2Concepts of Matter and Energy _____________– anything that occupies space and has mass (weight).Chemistry studies the nature of matter and how its building blocks interactMay be __________________________________May be changed physically and chemicallyPhysical changes do not alter the nature of the substanceChemical changes do alter the composition of the substance
3EnergyEnergy – has no mass, does not take up space. Defined as the ability to do work or put matter in motion_________________energy – energy doing work by moving matter_________________energy- energy that is stored, inactive and at the moment, not doing workAll forms of energy exhibit both kinetic and potential work capacities
4Forms of Energy________________ Energy – stored in the bonds of chemicals (potential)Breaking bonds releases kinetic energy_________________Energy – results from movement of charged particlesIn physiology, electrical energy results when ions cross membranes__________________Energy – Energy directly involved in moving matterExample: Your muscles pulling on bones allowing movement__________________ Energy – Travels in wavesExamples: light, sound, x-rays, gamma-rays, radio, UV, infrared
5Energy Form Conversions Energy may be changed from one form to another easilyEnergy cannot be destroyed or createdSome energy conversions are very inefficient and much energy is “lost” or unusableEx: When a light bulb is on for an hour, most of the electrical energy is converted to light but some of the electrical energy is converted to heat and is unusable.We are warm-blooded because many of our chemical reactions release heatThis is important for many of our chemical reactions. As molecules heat up, they increase the speed at which they move, thus increasing their kinetic output
6Did you get it? Matter and energy – how are they interrelated? What form of energy is used to transmit messages from one part of the body to another?What type of energy is available when we are still? When we are exercising?What does it mean when we say that some energy is “lost” every time energy changes from one form to another in the body?
7Composition of MatterElements – unique substances that cannot be broken down into simpler substances because they are made of one type of _________(building block)Currently, 92 exist in nature. Including man-made elements, there are at least 112, maybe 11896% of human body weight is made of only four elements: Carbon, Hydrogen, Nitrogen and OxygenEach element is designated by one or two letters, known as the ____________________________
8Atomic Structure Each atom is composed of: ___________________(positive and in nucleus) – P+___________________(neutral and in nucleus) – N0___________________(negative and orbiting nucleus) – e-Each element is defined by the number of protons in the nucleus. This is called the atomic numberMost atoms are electrically neutral thus the number of protons (never changing) is usually the same as the number of ____________________________When atoms gain or lose and electron, they become positive or negative _____________
9Planetary and Orbital Models __________________________model: each atom is like a mini universe. The dense nucleus is made of heavy protons and neutrons, while the lighter electrons fly around in circular patterns. Because the electrons may skip from one path to another, scientists call the general location they are likely to be, “orbitals.”__________________________model: more modern. The general location of electrons surrounding the nucleus is referred to as the “electron cloud.” A hazy area of negative chargeEither way… the behavior of the electrons as they move in their orbitals, determines the behavior of the atom.
10Identifying Elements: Review Atomic Number: the unique ID number. Determined by the number of protons which will never change for each element.Atomic mass: the sum of the masses of protons and neutrons in the nucleus. Written as a superscript to the left of the atomic symbolUsually the atomic mass is twice the atomic number. However, if more or less neutrons exists, the mass is changed. These are called isotopes.
11Radioisotopes continued Heavier isotopes of some elements are unstable and tend to decompose to become more stable. These are called ___________________________________.The spontaneous decay of these elements is called _______________________________and involve rejection of particles from the atoms.The particles emitted may be alpha, beta or gamma particles.Alpha = weakest, gamma = ______________________This emission of energy is damaging to living cells.These particles act like bowling balls knocking through electrons of other atoms causing disruption of atom function.While overexposure to radiation is harmful, in small doses, biologists can use radioisotopes to tag biological molecules and follow their activity in the body.In other words, radioisotopes may be a powerful diagnostic tool
12Molecules___________________= 2 or more atoms combined of the same or different atomsEx: H + H = H2 (molecular hydrogen)___________________= 2 or more atoms combined from different elementsEx: 4H + C = CH4 (Methane)Compounds have very different properties than the atoms they are made of individuallyEx: Chlorine and Sodium vs. Table Salt
13Bonding Electrons are found orbiting the nucleus in “electron shells” So far, we know of seven shells in which electrons closest to the nucleus are the most strongly attracted and least likely to react (shell 1), whereas those farthest away are weakly attracted to the nucleus and most likely to react with nearby atomsEach shell can hold a specific number of electronsShell 1: 2 electronsShell 2: 8 electronsShell 3: 18 electronsThe outermost shell is the __________________________.Typically holds up to 8 electrons (inert)If there are less than 8 in the valence shell, the atom will tend to gain, lose or share electrons2 atoms may react when their valence shells overlap
14Types of Bonds_________________: electrons are completely transferred from one atom to anotherCations are (+) charged ions formed when atoms lose electrons during the bond formationAnions are (-) charged ions formedIonic compounds typically form salts and result from bonding between a metal and non-metal_________________: electrons are shared between valence shells of two atoms___________________molecules form when part of the molecule is slightly positive (δ+) and another portion is slightly negative (δ-). These molecules tend to orient themselves near other polar molecule with very weak magnetic forces
15Bonds Continued_________________________bonds: weak bond formed between the hydrogen of one atom and a nitrogen or oxygen of another atom.Especially important with regard to water behavior___________________: Water molecules attracted to each other___________________: water molecules attracted to a different moleculeThese bonds are very important in many biological reactionsThey may form intramolecular bonds in which they hold different portions of the same molecule togetherEx: Important in protein folding
16Patterns of Chemical Reactions The number of atoms does not change during a reaction. They are simply rearranged.______________________reactions: two or more atoms/molecules combine to form larger molecules______________________(digestion) reactions: a molecule is broken down into smaller molecules/atoms______________________reactions: involve synthesis and digestion. A switch is made between molecule partsEx: Glucose + ATP Glucose-P + ADPMost reactions are reversible (indicated by a double arrow)A longer arrow indicates a more rapid reactionEqual arrow length indicates chemical equilibrium