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Senior Advisor, UNDP India PMRDF Training Programme

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1 Senior Advisor, UNDP India PMRDF Training Programme
Human Development Concept And Approach by Dr. K Seeta Prabhu Senior Advisor, UNDP India PMRDF Training Programme TISS, Hyderabad 30 April 2012

2 LEARNING OUTCOMES Understand reasons for emergence of HD approach
Define Human Development HD, Human Rights and Human Security HD and Economic Growth HD and other approaches-HRD, Basic Needs Characteristics and Principles of HD MDGs and HD Operationalising HD

3 DEFINING DEVELOPMENT How do we define development?
Identify three defining characteristics World bank. movie

4 Film on Evolution of HD Approach
World bank. movie

"The basic purpose of development is to enlarge people's choices. In principle, these choices can be infinite and can change over time. The objective of development is to create an enabling environment for people to enjoy long, healthy and creative lives.“ Mahbub ul Haq Human achievements – key indicators of progress - not merely per capita income which is not a reliable indicator – People may value non-income parameters like peace and security, gender equality, satisfying leisure hours, sense of participation Hd and eco growth are related …complementary

Capabilities and functionings form conceptual foundations of the HD Approach Functionings - valuable ‘beings and doings’ of people Elementary functionings –being healthy and nourished Complex functionings – ability to contribute to community life, achieving self respect, ability to ‘appear in publik without shame’ Developmental Goal: to enhance people’s potential ‘to be & to do’ Combination of functionings – capabilities One more way of looking at these concepts Potential ‘beings and doings’ are capabilities Actual ‘beings and doings’ are functionings

Freedom to choose functionings is crucial People as ‘Agents’ – not recipients of welfare and benefits Amartya Sen - Development as Freedom Freedom has intrinsic value valuable in itself Freedom has instrumental value as a means to other things Freedom ‘from’ is as important as freedom ‘to’

8 HD AND HUMAN RIGHTS Emphasis in HR Both guarantee basic freedoms
Compatible and complementary – both required to enhance well being Emphasis in HD enhancement of choices & capabilities - focus on duty bearers and public policies – Emphasis in HR entitlements of claim holders – emphasis on legal change, social movements to generate demand Human Rights initially viewed as political rights- now includes social, cultural and economic rights

9 HD AND HUMAN SECURITY Human Development Report 1994 defined human security as ‘Freedom from Want and Freedom from Fear’ Human Security concept goes beyond concerns of national security and threats of conflicts to focus on the individual Not merely physical security but ability to secure minimum requirements 7 components of human security Economic Food Health Environmental Personal Community Political Acts as a bridge between concepts of human rights and human development

10 ECONOMIC GROWTH AND HD Growth advocates believe: HD advocates believe:
Expanding income is an end in itself Growth does trickle down HD advocates believe: income a means- end is enhancing people’s capabilities Simultaneous expansion of choices in dimensions other than economic– social, cultural, political,environmental No automatic link –trickle down cannot be relied upon

11 HD IS ABOUT… People- “how” and for “whom” -not just “what” to do
Emphasis from “are we doing things right” to -“are we doing the right things” Go beyond income to ensure growth is not jobless, voiceless, rootless, ruthless, futureless -1996 Global HDR

12 WHAT HD IS NOT…. HD and Human Resource Development
Evolved in 1960s from Schultz’s concept of human capital Powerful implications – human beings resources/inputs in production process – not ends in themselves Education and health means of enhancing human capital Rates of return important Basic Needs Approach Evolved in 1970s from ILO focus on providing basic needs for poor – food, shelter, clothing, health care, water etc Focus on provision of goods Ignores choices and underplays freedom Ignores ‘agency’ aspect of individuals – people treated more as beneficiaries

13 COMPARING APPROACHES ` Human Development Economic Growth
Human Resource Development Basic Needs Approach People Instrumental and intrinsic value-agency Instrumental Factor of Production - instrumental Beneficiaries End-goals Formation of human capabilities and use of acquired capabilities Creation of wealth Maximizing human productivity Welfare Indicators Human liberty and choices GDP per capita Labor productivity Eradication of Poverty Orientation Ethical Economic Utilitarian Protectionist

14 CHARACTERISTICS OF HD Under Construction Multidimensional
Inter-disciplinary Pragmatic

15 FOUR PILLARS OF HD Equity Participation Efficiency Sustainability
Value added of these pillars

Millennium Summit of United Nations General Assembly in September member States adopted the Millennium Declaration and Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) Declaration reaffirms values including equality, mutual respect, and shared responsibility for the condition of all peoples 8 Goals – 21 Targets and 60 indicators to be achieved by 2015 Lends specificity to HD approach Roadmap to ensure Human Development

17 MDG GOALS AND TARGETS Goal 1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
Target 1: Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people whose income is less than one dollar a day Target 2: Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people who suffer from hunger Goal 2: Achieve universal primary education Target 3: Ensure that, by 2015, children everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling Goal 3: Promote gender equality and empower women Target 4: Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education preferably by and to all levels of education no later than 2015 Goal 4: Reduce child mortality Target 5: Reduce by two thirds, the under five mortality rate

18 MDG GOALS AND TARGETS Goal 5: Improve maternal health
Target 6: Reduce by three-quarters, between 1990 and 2015, the maternal mortality ratio Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases Target 7: Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS Target 8: Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the incidence of malaria and other major diseases Goal 7: Ensure environmental sustainability Target 9: Integrate the principles of sustainable and reverse the loss of development into country policies and programmes environmental resources Target 10: Halve, by 2015, the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water Target 11 By 2020, to have achieved a significant improvement in the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers

19 MDG GOALS AND TARGETS Goal 8: Develop a global partnership for development Target 12: Develop further an open, rule-based, predictable, non-discriminatory trading and financial system Target 13: Address the special needs of the least developed countries Target 14: Address the special needs of landlocked countries and small island developing States Target 15: Deal comprehensively with the debt problems of developing countries through national and international measures in order to make debt sustainable in the long term Target 16: In co-operation with developing countries, develop and implement strategies for decent and productive work for youth Target 17: In co-operation with pharmaceutical companies, provide access to affordable, essential drugs in developing countries Target 18: In co-operation with the private sector, make available the benefits of new technologies, especially information and communications

20 WHY MEASURE HD? Measuring HD important for
assessment of HD situation in country monitoring of HD situation evidence based policy making HD multi-dimensional – quantitative and qualitative data on various dimensions MDGs have lent specificity to HD – the indicators are measurable and can be monitored at disaggregated level

21 NEED FOR HDI HDI arose out of need to evolve suitable alternative to per capita GDP as an indicator Needed an index that was Simple to compute Measures both economic and social dimensions Enables national and international comparisons HDI measures achievements in Longevity Knowledge Decent standard of living

22 CALCULATING THE HDI Human Development Index used as an important composite measure of HD - combined index of three choices reflected in indicators Long lasting and healthy life Life Expectancy at Birth Access to knowledge Adult Literacy Rate, Combined Enrolment Ratio Resources for a decent life GDP per capita Refined methodology since 2010 – same dimensions but better specified indicators and methodology Concept of HD is much broader than HDI Includes both economic and social choices HDI uses limited indicators to keep index simple

23 HD AND MDGs Key Capabilities for HD Corresponding MDG
Living a long and healthy life Goals 4 ,5, 6 reducing child mortality improving maternal health and combating major diseases Being educated Goals 2 and 3: Achieving universal primary education, promoting gender equality Having a decent standard of living Goal 1,7: Reducing poverty and hunger and ensuring environmental sustainability Enjoying political and civil freedoms to participate in the life of one’s community Not a goal but an important global objective included in the Millennium Declaration

IHDI introduced in 2010 HDR - calculated for each dimension separately and when aggregated indicates loss in HDI value due to inequality Addresses criticism that HDI looks only at average achievements and does not take into account inequlaity

Three dimensions, five indicators Methodology: Focus on gender inequality – replaces the Gender related Development Index (GDI) and the Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM) Combines indicators of development and empowerment


27 UNDERSTANDING THE MPI Interpretation Value added
Identifies the share of the population suffers multiple deprivations at the same time, adjusted by the intensity of the deprivations suffered Value added Uses data from the same survey and thus identifying people who are poor in multiple dimensions at the same time Can be decomposed to show extent to which different groups suffer multidimensional poverty and each deprivation

In India’s HDI value 0.547 Rank 134 among 187 countries – middle HD country India’s 2011 HDI value lower than the 1990 HDI value of - Brazil, Mexico, Sri Lanka, Thailand and South Africa China’s life expectancy in 1990 – 68.3 years India’s life expectancy in 2011 – 65.4 years

29 INDIA- IHDI AND GII Aggregate human development status masks pervasive inequalities in India IHDI value India loses 28.7% of its HDI value on account of inequalities Highest loss is in education dimension % followed by health 27.1% and income 14.7% India ranks 129 on GII out of 146 countries India ranks lower than all South Asian countries on the GII except Afghanistan World bank. movie

MPI value 612 million or 53.7% of India’s population is multidimensionally poor 28.6% of the population severely poor India has the largest concentration of multidimensional poor people in the world Hd and eco growth are related …complementary

Given India’s size, dimensions of deprivation huge Number of income poor – 407 million –equal to total population of Brazil 185 million and Japan 127 million Population of poor in India’s 8 poorest States equal to population of 26 African States 233 million undernourished = total population of Indonesia 216 million + Ghana 20 million India’s performance will have impact on MDGs globally

Need to assess and monitor human development at disaggregated level Disaggregated HDIs helps highlight significant disparities and gaps and redirect policy/budget Can be used for local communities as pressure tool, for participatory planning, accountability, etc. Used in several countries for studying disparities across regions and social groups

33 PROGRAMMES FOR HD Must enlarge ‘range of people’s choices’
Must improve equity, efficiency, participation simultaneously to ensure sustainability HD is development ‘by the people for the people’


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