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3/2003 Rev 1 II.3.2 – slide 1 of 27 Part IIQuantities and Measurements Module 3Principles of Radiation Detection and Measurement Session 2Proportional.

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Presentation on theme: "3/2003 Rev 1 II.3.2 – slide 1 of 27 Part IIQuantities and Measurements Module 3Principles of Radiation Detection and Measurement Session 2Proportional."— Presentation transcript:

1 3/2003 Rev 1 II.3.2 – slide 1 of 27 Part IIQuantities and Measurements Module 3Principles of Radiation Detection and Measurement Session 2Proportional and GM Detectors Session II.3.2 IAEA Post Graduate Educational Course Radiation Protection and Safe Use of Radiation Sources

2 3/2003 Rev 1 II.3.2 – slide 2 of 27 Overview  In this session we will discuss the principle of measuring radiation using proportional and Geiger Mueller detectors

3 3/2003 Rev 1 II.3.2 – slide 3 of 27 As indicated in the previous lecture, ion chambers are the simplest of all gas filled detectors An electric field is used to collect all the ionizations (positive and negative charged particles) produced by the incident radiation in the gas volume Gas Filled Detectors

4 3/2003 Rev 1 II.3.2 – slide 4 of 27 Recombination Region Regions of a Gas Filled Chamber

5 3/2003 Rev 1 II.3.2 – slide 5 of 27 RecombinationIonizationProportional Limited Proportional Geiger Mueller Continuous Discharge Operating Regions of a Gas Filled Detector

6 3/2003 Rev 1 II.3.2 – slide 6 of 27 Gas Flow Proportional Chamber

7 3/2003 Rev 1 II.3.2 – slide 7 of 27 Directional and Energy Response

8 3/2003 Rev 1 II.3.2 – slide 8 of 27 Sample Geiger Muller (GM) Detectors

9 3/2003 Rev 1 II.3.2 – slide 9 of mR/h to 0-2,000 mR/h cpm to 0-240,000 cpm Exposure accuracy within 10% (per NRC reg. guide 10.8) Meets or exceeds 10CFR35 for nuclear medicine Surveyor 2000 is compact, with doserate and countrate scales and controls for response time and audio. X-ray and gamma ray exposures are measured by an internal GM detector, and alpha, beta, X- or gamma countrates using a suitable external probe operating at 900 V. High voltage check, anti-saturation and dead time compensation are included. Bicron Surveyor 2000

10 3/2003 Rev 1 II.3.2 – slide 10 of 27 A portable survey meter with an internal energy-compensated GM detector, the Radiographer also features automatic dead time compensation, anti-saturation circuit and HV and battery checks Bicron “Radiographer” Three linear ranges: 0-10 mR/h to mR/h Response times optimized for each range Energy compensated: 40 keV to 1.2 MeV Weighs only 1 kg

11 3/2003 Rev 1 II.3.2 – slide 11 of 27 FEATURES - Energy compensated GM tube with a range of 10 mR/h to 10,000 R/h - Watertight detector down to 20m FEATURES - Energy compensated GM tube with a range of 10 mR/h to 10,000 R/h - Watertight detector down to 20m Detector Size 3.5 cm diameter x 23 cm long Batteries - 2 standard "AA", 250 hrs with Alkaline, 500 hrs with Lithium Simultaneous internal and external detector rate measurements Simultaneous internal and external detector rate measurements OPTIONS - Stainless steel detector housing to facilitate easy decontamination - "Smart Probe" with stored calibration parameters Detects high gamma fields underwater. Underwater detector, 65' watertight cable and a Survey Meter which features a large, backlit digital display with analog bar graph. Data logging (up to 256 data points), adjustable alarms, and built in speaker with click rate proportional to the count rate. Eberline Underwater Detector System (UWDS)

12 3/2003 Rev 1 II.3.2 – slide 12 of 27 INDICATED USE: Alpha beta gamma survey DETECTOR: Pancake type halogen quenched GM WINDOW: 1.7 plus or minus 0.3 mg/cm 2 mica WINDOW AREA: Active - 15 cm 2 ; Open - 12 cm 2 EFFICIENCY(4  geometry): Typically 5% - C 14 ; 22% - Sr 90 /Y 90 ; 19% - Tc 99 ; 32% - P 32 ; 15% - Pu 239 SENSITIVITY: Typically 3300 cpm/mR/hr (Cs 137 gamma ) ENERGY RESPONSE: Energy dependent DEAD TIME: Typically 80 microseconds COMPATIBLE INSTRUMENTS: General purpose survey meters, ratemeters, and scalers OPERATING VOLTAGE: 900 volts CONNECTOR: Series "C" (others available ) CONSTRUCTION: Aluminum housing with beige polyurethane enamel paint TEMPERATURE RANGE: -20 o C to 50 o C SIZE: 4.6 cm H X 6.9 cm W X 27.2 cm L WEIGHT: 0.5kg Ludlum 44-9 “pancake” GM

13 3/2003 Rev 1 II.3.2 – slide 13 of 27 Eberline Monitor 4 (pocket sized meter) FEATURESCompact Easy to Use Low Cost Carrying Case Included DETECTOR GM, uncompensated RANGES 0.5, 5, 50 mR/h and 500, 5k, 50k cpm OPTIONS Energy Compensated GM

14 3/2003 Rev 1 II.3.2 – slide 14 of 27 Application/Type: Beta/Gamma surveys; GM, non energy compensated Dead Time: 50 usec nominal Mica Window Size/Thickness: 1.75 diameter (4.4 cm); 1.4 to 2.0 mg/cm 2 Background Sensitivity: ~3,600 cpm/mR/h ( 137 Cs) Beta/Gamma Efficiency: ~22% 137 Cs, ~16% 60 Co Beta Efficiency (4  ): ~ 32% 90 Sr/ 90 Y, ~ 15% 99 Tc, ~ 6% 14 C Alpha Efficiency (4  ): ~ 25% 241 Am CONFIGURATIONS Model HP-210AL: Aluminum with 1:1 window to bkg ratio (0.7 kg) Model HP-210L: Lead shielded with 4:1 window to bkg ratio (1.9 kg) Model HP-210T: Tungsten shield with 4:1 window to bkg ratio (1.9 kg) Eberline HP-210 Series GM “pancake” Ludlum Window Area: Active - 15 cm 2 Open - 12 cm 2 Window: 1.7  0.3 mg/cm 2 mica Sensitivity: ~ 3,300 cpm/mR/hr ( 137 Cs ) Beta Efficiency (4  ): ~ 22% 90 Sr/Y; 19% 99 Tc; 5% 14 C; 32% 32 P Alpha Efficiency (4  ): ~ 15% 239 Pu

15 3/2003 Rev 1 II.3.2 – slide 15 of 27 Application: Alpha/Beta/Gamma surveys Detector Type: GM, non energy compensated, end window Operating Voltage: 900 V +/- 50 V Dead Time: 200 uSec nominal Mica Window Size: 1.1 diameter (2.8 cm) Mica Window Thickness: 1.4 to 2.0 mg/cm 2 Gamma Sensitivity: ~ 2,500 cpm/mR/h ( 137 Cs) Beta Efficiency (4  ): ~ 35% 90 Sr/90Y, ~ 25% 99 Tc, ~ 10% 14 C Alpha Efficiency (4  ): ~ 6% 241 Am Operating Temp: -30 o to +60 o C Housing: ABS plastic Connector: BNC Size: 3.9 x 12.4 cm Weight: 156 g Eberline HP-190A End Window GM

16 3/2003 Rev 1 II.3.2 – slide 16 of 27 Application: Beta/Gamma exposure surveys Detector Type: Energy compensated GM Detector Range: 3 R/hr (with dead time correction) Energy Range: 30 keV to 6 MeV Operating Voltage: 900 V +/- 50V Dead Time: 100 uSec nominal Wall Material: Stainless steel Wall Thickness: 30 mg/cm 2 (tube only) Gamma Sensitivity: ~1,200 cpm/mR/h ( 137 Cs) Operating Temp: -40 o to +63 o C Housing: ABS plastic with sliding beta shield Connector: BNC Size: 3.5 x 15.2 cm Weight: 142 g Eberline HP-271 Energy Compensated GM

17 3/2003 Rev 1 II.3.2 – slide 17 of 27 DETECTOR: Built-In Pancake GM SENSITIVITY: ~ 3,300 cpm/mR/hr ( 137 Cs gamma) ENERGY RESPONSE: Energy dependent METER DIAL: mR/hr; cpm; BAT OK MULTIPLIERS: X1, X10, X100 LINEARITY: Reading within  10% of true value AUDIO: Built in speaker (quiet position on main switch to silence audio) CALIBRATION CONTROLS: Accessible from front of instrument RESPONSE: Typically 5 seconds from 10% to 90% of final reading POWER: 1 ea. 9 volt BATTERY LIFE: Typically 250 hours with alkaline batteries (battery condition can be checked on meter ) CONSTRUCTION: Aluminum housing with beige polyurethane enamel paint, and a recessed subsurface printed membrane front panel TEMPERATURE RANGE: -20 C to 50 C SIZE: 4.6 cm H X 8.4 cm W X 13.5 cm L WEIGHT: 0.4 kg including batteries Ludlum Model 2401P “pocket meter”

18 3/2003 Rev 1 II.3.2 – slide 18 of 27 Explosion Proof NaI(Tl) Gamma Scintillator & Energy-Compensated GM INDICATED USE: Gamma Survey DETECTORS: 2.5 cm X 2.5 cm NaI(Tl) scintillator SENSITIVITY: Typically 175 cpm/microR/hr (Cs-137 gamma) ENERGY RESPONSE: Energy dependent - Energy compensated GM ENERGY RESPONSE: Within  15% of true value from 60 keV - 3 MeV WORKING ENVIRONMENT: Explosion proof housing for extreme environments METER DIAL: mR/hr, BAT TEST MULTIPLIERS: X0.1, X1, X10, X100, X1k LINEARITY: Reading within  10% of true value with detector connected CALIBRATION CONTROLS: Located in meter housing RESPONSE: 4 seconds from 10% to 90% of final reading RESET: Push-button to zero meter POWER: 2 each "C" cell batteries BATTERY LIFE: Typically 450 hours with alkaline batteries CONSTRUCTION: explosion proof housing TEMPERATURE RANGE: -20 o C to 50 o C SIZE/WEIGHT: 16.5cm H X 20.3cm W X 17.8cm L; 6.4 kg including batteries Ludlum Model 3-97EP

19 3/2003 Rev 1 II.3.2 – slide 19 of 27 ProportionalCounters

20 3/2003 Rev 1 II.3.2 – slide 20 of 27 GENERAL DESCRIPTION The model E600/NRD Combines E-600 Survey Meter with NRD neutron REM detector. The NRD is a 23 cm-diameter, cadmium-loaded polyethylene sphere with a BF 3 tube in the center. Energy response closely follows the theoretical dose from neutrons over the energy range from eV thermal to about 10 MeV. The BF 3 tube allows excellent gamma rejection. FEATURES Measures Thermal Through Fast Neutrons Gamma Rejection Up To 500 R/h Direction Independent Measurements Background Subtraction Data Logging COMBINED DETECTOR/METER Size/Weight: 41.6 cm x 22.9 cm x 22.9 cm; 8.16 Kg Operating Temperature: -20 o C to +50 o C Operating Humidity: Up to 95% non-condensing Eberline E600 Survey Meter + NRD Detector

21 3/2003 Rev 1 II.3.2 – slide 21 of 27 DETECTOR Detector: BF 3 Tube in 23 cm cadmium loaded polyethylene sphere Plateau: Approximately 200 V with a slope of 5% per 100 V Operating Voltage: Dependant on sensitivity of counter and cable length; typically 1,600 to 2,000 V. Directional Response: Within  10% Energy Range: Thermal to approximately 10 MeV Gamma Rejection: Up to 500 R/h. Rejection is dependant on voltage selected. Factory default is 10 mR/h. Sensitivity: Approximately 45 cpm/mrem/h (3,000 counts per mrem) SURVEY METER (E-600) Count Range: 1 to 1.3 million cpm Response Times: Slow, Medium, Fast. Each time setting is programmable from 0 to 255 seconds. Dead Time Correction: 0 to 255  sec Operating Modes: Ratemeter, Scaler, Integration, Peak Trap, Background Accumulation. Eberline E600 Survey Meter + NRD Detector

22 3/2003 Rev 1 II.3.2 – slide 22 of 27 Eberline E600 Survey Meter + SHP-400A (Data Logging RO-20) Eberline E600 Survey Meter + NRD Detector

23 3/2003 Rev 1 II.3.2 – slide 23 of 27 End Window GM Detector for Alpha Beta and Gamma BF 3 Proportional Detector with Moderator for Neutron 4 Ranges - Total Counting Range from ,000 cpm INDICATED USE: Fast and thermal neutron, alpha, beta-gamma survey DETECTORS: Controlled by selector switch NEUTRON: Model 42-9 BF 3 proportional detector with 7.6 cm diameter cadmium lined moderator for fast neutrons (remove detector from moderator for thermal neutrons) ENERGY RESPONSE: Count response is not linear throughout energy spectrum ( MeV) SENSITIVITY: Typically 60 cpm/mrem/hr (AmBe fast neutrons) GAMMA REJECTION: Less than 10 cpm through 10 R/hr ALPHA BETA-GAMMA: Model 44-7 thin end window GM detector WINDOW: 1.7  0.3 mg/cm2 mica WINDOW AREA: Active cm 2 Open cm 2 EFFICIENCY(2  geometry): Typically 5% - 14 C; 20% - 90 Sr/ 90 Y; 15% Pu SENSITIVITY: Typically 2100 cpm/mR/hr ( 137 Cs gamma) Ludlum Model 15 (  -  -  -  )

24 3/2003 Rev 1 II.3.2 – slide 24 of 27 METER DIAL: cpm, kV, BAT TEST MULTIPLIERS: X1, X10, X100, X1000 LINEARITY: Reading within  10% of true value RESET: Push-button to zero meter AUDIO: Built in speaker with ON/OFF switch (greater than 60 dB at 0.6 m) CALIBRATION CONTROLS: Accessible from front of instrument (protective cover provided) RESPONSE: Toggle switch for FAST (4 seconds) or SLOW (22 seconds) from 10% to 90% of final reading POWER: 2 each "D" cell batteries (housed in sealed compartment that is externally accessible) BATTERY LIFE: Typically 600 hours with alkaline batteries (battery condition can be checked on meter) METER: 6.4cm arc, 1 mA analog type CONSTRUCTION: aluminum with beige polyurethane enamel paint TEMPERATURE RANGE: -20 o C to 50 o C SIZE: 31.8cm H X 8.9cm W X 21.6cm L WEIGHT: 3.7 kg including batteries Ludlum Model 15

25 3/2003 Rev 1 II.3.2 – slide 25 of 27 INDICATED USE: Alpha survey WORKING ENVIRONMENT: Splashproof shields and desiccant vented chamber for outdoor use WINDOW: 0.4 mg/cm 2 aluminized mylar WINDOW AREA: Active - 76 cm 2 Open - 50 cm 2 EFFICIENCY(4  geometry): Typically 8% 239 Pu COMPATIBLE INSTRUMENTS: Models 12, 16, 18, 2000,2200, 2221, 2241, 2350 OPERATING VOLTAGE: Altitude sensitive Sea level volts 2000 feet volts 5000 feet volts 7000 feet volts CONSTRUCTION: Anodized aluminum body with aluminum screen (65% open) TEMPERATURE RANGE: -20 C to 50 C SIZE: 10.2 cm H X 6.4 cm W X 22.9 cm L WEIGHT: 0.5kg Ludlum Model “air proportional alpha”

26 3/2003 Rev 1 II.3.2 – slide 26 of 27 The Model is a windowless 100 cm 2 gas proportional detector for tritium detection INDICATED USE: Tritium surface survey WINDOW: Windowless WINDOW AREA: Active cm 2 Open cm 2 EFFICIENCY (4  ): Typically 25% - H 3 BACKGROUND: Typically 400 cpm OPERATING VOLTAGE: Typically 1700 volts COUNTER THRESHOLD SETTING: Typically 4 mV RECOMMENDED COUNTING GAS: P-10 (10% methane, 90% argon) GAS PURGE TIME: Approximately 20 seconds CONNECTOR: Series "C" CONSTRUCTION: Anodized aluminum housing TEMPERATURE RANGE: -20 o C to 50 o C SIZE: 12.4cm H X 11.7cm W X 22.9cm L WEIGHT: 0.9kg Ludlum Model

27 3/2003 Rev 1 II.3.2 – slide 27 of 27 Where to Get More Information  Cember, H., Introduction to Health Physics, 3 rd Edition, McGraw-Hill, New York (2000)  Firestone, R.B., Baglin, C.M., Frank-Chu, S.Y., Eds., Table of Isotopes (8 th Edition, 1999 update), Wiley, New York (1999)  International Atomic Energy Agency, The Safe Use of Radiation Sources, Training Course Series No. 6, IAEA, Vienna (1995)


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