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1 Greater Expectations for 21st Century Learning: The Implications of Technology for the Nature of General Education Series Redefining Writing Patricia.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Greater Expectations for 21st Century Learning: The Implications of Technology for the Nature of General Education Series Redefining Writing Patricia."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Greater Expectations for 21st Century Learning: The Implications of Technology for the Nature of General Education Series Redefining Writing Patricia O’Connor Associate Professor- English Georgetown University Andrea Lunsford Professor - English Stanford University Greater Expectations for 21st Century Learning: The Implications of Technology for the Nature of General Education Series Redefining Writing Patricia O’Connor Associate Professor- English Georgetown University Andrea Lunsford Professor - English Stanford University TLT Group Online Institute: Online Webcast Series © 2004, The TLT Group. All Rights Reserved.

2 Cognitive Science Findings - November © 2004, The TLT Group. All Rights Reserved. Thanks to The TLT Group’s Supporters 150 institutional subscribers to TLT Group services150 institutional subscribers to TLT Group services Annenberg/CPB and AAHEAnnenberg/CPB and AAHE Washington State Univ., St. Edward’s University, U of Nebraska, Maricopa CCD, Notre Dame, …Washington State Univ., St. Edward’s University, U of Nebraska, Maricopa CCD, Notre Dame, … AAC&U, EDUCAUSE, eLit, HBCU Faculty Development Network, League for Innovation, NISOD, POD...AAC&U, EDUCAUSE, eLit, HBCU Faculty Development Network, League for Innovation, NISOD, POD... TLT Group Founding SponsorsTLT Group Founding Sponsors Blackboard, Compaq, Microsoft, SCT, WebCTBlackboard, Compaq, Microsoft, SCT, WebCT

3 Cognitive Science Findings - November © 2004, The TLT Group. All Rights Reserved. …and OLI Supporters Current Co-sponsors of the Online Institute include: Current Co-sponsors of the Online Institute include: OLN: Ohio Learning Network OLN: Ohio Learning Network OLN: Ohio Learning Network OLN: Ohio Learning Network FAHE: Friends Association for Higher Education FAHE: Friends Association for Higher Education FAHE: Friends Association for Higher Education FAHE: Friends Association for Higher Education eLit: eLiteracy for Learning and Life eLit: eLiteracy for Learning and Life eLit: eLiteracy for Learning and Life eLit: eLiteracy for Learning and Life POD: Professional and Organizational Network in Higher Education Co- Sponsor of today’s Online Event POD: Professional and Organizational Network in Higher Education Co- Sponsor of today’s Online Event POD: Professional and Organizational Network in Higher Education POD: Professional and Organizational Network in Higher Education Association of American Colleges & Universities For info about becoming a Co-sponsor for the TLT Group Online Institute and/or one or more of its events, contact For info about becoming a Co-sponsor for the TLT Group Online Institute and/or one or more of its events, contact a Co-sponsorbecoming a Co-sponsor

4 Cognitive Science Findings - November © 2004, The TLT Group. All Rights Reserved. …And Corporate Sponsors of The TLT Group’s Online Institute Info about becoming Corporate Sponsor for Series, see:Info about becoming Corporate Sponsor for Series, see: >www.tltgroup.org/CommunityConnectedness/CorpSp onsors/CorpSponsorship.htm See: for info on LearningTimes Network See: for info on Macromedia See: for info on XanEdu See: for info on LearningTimes Network See: for info on Macromedia See: for info on XanEduwww.learningtimes.netwww.macromedia.comwww.xanedu.com

5 Cognitive Science Findings - November © 2004, The TLT Group. All Rights Reserved. This Webcast and Series AAC&U “Greater Expectations” ProgramAAC&U “Greater Expectations” Program TLT Group Web siteTLT Group Web siteTLT Group Web siteTLT Group Web site Lead article in latest issue of Liberal EducationLead article in latest issue of Liberal EducationLead article Lead article This series of webcasts (first four announced; more to come)This series of webcasts (first four announced; more to come)

6 Cognitive Science Findings - November © 2004, The TLT Group. All Rights Reserved. Redefining Writing One element of one of five defining outcomes of liberal education, as defined by AAC&UOne element of one of five defining outcomes of liberal education, as defined by AAC&U Today we focus on just one type of writing – writing “papers” in disciplinary coursesToday we focus on just one type of writing – writing “papers” in disciplinary courses An outcome of educationAn outcome of education Crucial to the process of higher education – research, expression, assessmentCrucial to the process of higher education – research, expression, assessment

7 Cognitive Science Findings - November © 2004, The TLT Group. All Rights Reserved. Multimedia Projects as Writing Should students sometimes create multimedia projects in disciplinary courses instead of always writing linear text?Should students sometimes create multimedia projects in disciplinary courses instead of always writing linear text? In what ways might such multimedia projects be “better” for those purposes? In what circumstances?In what ways might such multimedia projects be “better” for those purposes? In what circumstances? Programmatic and institutional issues?Programmatic and institutional issues?

8 Cognitive Science Findings - November © 2004, The TLT Group. All Rights Reserved. Our Panel Main presentersMain presenters Prof. Patricia O’Connor, English, Georgetown University & Visible Knowledge ProjectProf. Patricia O’Connor, English, Georgetown University & Visible Knowledge Project Prof. Andrea Lunsford, Program onProf. Andrea Lunsford, Program on Writing and Rhetoric, Stanford UniversityWriting and Rhetoric, Stanford University Also participating (voice, chat room)Also participating (voice, chat room) David Starrett, Southeast Missouri UniversityDavid Starrett, Southeast Missouri University Ross Miller, AAC&URoss Miller, AAC&U Corinne Araez, Stanford UniversityCorinne Araez, Stanford University Steven Saltzberg, TLT Group Senior AssociateSteven Saltzberg, TLT Group Senior Associate Stephen C. Ehrmann, TLT GroupStephen C. Ehrmann, TLT Group

9 Using Hypertext in Teaching Appalachian Literature Patricia E. O’Connor Georgetown University Washington, DC

10 10 Goals How do students learn to use associative thinking to enhance closer reading of texts and their contexts? Does intertextual integration exhibit deeper understanding? How do students learn to use associative thinking to enhance closer reading of texts and their contexts? Does intertextual integration exhibit deeper understanding? How does hypertextual amplification assist us to expand student curiosity and show how "slowing down" as we read can allow for increased associations among texts? How does hypertextual amplification assist us to expand student curiosity and show how "slowing down" as we read can allow for increased associations among texts? Does this examination and modeling of intermediate processes lead to a richer understanding? Does this examination and modeling of intermediate processes lead to a richer understanding?

11 11 Goals, cont. How can students learn to consider a word, concept, or issue in its history as well as in its current range of use? How does collaborative effort impact student understanding? How does collaborative effort impact student understanding? website: eaction=poster.display&posterID=251 eaction=poster.display&posterID=251 eaction=poster.display&posterID=251

12 12 Sample Student Home Pages u/faculty/oconnor/river/ u/faculty/oconnor/river/ /http://lumen.georgetown.e du/faculty/oconnor/ du/faculty/oconnor/http://lumen.georgetown.e du/faculty/oconnor/

13 13 What I’ve learned Best to use minutes of class time for several mini- meetings of the groups at various stages of the course. Best to use minutes of class time for several mini- meetings of the groups at various stages of the course. Paradox: Workshops on Web technologies have the most effectiveness after the projects have been started. Yet, students need training to get started! Paradox: Workshops on Web technologies have the most effectiveness after the projects have been started. Yet, students need training to get started! Interim reports by groups to the whole class are crucial to getting groups to move to deeper understanding of both technical and intellectual aims of the project. Interim reports by groups to the whole class are crucial to getting groups to move to deeper understanding of both technical and intellectual aims of the project. Frustration level is high in regards to publishing the final webpages. Frustration level is high in regards to publishing the final webpages.

14 14 What I’ve Learned –cont. Class presentations should occur two weeks before final due date to allow for adjustments inspired by others' presentations. Class presentations should occur two weeks before final due date to allow for adjustments inspired by others' presentations. Final work should conclude at least two weeks before the end of the course. Final work should conclude at least two weeks before the end of the course. Number of hours spent on the websites varies significantly for groups. Number of hours spent on the websites varies significantly for groups. Students do not evenly understand (or perhaps agree) that depth of understanding can be shown through a series of internal links to deeper thinking through embedding their associations and cross linking to passages that show similar concepts. Students do not evenly understand (or perhaps agree) that depth of understanding can be shown through a series of internal links to deeper thinking through embedding their associations and cross linking to passages that show similar concepts.

15 15 Students craft essays connecting textual passages to course themes.

16 16 Hypertext writing on James Still’s River of Earth er/passage2.htm er/passage2.htm er/passage2.htm er/passage2.htm

17 17 Synthesis Students craft essays connecting textual passages to other literature. Students craft essays connecting textual passages to other literature.

18 18 Students’ essays question the gender roles through their comparison of several characters and their close analysis of shifts within one character. Students’ essays question the gender roles through their comparison of several characters and their close analysis of shifts within one character.

19 19 Women and Patriarchy As mentioned in our thematic analysis of River of Earth, her husband, Brack, becomes paralyzed by his sense of familial obligation and consequently cannot turn away his cousins, for “as long as [they’ve] got a crust, it’ll never be said [Brack] turned my kinfolks from my door” (Still 5). This adamancy, although admirable in theory, causes his wife and children to suffer as the food supply dwindles. ---essay by Rory Boyle As mentioned in our thematic analysis of River of Earth, her husband, Brack, becomes paralyzed by his sense of familial obligation and consequently cannot turn away his cousins, for “as long as [they’ve] got a crust, it’ll never be said [Brack] turned my kinfolks from my door” (Still 5). This adamancy, although admirable in theory, causes his wife and children to suffer as the food supply dwindles. ---essay by Rory Boyle Alpha, realizing her husband’s impotence, takes matters into her own hands by burning down her own house, thus banishing her in-laws from their home. Alpha appears “calm and triumphant” as she muses over her smoldering home, for she knows that their new residence in the smoke house will keep food in her children’s mouths (Still 11). –Rory Boyle Alpha, realizing her husband’s impotence, takes matters into her own hands by burning down her own house, thus banishing her in-laws from their home. Alpha appears “calm and triumphant” as she muses over her smoldering home, for she knows that their new residence in the smoke house will keep food in her children’s mouths (Still 11). –Rory Boylehome

20 20 Women and Patriarchy Perhaps the closest parallel to Alpha Baldridge lies in The Dollmaker’s Gertie Nevels. Much like Alpha [in River of Earth] she constantly demonstrates her fortitude in the face of shocking hardship. Perhaps the closest parallel to Alpha Baldridge lies in The Dollmaker’s Gertie Nevels. Much like Alpha [in River of Earth] she constantly demonstrates her fortitude in the face of shocking hardship. parallel to Alpha Baldridgeparallel to Alpha Baldridge The first instance that displays her great strength occurs when she takes her youngest child, Amos, to the doctor after he has fallen deathly ill. Besides the obvious shock that a mother must feel at witnessing her baby choke to death, Gertie must drive her mule into oncoming traffic in order to get to the nearest doctor miles away. The first instance that displays her great strength occurs when she takes her youngest child, Amos, to the doctor after he has fallen deathly ill. Besides the obvious shock that a mother must feel at witnessing her baby choke to death, Gertie must drive her mule into oncoming traffic in order to get to the nearest doctor miles away.... she takes matters into her own hands as she fastens a tracheotomy for her baby out of a piece of wood she finds at the side of the road. Clearly, Gertie does not posses any of the docility and passive subversion that Appalachian women allegedly typify. ---from essay by Rory Boyle... she takes matters into her own hands as she fastens a tracheotomy for her baby out of a piece of wood she finds at the side of the road. Clearly, Gertie does not posses any of the docility and passive subversion that Appalachian women allegedly typify. ---from essay by Rory Boyle

21 21 Analysis However, despite the decided courage and influence that Gertie displays, she ultimately defers her own dreams for the wishes of her husband. However, despite the decided courage and influence that Gertie displays, she ultimately defers her own dreams for the wishes of her husband.

22 22 Further Analysis Clearly, she does not relish her dependency on the breadwinning of a man, not even of her beloved husband. Yet, Gertie eventually reconciles herself to this dependency as she agrees to move to Detroit where Clovis can earn greater pay as a factory worker. Gertie’s ultimate deference to her husband’s lifestyle attests to the patriarchal structure of the Appalachian family. This parallels [River of Earth’s] Alpha’s reluctant acceptance of a coalmining lifestyle, despite her dream of a permanent home of her own that will free her dependence on the coal industry. Clearly, she does not relish her dependency on the breadwinning of a man, not even of her beloved husband. Yet, Gertie eventually reconciles herself to this dependency as she agrees to move to Detroit where Clovis can earn greater pay as a factory worker. Gertie’s ultimate deference to her husband’s lifestyle attests to the patriarchal structure of the Appalachian family. This parallels [River of Earth’s] Alpha’s reluctant acceptance of a coalmining lifestyle, despite her dream of a permanent home of her own that will free her dependence on the coal industry.

23 23 Final Analyses The acceptance of the husband’s choice despite its incongruence to their own desires, and in spite of the strength each woman demonstrates, speaks to the dominance of the male in the familial structure. -from essay by Rory Boyle The acceptance of the husband’s choice despite its incongruence to their own desires, and in spite of the strength each woman demonstrates, speaks to the dominance of the male in the familial structure. -from essay by Rory Boyle River of Earth offers a particularly good study of the homeplace because it discusses the conflict of the Appalachian people caught between two competing ways of living: in the camp towns of the mining industries, or to remain on the family farm being self-supportive. The metaphor of this struggle is captured in the marriage of Alpha and Brack Baldrige, and their competing beliefs of the importance of the homeplace locate a major conflict in Appalachian culture. River of Earth offers a particularly good study of the homeplace because it discusses the conflict of the Appalachian people caught between two competing ways of living: in the camp towns of the mining industries, or to remain on the family farm being self-supportive. The metaphor of this struggle is captured in the marriage of Alpha and Brack Baldrige, and their competing beliefs of the importance of the homeplace locate a major conflict in Appalachian culture. camp towns family farmmarriage camp towns family farmmarriage --from essay by Andrew Owen --from essay by Andrew Owen

24 24 Depicting and Defining Describing through illustrations. Describing through illustrations. Hardburly Coal Camp–from Hazard Ky Bank collection Hardburly Coal Camp–from Hazard Ky Bank collection

25 25 What I’ve Learned on Using Images My students benefit from collaborative activity. They show each other ways to create visual enhancements in our workshops and in the presentations of their work. My students benefit from collaborative activity. They show each other ways to create visual enhancements in our workshops and in the presentations of their work. They move from merely mimetic images to historically accurate archival photos. They move from merely mimetic images to historically accurate archival photos. From using single pictures they have learned to include picture galleries that change as the reader scrolls over the text. From using single pictures they have learned to include picture galleries that change as the reader scrolls over the text. They create annotations on graphic sources that appear when a picture is touched, making the sites more readily accountable for sourcing as well as accessible for those who are visually impaired. They create annotations on graphic sources that appear when a picture is touched, making the sites more readily accountable for sourcing as well as accessible for those who are visually impaired.

26 26 Using Archival Photos Shows Deepened Understanading Shahn, Ben. "Kentucky coal miner, Jenkins, Kentucky." October America from the Great Depression to World War II: Photographs from the FSA-OWI, [fsa 8a16946] (November 10, 2003). Shahn, Ben. "Kentucky coal miner, Jenkins, Kentucky." October America from the Great Depression to World War II: Photographs from the FSA-OWI, [fsa 8a16946] (November 10, 2003).http://memory.loc.gov/a mmem/fsowhome.htmlhttp://memory.loc.gov/a mmem/fsowhome.html

27 27 Homeplace in Appalachia

28 28 Archival Photos on Homeplace Homeplace in Appalachia Homeplace in Appalachia Post, Marion Walcott. "Mountain home. Breathitt County, Kentucky." Nov America from the Great Depression to World War II: Photographs from the FSA-OWI, fsa 8c13653 (November 10, 2003). Post, Marion Walcott. "Mountain home. Breathitt County, Kentucky." Nov America from the Great Depression to World War II: Photographs from the FSA-OWI, fsa 8c13653 (November 10, 2003).http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/fsowhome. htmlhttp://memory.loc.gov/ammem/fsowhome. html

29 Cognitive Science Findings - November © 2004, The TLT Group. All Rights Reserved.

30 Cognitive Science Findings - November © 2004, The TLT Group. All Rights Reserved.

31 Cognitive Science Findings - November © 2004, The TLT Group. All Rights Reserved.

32 Cognitive Science Findings - November © 2004, The TLT Group. All Rights Reserved.

33 Cognitive Science Findings - November © 2004, The TLT Group. All Rights Reserved. Amrit Rao

34 Cognitive Science Findings - November © 2004, The TLT Group. All Rights Reserved.

35 Cognitive Science Findings - November © 2004, The TLT Group. All Rights Reserved. SURVEY URL


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