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The Christian international NGO: direction,value and impact Christian thought in the development agenda Brussels, May 28, 2013 Henk Jochemsen Director.

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Presentation on theme: "The Christian international NGO: direction,value and impact Christian thought in the development agenda Brussels, May 28, 2013 Henk Jochemsen Director."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Christian international NGO: direction,value and impact Christian thought in the development agenda Brussels, May 28, 2013 Henk Jochemsen Director Prisma, Holder special chair Christian Philosophy Wageningen University

2 Development- what is it? President Truman, January 1949 “ …… we must embark on a bold new program for making the benefits of our scientific advances and industrial progress available for the improvement and growth of underdeveloped areas. ……”. In course of 20e century: development cooperation a whole of policy and projects, infrastructure, capital and technology transfer Years 60 and 70: not the expected results Years 80: neoliberal approach: more emphasis on market But: industrialization leads to environmental problems Focus on Sustainable development (Brundtland, Our common future, 1987)

3 Characteristics of modern development cooperation Approach from a ‘deficit’ of other cultures Translation into ‘project’s’ Goal-oriented (technological) interventions Linear causality between interventions and results Desire for quantitative measuring of effects But maintaining basic economic power structures DC is project of modernity EU-Cord#HJ3

4 PhilCulture#HJ4 DFINAL1906.pdfhttp://www.sbs.ox.ac.uk/centres/tax/Documents/reports/TaxEvasionReportDFI DFINAL1906.pdf en EU-Cord#HJ4

5 Modernity Premodern, European: World is disrupted but embodies spiritual and moral order Mankind forms part of it and has special status/steward Modern Human being primarily rational subject and source of his values World (incl. human body): matter and energy to study, control and use Rise of modern science and technology Social reality is historic construction Ethics Careful procedure Limit harm EU-Cord#HJ5

6  Modernization led to industrialization, colonialism and recently to globalization  Positive effects, but also exploitation of the ‘developing’ countries,  Increased gap between the South and the ‘North’ and increased poverty for large groups  On the basis of charity, concern, justice and self- interest about 60 years ago the ‘West’ (= the North) began with ‘development aid’ Development and poverty EU-Cord#HJ6

7 ‘Development’, dominant late- modern, liberal concept Material economic growth Dominant role of the market (since 80’s of 20th century) Unresolved tension with nature conservation and sustainability Anthropocentrism Technical approach Emphasis on individual rights, mitigated by participatory approach Social structures are supposedly value-free Blind spot for religion EU-Cord#HJ7

8 Another approach at SCO level: a normative practice Existing structures not value-free but normatively pre- structured; among others in social practices A practice is a coherent form of historically developed coherent form of human activity Reason for existence: a specific value, its finality or telos, realised by observing a constellation of quality standards (principles and rules; rules mainly matter of ‘know how’) Those principles and norms derived from core value that is reason for existence of the practice EU-Cord#HJ8

9 Structure of Professional practices P Professional practices have characteristic constellations of principles and norms A variety of types of norms: psychological, logical (scientific), technical, social, juridical, economic, ethical F P N N EU-Cord#HJ9

10 Development cooperation as a professional practice What is ‘telos’ of development? Economic growth? Progress? Happiness? Cf. Goudzwaard’s turning around of value hierarchy Development: aiming at wellbeing (McGregor) Basic needs Experienced quality of life Experience of meaning in relation with others Development as value-realisation in practices and institutions: disclosure of meaning EU-Cord#HJ10

11 Telos of Development cooperation To support the process of development: helping people to establish and improve their practices and their value realization Disclosure of the institutions and practices and their meaning EU-Cord#HJ11

12 Core activities of Development cooperation Educating/ training/empowering people for practices and establishing institutions Core activity: Facilitation, brokering, coaching, education, training; the target group should remain agents of their development Qualifying aspect is the formative (historical, cultural technical) aspect (like in education) Core value/normative principle: meaning- oriented shaping EU-Cord#HJ12

13 Normative perspectives philosophy of H. Dooyeweerd QuantitativeQuantitative (discrete amount) SpatialSpatial (continuous space) KinematicKinematic (movement) PhysicalPhysical (energy + mass, forces) Biotic / OrganicBiotic / Organic (life functions + organisms) Sensitive / PsychicSensitive / Psychic (sense, feeling, emotion) AnalyticalAnalytical (distinction, conceptualization) FormativeFormative (deliberate shaping: history, culture, technology, achievement) LingualLingual (meaning carried by symbols) SocialSocial ('we': sociality, relationships, roles) EconomicEconomic (frugal management of resources) AestheticAesthetic (harmony, surprise, play, enjoyment; expressiveness) JuridicalJuridical (due: responsibilities+rights; justice) EthicalEthical (self-giving love, generosity; care ) PisticPistic (vision, aspiration, commitment, belief)

14 ‘Direction’ of practice, role of faith & religion Actual performance of practices ‘directed’ by ‘world view’: Beliefs and convictions for finding and interpreting meaning Regulates interpretation of the situation and the rules Religion, a source for that esp. in developing countries Religion-inspired beliefs on development should be debatable in public sphere EU-Cord#HJ14

15 Behaviour, culture and religion Visible problems in culture are the tip of the iceberg of underlying values and beliefs EU-Cord#HJ15

16 Direction and christian faith Christian notions influencing the direction of development practice Creation motive Evil and disorder Liberation and salvation motive Eschatological motive: anti-utopian EU-Cord#HJ16

17 Practice and virtues Competent performance of practices requires virtues (stable normative attitudes; embodiment of principles) The principles and norms of the practice should be observed ‘naturally’, ‘spontaneously’ Understanding; interest, receptiveness, postponing judgement Openness Honesty Trust, modesty and calmness Wisdom, prudence, courage EU-Cord#HJ17

18 Implications (1) The modern concept of development has led to a number of global crises (finance, food, fuel) Yet this modern concept still guiding in most developmental policies of wealthy countries Has only been partially successful in combating poverty If successful it will worsen the crises Change of mind set and system required EU-Cord#HJ18

19 Implications (2) Respect inherent normativity in reality: ecological and cultural sustainability in addition to social and economic Pursuit of well-being requires global awareness From an exploitative to a recycling economy (cradle-to- cradle, bio-economy) Non-trade concerns count in WTO negotiations Broader set of indicators for ‘development’ than GNP (e.g. indicators like Human development index, HDI EU-Cord#HJ19

20 Thank you for your attention See EU-Cord#HJ20

21 Effects of Interventions on culture and behaviour EU-Cord#HJ

22 p PhilCulture#HJ EU-Cord#HJ22


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