Chapter 3 Individual Differences and Call Presented by group 3: Nurbaiti Pramesti Mila Marsiya Nur Iman
The organization of Presentation Models of second Language Learning and their variables. * The Good Language-Learner model * Monitor model * Brown & Frasers framework * Levins schematic model Model with interdependent learner variables * Gardners educational model * Skehans model * Spolskys model Individual differences. Conclusions
Model with independent learner variables (the Good Language – Learner model) Naiman, Frohlich, Todesco and Stem (1978) identifies three Independent variables such as: * teaching * learner, and * context Dependent variables such as: * learning * outcome
TEACHING THE LEARNERS THE CONTEXT Materials Syllabus Methodology Resources Age Intelligence Aptitude Motivation Attitude Personality Cognitive Style EFL/ESL Opportunities For use Social Milieu Unconscious Processes -GeneralizationGeneralization -TransferTransfer -SimplificationSimplification Conscious processes -Strategies Proficiency -listening -speaking -reading -writing Errors Inter language Affective reasons
Monitor theory INPUTINPUT Affective Filter Cognitive Organizers MONITORMONITOR OUTPUTOUTPUT
Krashen (1978,1981,1982,1985; Dulay, Burt and Krashen 1982; Krashen and Terell 1983 There are five hypotheses: 1. The acquisition-learning hypotheses 2. The natural order hypotheses 3. The monitor hypotheses 4. The input hypotheses 5. The affective hypotheses a major source of variation and it depending: attitude, motivation, self confidence and/or anxiety.
Brown & Fraser framework Scene setting and purpose Participants individuals and relationships
Situation Scene Participant Setting (eg. Bytanders, local and time Purpose (eg. Buying, lecturing or Playing a game) Individuals Individual qua Individual (eg. Personality, Attitudes) Individual as member of a Social category (eg. Class, ethnicity Relationship Between Individuals (eg. Shared Knowledge, Power)
Levins Schematic model Two major stages: Diagnostic Prescriptive Focus on two variables: Input variable between learners traits,abilities and prerequisites Output variable
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