Presentation on theme: "World War II and the Struggle for Rights"— Presentation transcript:
1World War II and the Struggle for Rights GA Studies Unit 11World War II and the Struggle for Rights
2StandardsSS8H10 The student will evaluate key post-World War II developments of Georgia from 1945 to 1970.a. Analyze the impact of the transformation of agriculture on Georgia’s growth.b. Explain how the development of Atlanta, including the roles of mayors William B. Hartsfield and Ivan Allen, Jr., and major league sports, contributed to the growth of Georgia.c. Discuss the impact of Ellis Arnall.
3GA Performance Standards SSH8, SSH9, SS8E1, SSE2aSocial/Political Impact of WWII
4Essential Questions What events led to WWII and U.S. involvement? How did U.S. involvement determine the outcome of WWII?What was the social, political and economic impact of WWII in Georgia?
5World War IIResulted from the growth and combination of two regional conflicts in Europe and East AsiaGermany and Japan wanted to expand their bordersIn order to do so, they had to conquer other countriesLasted from 1939 to 1945
6World War II Allied Powers Axis Powers Britain France Soviet Union United StatesGermanyItalyJapan
7World War IITwo major events that led to the United States getting involvedThe HolocaustNazi Germany’s systematic killing of Jews, Gypsies, communists, intellectuals, and political dissenters; ended in 1945Japan bombing Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941; this attack led to the U.S. entrance into World War II
8U.S. InvolvementFollowed isolationism policy in which it kept itself politically and militarily apart from the rest of the worldFranklin D. Roosevelt was President of the U.S. during World War IIDevelop the Lend-Lease Act; the U.S. would sell weapons to its allies
9Georgia during World War II GA was mainly an agricultural stateThe U.S. involvement in the war brought economic opportunities to GeorgiaGeorgia played a significant role in the war effortCarl Vinson, Richard B. Russel, Jr., and President Franklin D. Roosevelt shaped Georgia’s experience during the war
10Congressman Carl Vinson Helped build the U.S. Navy in the years leading up to World War IIMany of the ships were built in Savannah and BrunswickCreated jobs for GeorgiansA.k.a “Admiral” to his peers
11Richard B. Russel, Jr.A senator that helped build up the U. S. military before WWIIHelped to bring over a dozen military bases to GeorgiaBecame an expert in military strategy
12President Franklin D. Roosevelt Spent a lot of time in Warm Springs, GA in hopes of curing his Polio; died there in 1945His close relationship with GA led to the building of the Bell Aircraft plant in Marietta
13Summary QuestionsWhat two events led the United States to join the fight in World War II?What company did President Roosevelt help bring to Georgia?What idea did Roosevelt have in regards to supplying allies with weapons?Who greatly increased the size of the U.S. Navy before World War II?Who brought many military bases and war time factories to Georgia?How did World War II change Georgia’s economy?
14Post – World War II Developments World War II made Georgia change from a farming state to an industrial state. Before and during the war many factories that built aircraft, weapons, uniforms, and ships were opened in Georgia which provided many jobs. After World War II was over, that industrial trend continued in Georgia, especially Atlanta.
15William B. Hartsfield (1937 - 1961) Served as mayor of Atlanta longer than any other mayor in the city’s historyAtlanta’s population multiplied by 10 timesThe Atlanta Airport was later named in his honor
16Ivan Allen, Jr. Served as mayor of Atlanta from 1962 – 1970 He was the only politician in the South at that time to support Civil RightsKnown for bringing professional sports teams to Atlanta
17Ellis Arnall Served as governor of GA from 1943 – 1947 allowed African Americans to vote in white primary electionsWas appointed attorney general of GA at the age of 31 (the youngest in the country)Was defeated by TalmadgeWorked to bring progressive reform to the state
18Summary QuestionsWhat event made Georgia change from an agricultural state to an industrial state?Who is Atlanta’s airport named after?What mayor brought the Braves to Atlanta?Who owns the Atlanta Falcons?Where do the Hawks and Thrashers play their home games?Who defeated Ellis Arnall and became Georgia’s Governor in 1946?
19SegregationFrom its founding in 1733 until 1865, Georgia was dependent on slavery for the economic stability of the state. Change came slowly to the state. In the 1940s and 1950s, Georgia saw a great deal of social change. These changes set the stage for the modern civil rights movement
20Reverend Dr. Benjamin E. Mays A distinguished African American minister, educator, scholar, and social activistBest known as the president of Morehouse College in Atlanta, Georgia
21Civil Rights MovementHerman Talmadge was governor of GA from 1948 – 1951Resisted the desegregation of public schoolsStarted 1st sales tax in the state; used money to improve the public school systemServed four terms as Senator
22Brown v. Board of Education In 1954, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled against the Board of Education of Topeka, KansasThe court ruled that schools must be desegregatedSupreme Court decided that segregation denied equal opportunity to all groups in the U.S.Took many years for segregation and discrimination to end
231956 Georgia FlagIn 1955, GA’s Democratic Party Leader, John Sammons Bell, raised the issue of changing the state flagWanted the new flag to contain the Confederate battle flag’s symbols of stars and barsThe General Assembly of Georgia voted to change Georgia state flag in 1956
24Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. A principal leader of the U. S. civil rights movementA clergyman and an advocate of nonviolent protestEntered Morehouse College at the age of 15Was instrumental in the social and political advancement of African AmericansCareer in the civil rights movement began in December of 1955 after the arrest of Rosa ParksIn April 1968, Dr. King was assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee
25Summary Questions1. Why was the Georgia flag changed in 1956? (to include what) 2. Who influenced and helped shape the ideas of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.? 3. After serving a governor, Herman Talmadge served four terms as what? 4. What brought about change in the way children are educated in the U. S.?
26The Civil Rights Movement Even though the U.S. Congress had passed laws that protested civil rights in 1964 and 1965, the struggle for civil rights continued well into the 1970s.
27The SNCCThe Student Nonviolent Coordination Committee or SNCC (called “Snick”) was one of the main groups fighting for civil rights in the 1970sFormed in April 1960 after meeting Ella Baker, the executive secretary of the Southern Christian Leadership ConferenceHelped planned the 1963 March on Washington
28Sibley Commission A.k.a the General Assembly Committee on Schools Formed in 1960Used to survey how Georgians felt about desegregation of schools; it slowed the processDesegregation of schools began in GA in the late 1960sHamilton Holmes and Charlayne Hunter were the first African American students to go to the UGA (in 1961)
29Albany MovementThe goal of the Albany Movement was to desegregate the Albany, Georgia regionBegan in 1961
30Civil Rights ActGoals from March on Washington came together in the Civil Rights Act of 1964Guaranteed equal voting rights, prohibited segregation in public places, banned segregation by trade unions, schools, and employers that were involved in interstate commerce or do business with the federal gov’t, called for the desegregation of public schools, and assured nondiscrimination in the distribution of federal fundsIn 1972, an amendment called the Equal Employment Opportunity was added to this law, to extend protection against discrimination to women in the work place.BrainPop – Civil Rights
31Lester Maddox Became the governor of GA in 1967 Governor of GA during the March on WashingtonStrongly supported segregation
32African Americans in Office Maynard JacksonElected mayor of Atlanta in 19731st African American mayor of a major southern cityMayor from 1974 to 1982 and was elected again in 1990Andrew YoungAn aide to Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.Executive director of the SCLCIn 1972, won GA’s Fifth District seat in the U.S. House of Representatives1st African American from GA to be elected to Congress since the 1860s
33County Unit SystemThe state of Georgia has had many important political, economic, and social developments since Many of these changes began at the end of the county unit system.
34County Unit System Started in GA in 1917 GA used this system from 1917 – 1962Became legal when the Neil Primary Act was passedBefore 1962 GA did not allow each individual to cast a voteThe winner of the popular vote in each county received the “unit” votes for that countyThe system was declared unconstitutional in 1962 and was ended by the Supreme Court
35County Unit System Kept segregation going in Georgia When it ended, it gave African Americans equal voting rightsCarl Sanders was the first governor of Georgia to be elected by popular vote
36Jimmy CarterCarter did not approve of the segregation laws throughout the South. These views have shaped many of his policies and actions during his life.
37Jimmy Carter James Earl Carter Born October 1, 1924 in Plains, GA Served in the navy fromElected to the GA Senate in 1962 and in 1964Won race for Governor in 1970
38President Jimmy Carter Won the presidential election in 1976Significant FactHe was the only person from GA to serve as President of the United StatesTwo Positive ThingsSigned a peace treaty between Egypt and IsraelSigned the Panama Canal TreatyTwo Negative ThingsPoor economyIranian Hostage Crisis
39Life after presidencyIn October 2002, he received the Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts to find peaceful solutions to problems around the worldIn 1999, President Clinton awarded him the highest civilian honor in the United States, the Presidential Medal of Freedom
40Georgia’s Two-Party System From the early 1900s until the early 1970s, Georgia could be considered a one-party state.
41GA’s Two-Party SystemConsidered a one party state b/c politics were controlled by the predominately white Democratic PartyA one-party system allows only one political party to have political power
42Political Developments Since 1970 Voting Rights Act of 1965 encouraged many blacks to voteJulian Bond, an African American civil rights leader, won a seat in the GA state legislature in 1965Maynard Jackson became the first black mayor of a large southern city, or Atlanta; in 1973; served 3 termsAfrican Americans organized the Georgia Legislative Black Caucus in 1975; to help African Americans legislators make changes
43African American leaders Calvin Smyre – appointed as the assistant floor leader in 1983; became floor leader in 1986Gene Walker – elected as the Senate majority whip in 1989Bob Holmes – appointed to the House Budget subcommittee in 1990Al Scott – Commissioner of Labor; 1st African American to hold a statewide constitutional office
44Georgia’s Political Changes Affect the Economy Farming is still important, more industry has come to the urban areas of the stateGeorgia’s leading manufactured goods are now chemicals, food products, textiles, and transportation equipment
45Social Developments Since 1970 Public Transportation systems in the state improvedEducation improvedRacial equality improvedPublic housing improvedMore African American voters registered for the first time
471996 Olympic Summer Games Came to Georgia in 1996 Idea started with Billy Payne, an Atlanta lawyer 9 years earlierAndrew Young, mayor of Atlanta at the timeTwo things that impressed the Olympic committeeGeorgia’s mild climateThe city’s history as a center of the United States’ civil rights struggle in the 1960s
481996 Olympic Summer GamesFederal government paid to replace sidewalks, put up street signs, and plant trees to make the Olympic sites more beautifulCost the country millions of dollarsStreets and highways had to be fixed and enlarged to handle all the traffic that would come to town during the 17 days of the OlympicsMore than 72 million visitorsGames were held in Savannah, Columbus, Athens, Gainesville, and Cleveland
491996 Olympic Summer GamesAtlanta continues to host sporting events todayHousing was improved in Downtown Atlanta
50Immigrants Coming to Georgia Immigrant is a person that moves to another country to stayIn 1965 a larger number of immigrants moved to the United StatesFor better jobs and homesMost came from MexicoMostly worked in agriculture in GeorgiaMostly worked in textile mills in Dalton, GAMain concern of the U.S. government is the abundance of immigrants coming illegally.
51Immigrants Coming to Georgia The Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 created penalties, or punishments, for companies that hire illegal immigrants