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College English New Horizon Reading Writing Translating Foreign Language Teaching & Research Department Book 3.

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Presentation on theme: "College English New Horizon Reading Writing Translating Foreign Language Teaching & Research Department Book 3."— Presentation transcript:


2 College English New Horizon Reading Writing Translating Foreign Language Teaching & Research Department Book 3

3 Unit 2 Exercise and Health Understand the unexpected effects of exercise on human body. Practice distinguishing between facts and opinions. Write a short paragraph following the effect- causes pattern. Learning objectives

4 Contents Unit 2 Warming-up Section A Section B & C Online task

5 Warming up Unit 2 Background informationBackground information Audio-visual materialsAudio-visual materials Idea sharing (A topic for discussion]Idea sharing (A topic for discussion]

6 Background information Purdue is a public, engineering, doctoral- granting university located in West Lafayette, Indiana. Founded in 1869 and named after benefactor John Purdue, Purdue University provides agriculture, mechanic arts education, etc. for students from over130 countries. Purdue University

7 Background information Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise is the official Journal of the American College of Sports Medicine, which helps readers enhance their basic understanding about the role of physical activity in human health and function. The Journal includes original peer-reviewed articles, relevant discussions following each article to provide understanding of how a particular study contributes to other research topics, advances in methodology, as well as viewpoints of leading scientists and physicians. With it, exercise physiologists, physiatrists, physical therapists, team physicians and athletic trainers get a vital exchange of information from basic and applied science, medicine, education and allied health fields. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise

8 Background information The digestive system is a series of hollow organs joined in a long, twisting tube from the mouth to the anus. Inside this tube is a lining called the mucosa. In the mouth, stomach, and small intestine, the mucosa contains tiny glands that produce juices to help digest food. Two solid organs, the liver and the pancreas, produce digestive juices that reach the intestine through small tubes. In addition, parts of other organ systems (for instance, nerves and blood) play a major role in the digestive system. Digestive System

9 Idea-sharing (Group Work)(Group Work) What exercise do you take regularly? What do you know about the positive and negative effects of exercise?

10 Idea-sharing: forms of exercise aerobic exercise: Squats ( ); Abdominal( ) exercises; Lunges ( ); Push-ups ( Running; Walking; football, basketball, tennis, swimming, bowling, Tai chi, Yoga

11 Idea -sharing: Benefits of Exercise reduce diseases, lower blood pressure Reduce blood cholesterol Boost bone strength Burn calories and keep weight down improve fitness and endurance, lower heart rate, efficient pumping of the heart, combat daily stress

12 Idea-sharing: Negative Effects of Exercise Physical injuries higher risk of fracture back pain stress on the heart Sudden death due to heart attack iron deficiency

13 Group Work: Jigsaw Work in groups of four: 1, 2, 3, 4; Each member contributes at least two forms of exercise to the group; novel ideas are welcome. Two members (1 & 2) think about all the positive effects, the other two (3&4), the negative; Exchange ideas so that each member is clear of some basic ideas of both sides. Rearrange ideas and Member 3 in each group reports to the whole class. The rest of the class take notes while listening.

14 What can you learn about exercise from Passage A? Section A

15 Iron and the Effects of Exercise Text understanding Structure analysis Check your vocabularyStructure analysis Check your vocabulary Writing skill Sentence analysis words and expressions Post-reading activity

16 1. If a woman suffers from iron deficiency, what can she do to bounce back? Comprehension questions additional meat, iron supplements Section A 2.Why are women more likely to suffer from iron deficiency? monthly bleeding

17 3. How does exercise cause iron deficiency? a variety of mechanisms, sweat, bleeding of the digestive system Comprehension questions Section A 4. How many stages does iron deficiency go through? Three. Three.

18 5. What does it mean when you are in the third stage of iron deficiency? in trouble, iron reserves go to zero, feel weak, tired and out of breath Section A Comprehension questions

19 6. What are good sources of iron? meat, chicken, fish, dates, beans, leafy green vegetables. 7. If someone has low iron reserves, what should he avoid? coffee or tea with meals coffee or tea with meals Comprehension questions Section A

20 True or false: Find evidences from the text to support yourself. Only intense endurance exercise can result in iron deficiency, but moderate exercise is OK. (para.1) Men are not so likely to have iron loss as women are. (para.9) By checking levels of the blood protein, you can know easily whether you have iron deficiency or not. (para. 9) To avoid iron loss, exercisers should take iron supplements every day. (para.10) F T F F

21 Exercise, even moderate exercise, may lead to reduced iron in the blood of women. (para.1-3) Causes for iron deficiency among women (paras.4-6) (paras.4-6) Stages of iron deficiency and the importance to check iron reserves (paras.7-9) Advice on how to remedy iron deficiency. (paras. 10-12) Text Structure Analysis Section A

22 Structure Analysis: check your vocabulary Sports medicine experts have observed for years that endurance athletes, particularly females, have iron deficiencies. They found that women who were normally and then started a program of exercise showed evidence of iron loss. Women who consumed additional meat or took iron were able to. But the new exercisers who followed their normal diet showed a in iron levels. frequently very often inactive moderate supplements bounce back decrease Back not active average amount of

23 Cause 1 Cause 4 Iron deficiency is common among women, especially active women. (ignore) of the amount of iron they take Cause 2 Cause 3 Monthly( blood) ( ) red meat ( )diet to control weight Ignorance bleeding Rejecting Restricting Paras. 4-6 Back Cause 5 Exercise Structure Analysis: check your vocabulary Effect

24 Structure Analysis: check your vocabulary (1) The first and most common is having, a condition that typically has no symptoms. (2) Fatigue and poor performance may begin to appear in the second stage of deficiency, when not enough iron is present to form the molecules of blood protein that to the working muscles. (3) In the third and final stage, people often feel weak, tired, and out of breath and exercise performance is. Back low iron reserves transport oxygen severely compromised Three Stages of Iron Deficiency

25 Structure Analysis: check your vocabulary Correcting iron deficiency Modifying diet Taking supplements (1) The best sources of iron are ____, _______, and ____. (2) Good sources of other forms of iron include _____, _____, and some ______ _____ __________. (3) Eat food with plentiful. (4) Avoid drinking or with meals. (1)Supplements may produce a feeling of wanting to. (2)They may be in some cases throw up poisonous meat chicken fish iron-added Vitamin C dates leafy green vegetables beans tea coffee Back

26 Writing Skill: Cause and Effect cause : a reason for an effect or result effect / result : a development, a consequence (1) Because of the moon's gravitational pull, there are ocean tides. (2) The ocean tides are affected by the moon's gravitational pull. (3) The moon has a gravitational pull; consequently, there are ocean tides. e.g.:

27 Sentence Patterns that Indicate Cause and Effect {Because of / Due to} X, there is Y. Or {Because of / Due to} X, Y happens. X {affects / influences} Y. Or Y{ is affected / is influenced} by X. X {causes / produces / results in }Y. Or Y {is caused / is produced by / is a result of / is due to} X. Writing Skill: Cause and Effect

28 Rewrite sentences (a) and (b) into one sentence with the vocabulary that indicates cause and effect. (a) Daily exercise strengthens the heart. (b) Many people who exercise daily have healthy hearts. (a) Cakes and candy are high in sugar. (b) Cakes and candy are bad for the teeth. Because/As/Since daily exercise strengthens the heart, many people who exercise daily have healthy hearts. Cakes and candy are high in sugar. Therefore/So/ Consequently/As a consequence, they are bad for the teeth.

29 Writing Sample Good health is affected by a balanced diet. On the other hand, if we do not eat well, this could cause problems and we could become very sick. For instance, if our diet lacks Vitamin A, blindness may result. Many problems affecting the skin and the teeth are due to a lack of Vitamin C. When our diet contains recommended amounts of Vitamin A and C, however, our ability to fight diseases like cancer is greatly affected. So it makes sense to eat well because this results in a longer and healthier life. Underline the topic sentence and also underline words that specify cause and effect.

30 Topic1: Diet and Health Topic 2: Exercise and Health Writing Practice

31 Tips for You Give an outline of your writing first. Discuss with your partner whether the outline agree with the topic. Make some modification if necessary. Write your composition according to the outline. Group assessment.

32 1. Iron deficiency is very common among women in general, affecting one in four female teenagers and one in five women aged 18 to 45, respectively. (L13-14) A quarter of female teenagers and one fifth of women at the age of 18 to 45 have the problem of iron deficiency. Sentence Analysis 18 45 Respectively modifies one in four female teenagers and one in five women aged 18 to 45, indicating each group separately.

33 Sentence analysis 2. For a woman who already has a poor iron status, any additional iron loss from exercise may be enough to tip her over the edge into a more serious deficiency. (L27-28) If a woman who already has less iron than necessary starts a program of exercise that causes more loss of iron, then her iron status will change greatly and she'll be put in a more serious state of iron deficiency. tip (sb.) over the edge: bring about a noticeable change; (cause to) develop into another status

34 3. Fatigue and poor performance may begin to appear in the second stage of deficiency, when not enough iron is present to form the molecules of blood protein that transport oxygen to the working muscles. (L35-37) In the second stage of deficiency when there is no enough iron to form the molecules of blood protein that transport oxygen to the working muscles, one may begin to feel very tired and unable to do their activities properly.

35 4. If you pay attention to warning signs before iron reserves are gone, you can remedy the deficiency before it really becomes a problem.(L69-70) If you are careful enough to notice the signs of low iron level in your body, you can correct the iron deficiency before the condition becomes too serious to deal with.

36 Words and Expressions 1.moderate a. (L6) Can you guess what a moderate political group Meaning: not too much ; not extreme e.g.: Eating a moderate amount of fat is healthy. Yes, a political group that is mild, neutral and never goes to extremes.

37 2. supplement n. (L10) Translation a vitamin supplement a supplement to a monthly financial magazine v. They are doing extra jobs outside their regular ones to supplement their incomes. Words and Expressions supplementary a.

38 3. Liable a. If you don't take care of yourself, you're liable to get sick. Words and Expressions Meaning: be likely to; Meaning: be likely to; responsible He is still liable for repaying his student loan.

39 4. digest vt. Some people have difficulty digesting milk. How about you? Words and Expressions eat and absorb; understand. n. a short written report of a longer piece The Sunday newspaper includes a digest of last week's major stories. He could digest an enormous amount of information with amazing speed. Translation

40 vessel n. a fishing vessel 1.container for liquid Words and Expressions 2. a large boat or a ship The remains of some Roman earthenware vessels were found during the dig. blood vessel

41 allowance n. 1) the amount allowed or granted e.g. : allowance Most of our flights have a baggage allowance of 20kg per passenger. 20 What is your weekly allowance of milk? Use it Words and Expressions

42 e.g. allowance The manager traveled on business with an allowance that covered hotel and restaurant bills. 2) Something, such as money, given at regular intervals or for a specific purpose Words and Expressions

43 Post-reading activity: Role-play: Jenny is an active girl who does a lot of exercise such as running and tennis. Recently she feels tired all the time and falls asleep in class. She goes to the doctor, who analyzes the reasons for her and gives her some suggestions on diet.

44 Reading skill: distinguish between facts and opinions What are facts? 1)Facts tell what really happened or what really is the case. 2)Something that is a certainty known by actual experience or observation, 3) Not change from person to person, or from place to place.

45 Distinguish between facts and opinions What are opinions? 1) Statements of belief, judgment or feeling. 2) They show what someone thinks or feels about a subject. 3) Solid opinions, of course, are based on facts. However, opinions are still somebody s view of something and are not facts themselves.

46 1. An eight-year study of 13,000 people found that those who walked 30 minutes a day had a significantly lower risk of premature death than those who rarely exercised. 2. Not only does exercise help reduce the risk of developing numerous diseases, it may also be effective in reducing the perception of pain, even among those with chronic pain in the lower back. Reading practice: Which is fact? Which is opinion? F O The former part of the sentence states a household fact, while the latter part, which is the focus of the sentence, shows the authors point of view which still needs to be proved.

47 Sentence Structure 1. A succession of scientific studies of animals implies that physical activity has a positive effect on mental functioning. (Para.1) A succession of … implies/shows/indicates/suggests/demonstrates/proves that … … … A succession of experiments indicates that his idea is right.

48 2. In contrast, … possessed a greater density of blood vessels in the brain than did either of the other two groups of animals. (Para. 7) Sentence Structure than e.g. I spend less than do nine out of ten people in my position.

49 Topic discussion Group presentation You are a volunteer for the 2008 Olympic Games and talk before a large audience (old and young) about the effects of exercise, recommend different forms of exercise for different people and give warnings.

50 Online task What do you know about Yoga and Chinese Tai chi? Why do you think they are so popular nowadays?

51 2007.5 Foreign Language Teaching & Research Department

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