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Capturing Personality William Sims Bainbridge, Ph.D. Goal: preservation, enhancement, transfer to new media, and interstellar.

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Presentation on theme: "Capturing Personality William Sims Bainbridge, Ph.D. Goal: preservation, enhancement, transfer to new media, and interstellar."— Presentation transcript:

1 Capturing Personality William Sims Bainbridge, Ph.D. Goal: preservation, enhancement, transfer to new media, and interstellar travel

2 Computer-Administered Questionnaires 1986 1989 1992 A background of computer programming of social and behavioral science software and authoring methodology textbooks!

3 Personality Characteristics Basic tendencies Genetics Physical characteristics Cognitive capacities Physiological drives Focal vulnerabilities Personality traits (5 factors) Characteristic adaptations Acquired competencies Attitudes, beliefs, and goals Learned behaviors Interpersonal adaptations Self-concept Implicit & explicit views of self Self-esteem Identity Life story, personal myth McCrae, Robert R., and Paul T. Costa, "Toward a New Generation of Personality Theories," pp. 51-87 in The Five-Factor Model of Personality, edited by Jerry S. Wiggins (New York: Guilford, 1996). Objective biography Overt behavior Stream of consciousness Life course External influences Developmental influences Macroenvironment Microenvironment

4 Personality Capture Modules from the Bainbridge Laboratory NameAreaItemsStatus The Year 2100Predictions of the future4,000 (2 × 2,000)Released BeliefsAgree-disagree statements4,000 (2 × 2,000)Released Beliefs IIAgree-disagree statements4,000 (2 × 2,000)Released WisdomAgree-disagree statements4,000 (2 × 2,000)Released EmotionsSituations that might elicit one of twenty common emotions 4,000 (2 × 2,000)Released ExperienceExperiences a person may have4,000 (2 × 2,000)Released TastePreferences for foods4,000 (2 × 2,000)Released AssociationJudgments of the connections between pairs of words 4,000 (2 × 2,000)Released ActionPreferences for various actions4,800 (2 × 2,400)Released SelfAdjectives describing oneself3,200 (2 × 1,600)Released Self IIPublic domain surrogates for standard psychology measures 4,000 (2 × 2,000)Beta testing ANNEEmotional reactions to events100,000 (20 × 5,000)Under development STMCapacity of short-term memory5,760 (48 × 120)Experimental

5 I included an open-ended question asking respondents to write in their predictions for the year 2100... About 20,000 responded!

6 The Year 2100 The Year 2100 has three main goals. It seeks to be: 1. An interactive book of the future based on the thoughts of thousands of people around the world, thus a time machine for the imagination. 2. A system for recording a person's opinions about issues that challenge decision makers today, thus a time capsule to preserve an important aspect of that individual. 3. An educational system for preparing essays concerning the major trends of our times, thus a method for consciousness expansion at both home and school.

7 Cross Input Method

8 Block Input Method


10 Personality traits (5 factors+)

11 15 Psych Tests with 310 Scales

12 Sample Group Analysis

13 Ideals to Strive for

14 Emotional Ratings of Life Episodes ANNE: ANalogies in Natural Emotion, an advisor system, based on ratings of thousands of actual and hypothetical experiences in terms of 20 emotions: anger, boredom, desire, disgust, excitement, fear, frustration, gratitude, hate, indifference, joy, love, lust, pain, pleasure, pride, sadness, satisfaction, shame, surprise. What other experiences were like THIS one? What did you do? What happened? What does it mean?

15 STM measures your short-term memory: (1) error rates, and (2) response time STM ● ● ● ● ● ●

16 Videogame Play Recording

17 Continuous Capture This is an alternate, passive approach, based on ubiquitous or pervasive computing, that constantly captures aspects of the individual’s personality, actions, and experiences, as he or she goes about everyday life. The technology is being developed by many researchers in a fragmentary manner at the present time, for a large number of purposes that are usually limited in scope. Even after continuous, passive methods for personality capture have been developed to an advanced level, it will still be essential to employ active methods based on scientific principles, such as questionnaires to measure traits, attitudes, and beliefs. Following are a few examples of passive capture...


19 Virtual Lifetime Tutor “A personal tutor that understands what a user knows and does not know, provides just-in-time tutoring as needed, adapts to a user’s learning style and knowledge level, and is initiated by either the user or the tutor.” Dr. Jean Scholtz, National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)

20 Experience Capture Research at Carnegie Mellon U

21 eyeTapeyeTap


23 Personality Capture Guidelines 1. Simplify the task by finding commonalities among superficially different aspects of personality. 2. Distinguish core features of personality from peripheral ones. 3. Begin with a low-fidelity record of a personality, then gradually increase fidelity as technology and other resources permit. 4. Concentrate on features that are essential for a given, well- defined goal. 5. Conduct personality capture as a byproduct of accomplishing other things. 6. Give priority to the qualities that reflect the person's subjective identity. 7. Employ an interative process to capture an aspect of personality: emulate it, evaluate the emulation, use the results to refine capture. 8. In the light of other criteria, be guided by cost-benefit analysis. Select the most appropriate guidance given the goals and context.

24 NBIC Convergence “...advances in genetic engineering, information systems, and robotics will allow archived human beings to live again, even in transformed bodies suitable for life on other planets and moons of the solar system.” Bainbridge, W. S. (2002). The spaceflight revolution revisited. In S. J. Garber (Ed.), Looking backward, looking forward (pp. 39-64). Washington, D.C.: National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

25 “In the first Converging Technologies report, computer engineering pioneer Warren Robinett agreed that human personalities could travel through space at the speed of light in the form of information transmitted by radio or laser, an idea I had explored in a 1993 essay. Other writers have proposed that deep-space exploration would be carried out by intelligent machines, and that humans will soon be succeeded by machines as the dominant intelligent species on this planet. I suggest that machines will not replace humans, nor will humans become machines. These notions are too crude to capture what will really happen. Rather, humans will realize that they are by nature dynamic patterns of information, that can exist in many different material contexts, some of which are suitable for travel to the stars.” “Converging Technologies and Human Destiny” by William Sims Bainbridge, forthcoming.

26 Website

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