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World War II and the Struggle for Rights

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1 World War II and the Struggle for Rights
GA Studies Unit 11 World War II and the Struggle for Rights

2 Standards SS8H10 The student will evaluate key post-World War II developments of Georgia from 1945 to 1970. a. Analyze the impact of the transformation of agriculture on Georgia’s growth. b. Explain how the development of Atlanta, including the roles of mayors William B. Hartsfield and Ivan Allen, Jr., and major league sports, contributed to the growth of Georgia. c. Discuss the impact of Ellis Arnall.

3 GA Performance Standards
SSH8, SSH9, SS8E1, SSE2a Social/Political Impact of WWII

4 Essential Questions What events led to WWII and U.S. involvement?
How did U.S. involvement determine the outcome of WWII? What was the social, political and economic impact of WWII in Georgia?

5 World War II Resulted from the growth and combination of two regional conflicts in Europe and East Asia Germany and Japan wanted to expand their borders In order to do so, they had to conquer other countries Lasted from 1939 to 1945

6 World War II Allied Powers Axis Powers Britain France Soviet Union
United States Germany Italy Japan

7 World War II Two major events that led to the United States getting involved The Holocaust Nazi Germany’s systematic killing of Jews, Gypsies, communists, intellectuals, and political dissenters; ended in 1945 Japan bombing Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941; this attack led to the U.S. entrance into World War II

8 U.S. Involvement Followed isolationism policy in which it kept itself politically and militarily apart from the rest of the world Franklin D. Roosevelt was President of the U.S. during World War II Develop the Lend-Lease Act; the U.S. would sell weapons to its allies

9 Georgia during World War II
GA was mainly an agricultural state The U.S. involvement in the war brought economic opportunities to Georgia Georgia played a significant role in the war effort Carl Vinson, Richard B. Russel, Jr., and President Franklin D. Roosevelt shaped Georgia’s experience during the war

10 Congressman Carl Vinson
Helped build the U.S. Navy in the years leading up to World War II Many of the ships were built in Savannah and Brunswick Created jobs for Georgians A.k.a “Admiral” to his peers

11 Richard B. Russel, Jr. A senator that helped build up the U. S. military before WWII Helped to bring over a dozen military bases to Georgia Became an expert in military strategy

12 President Franklin D. Roosevelt
Spent a lot of time in Warm Springs, GA in hopes of curing his Polio; died there in 1945 His close relationship with GA led to the building of the Bell Aircraft plant in Marietta

13 Summary Questions What two events led the United States to join the fight in World War II? What company did President Roosevelt help bring to Georgia? What idea did Roosevelt have in regards to supplying allies with weapons? Who greatly increased the size of the U.S. Navy before World War II? Who brought many military bases and war time factories to Georgia? How did World War II change Georgia’s economy?

14 Post – World War II Developments
World War II made Georgia change from a farming state to an industrial state. Before and during the war many factories that built aircraft, weapons, uniforms, and ships were opened in Georgia which provided many jobs. After World War II was over, that industrial trend continued in Georgia, especially Atlanta.

15 William B. Hartsfield (1937 - 1961)
Served as mayor of Atlanta longer than any other mayor in the city’s history Atlanta’s population multiplied by 10 times The Atlanta Airport was later named in his honor

16 Ivan Allen, Jr. Served as mayor of Atlanta from 1962 – 1970
He was the only politician in the South at that time to support Civil Rights Known for bringing professional sports teams to Atlanta

17 Ellis Arnall Served as governor of GA from 1943 – 1947
allowed African Americans to vote in white primary elections Was appointed attorney general of GA at the age of 31 (the youngest in the country) Was defeated by Talmadge Worked to bring progressive reform to the state

18 Summary Questions What event made Georgia change from an agricultural state to an industrial state? Who is Atlanta’s airport named after? What mayor brought the Braves to Atlanta? Who owns the Atlanta Falcons? Where do the Hawks and Thrashers play their home games? Who defeated Ellis Arnall and became Georgia’s Governor in 1946?

19 Segregation From its founding in 1733 until 1865, Georgia was dependent on slavery for the economic stability of the state. Change came slowly to the state. In the 1940s and 1950s, Georgia saw a great deal of social change. These changes set the stage for the modern civil rights movement

20 Reverend Dr. Benjamin E. Mays
A distinguished African American minister, educator, scholar, and social activist Best known as the president of Morehouse College in Atlanta, Georgia

21 Civil Rights Movement Herman Talmadge was governor of GA from 1948 – 1951 Resisted the desegregation of public schools Started 1st sales tax in the state; used money to improve the public school system Served four terms as Senator

22 Brown v. Board of Education
In 1954, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled against the Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas The court ruled that schools must be desegregated Supreme Court decided that segregation denied equal opportunity to all groups in the U.S. Took many years for segregation and discrimination to end

23 1956 Georgia Flag In 1955, GA’s Democratic Party Leader, John Sammons Bell, raised the issue of changing the state flag Wanted the new flag to contain the Confederate battle flag’s symbols of stars and bars The General Assembly of Georgia voted to change Georgia state flag in 1956

24 Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
A principal leader of the U. S. civil rights movement A clergyman and an advocate of nonviolent protest Entered Morehouse College at the age of 15 Was instrumental in the social and political advancement of African Americans Career in the civil rights movement began in December of 1955 after the arrest of Rosa Parks In April 1968, Dr. King was assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee

25 Summary Questions 1. Why was the Georgia flag changed in 1956? (to include what) 2. Who influenced and helped shape the ideas of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.? 3. After serving a governor, Herman Talmadge served four terms as what? 4. What brought about change in the way children are educated in the U. S.?

26 The Civil Rights Movement
Even though the U.S. Congress had passed laws that protested civil rights in 1964 and 1965, the struggle for civil rights continued well into the 1970s.

27 The SNCC The Student Nonviolent Coordination Committee or SNCC (called “Snick”) was one of the main groups fighting for civil rights in the 1970s Formed in April 1960 after meeting Ella Baker, the executive secretary of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference Helped planned the 1963 March on Washington

28 Sibley Commission A.k.a the General Assembly Committee on Schools
Formed in 1960 Used to survey how Georgians felt about desegregation of schools; it slowed the process Desegregation of schools began in GA in the late 1960s Hamilton Holmes and Charlayne Hunter were the first African American students to go to the UGA (in 1961)

29 Albany Movement The goal of the Albany Movement was to desegregate the Albany, Georgia region Began in 1961

30 Civil Rights Act Goals from March on Washington came together in the Civil Rights Act of 1964 Guaranteed equal voting rights, prohibited segregation in public places, banned segregation by trade unions, schools, and employers that were involved in interstate commerce or do business with the federal gov’t, called for the desegregation of public schools, and assured nondiscrimination in the distribution of federal funds In 1972, an amendment called the Equal Employment Opportunity was added to this law, to extend protection against discrimination to women in the work place. BrainPop – Civil Rights

31 Lester Maddox Became the governor of GA in 1967
Governor of GA during the March on Washington Strongly supported segregation

32 African Americans in Office
Maynard Jackson Elected mayor of Atlanta in 1973 1st African American mayor of a major southern city Mayor from 1974 to 1982 and was elected again in 1990 Andrew Young An aide to Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Executive director of the SCLC In 1972, won GA’s Fifth District seat in the U.S. House of Representatives 1st African American from GA to be elected to Congress since the 1860s

33 County Unit System The state of Georgia has had many important political, economic, and social developments since Many of these changes began at the end of the county unit system.

34 County Unit System Started in GA in 1917
GA used this system from 1917 – 1962 Became legal when the Neil Primary Act was passed Before 1962 GA did not allow each individual to cast a vote The winner of the popular vote in each county received the “unit” votes for that county The system was declared unconstitutional in 1962 and was ended by the Supreme Court

35 County Unit System Kept segregation going in Georgia
When it ended, it gave African Americans equal voting rights Carl Sanders was the first governor of Georgia to be elected by popular vote

36 Jimmy Carter Carter did not approve of the segregation laws throughout the South. These views have shaped many of his policies and actions during his life.

37 Jimmy Carter James Earl Carter Born October 1, 1924 in Plains, GA
Served in the navy from Elected to the GA Senate in 1962 and in 1964 Won race for Governor in 1970

38 President Jimmy Carter
Won the presidential election in 1976 Significant Fact He was the only person from GA to serve as President of the United States Two Positive Things Signed a peace treaty between Egypt and Israel Signed the Panama Canal Treaty Two Negative Things Poor economy Iranian Hostage Crisis

39 Life after presidency In October 2002, he received the Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts to find peaceful solutions to problems around the world In 1999, President Clinton awarded him the highest civilian honor in the United States, the Presidential Medal of Freedom

40 Georgia’s Two-Party System
From the early 1900s until the early 1970s, Georgia could be considered a one-party state.

41 GA’s Two-Party System Considered a one party state b/c politics were controlled by the predominately white Democratic Party A one-party system allows only one political party to have political power

42 Political Developments Since 1970
Voting Rights Act of 1965 encouraged many blacks to vote Julian Bond, an African American civil rights leader, won a seat in the GA state legislature in 1965 Maynard Jackson became the first black mayor of a large southern city, or Atlanta; in 1973; served 3 terms African Americans organized the Georgia Legislative Black Caucus in 1975; to help African Americans legislators make changes

43 African American leaders
Calvin Smyre – appointed as the assistant floor leader in 1983; became floor leader in 1986 Gene Walker – elected as the Senate majority whip in 1989 Bob Holmes – appointed to the House Budget subcommittee in 1990 Al Scott – Commissioner of Labor; 1st African American to hold a statewide constitutional office

44 Georgia’s Political Changes Affect the Economy
Farming is still important, more industry has come to the urban areas of the state Georgia’s leading manufactured goods are now chemicals, food products, textiles, and transportation equipment

45 Social Developments Since 1970
Public Transportation systems in the state improved Education improved Racial equality improved Public housing improved More African American voters registered for the first time

46 Changing Communities

47 1996 Olympic Summer Games Came to Georgia in 1996
Idea started with Billy Payne, an Atlanta lawyer 9 years earlier Andrew Young, mayor of Atlanta at the time Two things that impressed the Olympic committee Georgia’s mild climate The city’s history as a center of the United States’ civil rights struggle in the 1960s

48 1996 Olympic Summer Games Federal government paid to replace sidewalks, put up street signs, and plant trees to make the Olympic sites more beautiful Cost the country millions of dollars Streets and highways had to be fixed and enlarged to handle all the traffic that would come to town during the 17 days of the Olympics More than 72 million visitors Games were held in Savannah, Columbus, Athens, Gainesville, and Cleveland

49 1996 Olympic Summer Games Atlanta continues to host sporting events today Housing was improved in Downtown Atlanta

50 Immigrants Coming to Georgia
Immigrant is a person that moves to another country to stay In 1965 a larger number of immigrants moved to the United States For better jobs and homes Most came from Mexico Mostly worked in agriculture in Georgia Mostly worked in textile mills in Dalton, GA Main concern of the U.S. government is the abundance of immigrants coming illegally.

51 Immigrants Coming to Georgia
The Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 created penalties, or punishments, for companies that hire illegal immigrants

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