.

102 Decline of the Bourbon Triumvirate
“Independent Democrats” criticized the Bourbons for not attending to the needs of the poor or improve education and working conditions in factories. Leaders William and Rebecca Felton worked to improve conditions for poor Georgians using newspapers to highlight problems in the state. The convict lease system “rented” prisoners to companies to use as workers. It took many years for the poor conditions the prisoners endured to be brought to light and changed. Click to return to the Table of Contents


104 The New South Era Challengers to the Bourbon Triumvirate wanted Georgia to be more industrialized. Henry Grady was a speaker and newspaper editor. Grady described Georgia as a place which could have competitive industry and more efficient farming. Grady envisioned improved race relations in a “New South” which left its antebellum past behind.

105 Education in the New South Era
Funding to provide elementary education for all children in Georgia grew slowly from Teachers were paid a little more than farm hands and had little or no training. Normal schools were started to train more teachers. The “school year” was only three months long which allowed children to work on farms or in factories. The state constitution of 1877 did not allow for school beyond 8th grade and segregated black and white students.

106 The Arts of the New South Era
Several Georgians gained fame for their work as writers: Joel Chandler Harris’ most famous work was Uncle Remus: His Sayings and Stories; Sidney Lanier was one of the best known poets of his time; Charles Henry Smith wrote satire for newspapers in Georgia.

107 Agriculture in the New South Era
Crop prices declined through the 1870s. The Grange and the Farmers’ Alliance started out as social groups but began to reorganize to put pressure on lawmakers to find ways to help farmers. Georgia created the first state to have a Department of Agriculture. Co-ops allowed farmers to work together to buy goods and equipment at a lower cost. Click to return to the Table of Contents



A movement in the late 1800 and early 1900 that worked to reform society. Progressives believed that government was best equipped to correct the ills of society.

111 The conditions which surround us best justify our co-operation; we meet in the midst of a nation brought to the verge of moral, political and material ruin.  Corruption dominates the ballot-box.... The people are demoralized;... public opinion silenced.... homes covered with mortgages, labor impoverished, and the land concentrating in the hands of capitalists.  The urban workman are denied the right to organize for self-protection, imported pauperized labor beats down their wages... and [we] are rapidly degenerating into European conditions.  The fruits of the toils of millions are boldly stolen to build up colossal fortunes for a few, unprecedented in the history of mankind.... From the same prolific womb of governmental injustice we breed the two great classes ­ tramps and millionaires. The national power to create money is appropriated to enrich bond-holders.... Silver, which has been accepted as coin since the dawn of history, has been demonitized to add to the purchasing power of gold.... the supply of currency is purposely [limited] to fatten [creditors].... A vast conspiracy against mankind has been organized... if not met and overthrown at once it forebodes terrible social convulsions, the destruction of civilization.... Controlling influences dominating both... parties have permitted the existing dreadful conditions to develop without serious effort to prevent or restrain them.  Neither do they now promise any substantial reform.... They propose to sacrifice our homes, lives, and children on the alter of mammon; to destroy the multitude in order to secure corruption funds from the millionaires.... We seek to restore the government of the Republic to the hands of the "plain people." Our country finds itself confronted by conditions for which there is no precedence in the history of the world; our annual agricultural productions amount to billions of dollars in value, which must, within a few weeks or months, be exchanged for billions of dollars worth of commodities consumed in their production; the existing currency supply is wholly inadequate to make this exchange; the results are falling prices, the formation of combines and rings, the impoverishment of the producing class.  We pledge ourselves that if given power we will labor to correct these evils.... We believe that the power of government ­ in other words, of the people ­ should be expanded... to the end that oppression, injustice, and poverty shall eventually cease in the land. [We] will never cease to move forward until every wrong is righted and equal rights and equal privileges securely established for all the men and women of this country....    


113 PLATFORM We declare, therefore ­
First ­ That the union of the labor forces of the United States... shall be permanent and perpetual.... Second ­ Wealth belongs to him who creates it, and every dollar taken from industry without an equivalent is robbery.... The interests of rural and civil labor are the same; their enemies identical.... Third ­ We believe the time has come when the railroad corporations will either own the people or the people must own the railroads.... The government [should] enter upon the work of owning and managing all the railroads....   FINANCE ­ We demand a national currency, safe, sound, and flexible issued by the general government....  1. We demand free and unlimited coinage of silver and gold at the present legal ratio of 16 to 1.    2. We demand that the amount of circulating medium be speedily increased....  3. We demand a graduated income tax.  4. We believe that the money of the country should be kept as much as possible in the hands of  the people, and hence we believe that all State and national revenues shall be limited to the  necessary expenses of the government, economically and honestly administered....  5. We demand that postal savings banks be established by the government for the safe deposit  of the earnings of the people and to facilitate exchange....   TRANSPORTATION -­ Transportation being a means of exchange and a public necessity, the government should own and operate the railroads in the interest of the people.  The telegraph and telephone... should be owned and operated by the government in the interest of the people.   LAND ­ The land, including all the natural sources of wealth, is the heritage of the people, and should not be monopolized for speculative purposes, and alien ownership of land should be prohibited.  All land now held by railroads and other corporations in excess of their actual needs, and all lands now owned by aliens should be reclaimed by the government and held for actual settlers only.

114 What were the three main ways the progressive movement sought to reform society?
Government to fight poverty and improve the living conditions of its citizens Break up large corporations and regulate business Wanted voters to have more say in government

115 Who were “muckrakers” Writers who wrote about the problems of American life in the early twentieth century.


117 Review: Who was Rebecca Latimer Felton?
Worked for prison reform – columnist for the Atlanta Journal Constitution – spoke out about abuses started by the Bourbon Redeemers First woman to serve in the United States senate


119 What was the convict lease system replaced with?
In 1908, the convict lease system was eliminated completely and replaced with county work camps or chain gangs


121 What was life like for those on chain gangs?
Housing, sanitary conditions and the quality of food were often poor.

122 How did juvenile justice change?
In 1915, at the urging of social reformers, the Georgia General Assembly created the juvenile court system and for the first time young offenders were tried and punished differently from adults.

123 What is a labor union? An organization of workers formed to improve their wages, benefits and working conditions.


125 Did Georgia support unions during the Progressive Era?
During the Progressive Era, Georgians, like most other southerners, did not support Unions.

126 Why did they take this position?
In Georgia’s mill towns, the homes of many workers and many of the town stores belonged to the mill owners.

127 What were sweatshops? Factories with especially harsh working conditions

128 When did laws arise to protect children from sweatshops and other labor abuses?
While legislatures set minimum wages for children or made laws about school attendance, it was not until the 1930s that adequate levels of protection existed for children in the workplace.

129 What was the temperance movement?
Georgia reformer Mary Harris armor, in addition to Rebecca Latimer Felton, persuaded the Georgia General Assembly to outlaw the sale of liquor in areas near schools and churches. This was part of the WCTM – Women’s Christian temperance movement. Laws called for each county to decide if it wanted to be “wet” or “dry”.


131 What was the eighteenth amendment?
Passed in 1919, the eighteenth amendment prohibited the manufacture, sale and transportation of “intoxicating beverages” – this ban would last for the next fourteen years.

132 What famous Seneca Falls NY Convention led to Nineteenth Amendment?
July 1848, Lucretia Mott, Elizabeth Cady Stanton and others began the Woman’s Right Movement – it was not, however, until 1920 that women received the right to vote under the Nineteenth Amendment.


134 Did Georgia ratify the nineteenth amendment?
Much to the dismay of Suffragette Rebecca Felton, Georgia was one of five states that did not ratify the amendment.

135 Who was Juliette Gordon Low?
Founder of the Girl Scouts – began as the “girls guide” in 1912

136 Section 2 – Page 346

137 How is the term POPULISM used as a political term?
The term populism refers to a political doctrine that “supports the rights and powers of the common people in their struggle with the privileged elite”

138 Name two organizations that served this purpose at the end of reconstruction
The Farmers’ Alliance and The Grange


140 How did the alliance grow in political power?
Members of labor organizations joined with the alliance backed men to form a new political party in They named it the People’s Party, but it was usually called the POPULIST PARTY.

141 Who was Georgia’s best known populist and why?
Tom Watson, Thompson native, was a criminal lawyer known for his “down to earth style of defense”. Elected to the Georgia General Assembly, he was concerned about Georgia’s poor and struggling farmers – including African American farmers. He was elected to Congress in 1890 as a democrat. A year later he switched political sides and spoke for the Populist Party


143 What were some of Watson’s contributions?
He introduced the Rural Free Delivery Bill (RFD Bill) which required the US postmaster general to find a way to deliver mail to rural homes free of charge. Farm families no longer had to go to the post office to receive their mail.

144 Explain: When Watson ran for re election, the state’s democratic party wanted him out of office. Watson appealed to the African American population. When the votes were counted, Watson lost due to the votes counted in Augusta, Georgia. The total vote count was TWICE the number of registered voters.

145 Watson won the race for US Senate but died two years later.
Change of politics: Watson continued to lose his re election bids until the election of 1920 – in this election he opposed minority rights for African Americans, Catholics and Jews. What happened in this election? Watson won the race for US Senate but died two years later.

146 Who was “Little Joe Brown”?
Son of Civil War Governor Joseph E. Brown, he defeated Hoke Smith with the campaign slogan “Hoke and Hunger, Brown and Bread”

147 What difficulties faced African Americans when Hoke Smith was re elected?
The Georgia General Assembly passed a constitutional amendment that said a person had to own property and be able to read in order to vote.

148 Hoke Smith

149 How did Smith help education?
He served as a US Senator and created the Agricultural Extension Service which helped teach better farming methods and the Smith Hughes Act established vocational educational training in agriculture.

150 What was the County Unit System?
In 1917, the Neil Primary Act established a county unit system for all political primaries. The 8 most populated counties had 6 votes each, the next 30 had 4 county votes and the remaining 121 had 2 votes. A candidate who had the majority of votes of the county received all that county votes. The 38 largest counties had 2/3 of Georgia’s voters.

151 What was the argument against this system?
People were elected to office without a majority of the state’s popular vote. Declared unconstitutional in 1962.

152 What are civil rights? Rights that a person has simply because he or she is a citizen.

153 What were “Jim Crow” laws?
Jim Crow laws were passed to establish “separate but equal” facilities for whites and for blacks


155 Who was Henry McNeal Turner?
Bishop of the African Methodist Church who called the new civil rights laws “barbarous” – Elected to the Georgia General Assembly in 1868 but not allowed to participate as had right to vote, but not right to hold office Involved in radical republican politics Favored a return to Africa for African Americans

156 Who was Homer Plessy? 1892 – purchased a train ticket – 7/8 white and 1/8 black so he sat in the “whites only” car – he refused to move to the black car and was arrested under “Jim Crow” Case heard by the US Supreme Court


158 What was Plessy v Ferguson?
The court case involving Homer Plessy – the Supreme Court ruled 7-1 in favor of the law establishing separate but equal accommodations.

159 What was the result of this court case?
Gave states the right to control social discrimination and promote segregation of the races.

160 Give an example of how the education of African American students suffered because of this?
In 1899, a Georgia school in Richmond County, the only high school in Georgia for descendants of enslaved Africans, was closed to make way for an elementary school for white students. The courts ruled that African American students only had the right to be educated to the 8th grade.

161 Who was Booker T. Washington?
From 1895 to 1915, he was the most powerful and influential African American in the United States. He worked to establish schools for African Americans – he spoke at the opening of the Cotton States and International Exposition.

162 What was the Atlanta compromise speech?
Washington’s speech that proposed that blacks and whites should agree to benefit each other.

163 Who was W. E. B. Dubois? Atlanta University Professor (Du Boyce) – taught economics and political science – wanted higher education for the “talented tenth” of the African American population – disagreed with Washington’s ideas


165 Read page 355 – how does Dubois disagree with Washington’s ideas
Read page 355 – how does Dubois disagree with Washington’s ideas? Use a Venn Diagram to illustrate the similarities and differences.

166 What population of Georgia was black in 1900?

167 How did the state continue to disenfranchise black voters during this time?
In 1908, Georgia enacted the “grandfather clause” which stated that only men whose fathers or grandfathers were eligible to vote in 1867 could vote. (This kept most of Georgia’s African Americans from voting)

168 What additional measures were passed? (3)
A poll tax was added (had to pay money to vote), had to own property and had to be literate.

169 What is gerrymandering
Drawing up an election district in such a way that it benefits a particular group

170 What is martial law? Martial law occurs when military forces are used to maintain order because civilian forces cannot or will not maintain order

171 What were the causes of the race riots in Atlanta 1906?
Local newspapers carried false reports of black assaults – attacks on blacks began and the riots lasted 2 days. At least 18 blacks and 2 whites were killed

172 What is the NAACP and how was it formed?
Formed by grandson of abolitionist Frank Lloyd Garrison, this group was formed to work for the rights of African Americans. Chapters were organized all over the country. W. E. B. DuBois used humor and wit to support protests via the NAACP publication.

173 What is the National Urban League?
Formed in 1910, this interracial group works to solve social problems facing African Americans who live in cities.

174 Who was Leo Frank? 29 year old superintendent of the National Pencil Company factory in Atlanta and charged with the murder of 14 year old employee Mary Phagan. The trial is one of the most debated in Georgia History. Frank was convicted and sentenced to death based upon the testimony of Jim Conley, the African American janitor. Conley was also a suspect, but Frank was Jewish and many people disliked Jews during that time.


176 What happened to Frank after his conviction?
A group of men walked into the state penitentiary in Milledgeville, took Frank from his prison cell and drove him to Marietta. There they hung him from a tree at Mary Phagan’s home.

177 How did this lead to the rebirth of the KKK?
The Ku Klux Klan received a charter from the Fulton County Superior Court. William Simmons and thirty four others climbed up to Stone Mountain – the group called itself “The Knights of Mary Phagan” – they lit torches and circled a burning cross.

178 How did this lead to the rebirth of the KKK
How did this lead to the rebirth of the KKK?Section 4: Business in Georgia– page 361

179 What was the significance of the Cotton States and International Exposition of 1895?
This exhibition was a way to showcase the economic recovery of the south (of which cotton was significant). Hosted in Atlanta, it brought 800,000 visitors

180 Who was John Styth Pemberton?
Atlanta druggist who, in response to the temperance movement, invented a non alcoholic tonic using the kola nut. When this headache tonic was added to soda water by soda fountain man Willis Venable, the result was coca cola.

181 What was the largest business deal in the South as of 1919?
When Candler (who purchased coca cola from Venable) sold coca cola to Ernest Woodruff.

182 Who was Alonzo Herndon? Another business giant of the Progressive Era, Herndon was born a slave on Walton County plantation. He began the Atlanta Mutual Insurance Company.

183 Section 5 Page 370

184 What was the official United States position at the beginning of World War I?
In August 1914, President Woodrow Wilson declared America a NEUTRAL NATION that would not take sides between the Central Power led by Germany and Austria-Hungary and the Allied powers led by France, Great Britain and Russia.

185 Did everyone in the nation share this sentiment?
Some Georgians volunteered to fight for the French and British – serving as aviators, soldiers, nurses etc..


187 What was the Lafayette Escadrille?
A squadron of American aviators who fought for France - Raoul Lufbery, a French-born American citizen, became the squadron's first, and ultimately their highest claiming, flying ace with 16 confirmed victories before his squadron was transferred to the US Air Services.

188 Who was Eugene Jacques Bullard?
The first African American combat pilot – a Columbus native. He enlisted in the French foreign legion and served in the French Air Service. He volunteered his service to the United States when the US entered the war, but he was rejected. He remained in active in the French forces.

189 Why did the United States enter the war?
By International Law, neutrality allowed trade with warring sides. However, in May 1915, a German submarine sunk a British ocean liner Lusitania – which killed 128 Americans. Germany sank several American ships and finally, with the interception of the German Zimmerman Telegram, urging Mexico to attack the United States, the United States entered the war.

190 How many of Georgia’s citizens served?
Between 85,000 and 100,000 of Georgia’s citizens joined the armed forces.

191 What military bases arose in response?
Camp Benning was opened in 1917 as a result of orders from General John Pershing – the leader of the American allied forces.

192 What ended the war? The ARMISTICE (agreement to stop fighting) ended the war on November 11, 1918.

193 What was the Atlanta Fire?
ON May 21, 1917 – city water supply was turned off – fire broke out in the west end of town so there was no water to put it out. More than 70 blocks of the city was destroyed in 10 hours. Dry weather, wooden houses built close together, contributed to the 10,000 displaced people. There were, however, no fatilities.


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