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Disentangling in the ontology forest The Fishery Ontology Service Project Aldo Gangemi LOA-ISTC-CNR, Via Nomentana 56, Roma, Italy.

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Presentation on theme: "Disentangling in the ontology forest The Fishery Ontology Service Project Aldo Gangemi LOA-ISTC-CNR, Via Nomentana 56, Roma, Italy."— Presentation transcript:

1 Disentangling in the ontology forest The Fishery Ontology Service Project Aldo Gangemi LOA-ISTC-CNR, Via Nomentana 56, Roma, Italy

2 Beijing, 27th April 20042 Summary  Presentation of the Laboratory for Applied Ontology  Basic primer on formal ontology distinctions, design patterns and techniques (link to other tutorial)  Methodology used in the FOS project  Some implemented ontology-driven services for fishery

3 What is LOA?

4 Beijing, 27th April 20044 What is LOA?  Laboratory_for_Applied_Ontology -partOf- Institute_of_Cognitive_Sciences_and_Technology -partOf- Italian_National_Research_Council -memberNumerosity- 125 (70 staff) -location- {Roma, Trento, Padova} -head- Cristiano_Castelfranchi -memberNumerosity- 13 -location- {Roma, Trento} -head- Nicola_Guarino -researchTopic- {axiomatic_theories, foundational_ontologies, domain_ontologies, lexical_ontologies, ontology_development}

5 Beijing, 27th April 20045 Selected ongoing Projects  IKF : Intelligent Knowledge Fusion (Eureka Project) Ontology of banking transactions (with ELSAG Banklab) Ontology of Service-Level Agreement and IS monitoring (with SELESTA) Ontology of Insurance Services (with Nomos SpA)  WonderWeb (FP5): Ontology Infrastructure for the Semantic Web (LOA: foundational ontologies for the Semantic Web, ontology of information, ontology of services)  OntoWeb (FP5 - NoE): Ontology-based information exchange for knowledge management and electronic commerce (LOA: SIG on Content Standards)  FOS (with UN-FAO): Alignment of legacy fishery terminologies, ontology-based query expansion  Metokis (FP6 - Strep): Middleware between domain knowledge and user task-oriented applications (LOA: Task modelling ontology for the communication of knowledge objects)  SEMANTIC MINING (FP6 - NoE): Semantic Interoperability and Data Mining in Biomedicine  TICCA (PAT&CNR): Interaction and cooperation with artificial agents (LOA: ontology of social interaction)

6 Beijing, 27th April 20046 Collaborations  U. of Trento, Padova, Roma, Torino, Verona  ITC-IRST  ITTIG-CNR, ILC-CNR  History of Science Museum, Florence  IRIT-CNRS  IFOMIS  Columbia University  U. of Manchester, Leeds  U. of Amsterdam, VUA  Berlin-Brandenburgische Akademie der Wissenshaften  U. of Leipzig, Bremen, Hamburg  European Media Lab, Heidelberg  U. of Salzburg  U. of Queensland  ICS-Forth, Heraklion  UPM  IBM Italia  Nomos Spa  Selesta Spa  Elsag Spa  Libero/Wind  UN-FAO  Boeing Inc  IBM Watson Research Centre  Ontology Works  Language & Computing

7 Beijing, 27th April 20047 Research topics  Logical tools for ontological analysis and development  Domain ontologies Physical objects and artifacts Information and information processing Social interaction Legal and financial entities Biomedical entities Services and planning Fishery and agriculture Cultural heritage  Ontology in language and cognition Lexical ontologies  Ontology-driven information systems Conceptual modeling Information access Information integration

8 Basic primer on formal ontology distinctions, tools and techniques Link to other tutorial!

9 ONIONS@FOSONIONS@FOS Methodology and lifecycle Shown through a UML activity diagram (divided into five pieces for readability)

10 Beijing, 27th April 200410 Lifting and datamodel creation/integration

11 Beijing, 27th April 200411 Ontologies by precision Ontological precision Axiomatized theory Glossary Thesaurus Taxonomy DB/OO scheme tennis football game field game court game athletic game outdoor game Catalog game athletic game court game tennis outdoor game field game football game NT athletic game NT court game RT court NT tennis RT double fault game(x)  activity(x) athletic game(x)  game(x) court game(x)  athletic game(x)   y. played_in(x,y)  court(y) tennis(x)  court game(x) double fault(x)  fault(x)   y. part_of(x,y)  tennis(y) precision: the ability to catch/provide all and only the intended meaning (for a logical theory, to be satisfied by intended models)

12 Beijing, 27th April 200412 Legacy aquaculture hierarchies from fishery terminology systems AQUACULTURE (AGROVOC) NT1 fish culture NT2 fish feeding NT1 frog culture … rt agripisciculture rt aquaculture equipment … Fr aquaculture Es acuicultura AQUACULTURE (ASFA) NT Brackishwater aquaculture NT Freshwater aquaculture NT Marine aquaculture rt Aquaculture development rt Aquaculture economics rt Aquaculture engineering rt Aquaculture facilities Biological entity (FIGIS) Taxonomic entity Major group Order Family Genus Species Capture species (filter) Aquaculture species (filter) Production species (filter) Tuna atlas spec SUBJECT (OneFish) Aquaculture Aquaculture development Aquaculture economics @ Aquaculture planning

13 Beijing, 27th April 200413 Heterogeneous datatypes in legacy FIGIS DTDs

14 Beijing, 27th April 200414 Sample data model analysis/conversion in FOS Term ≠ Concept Term  String Concept = Class BT ≈ subsumption between classes RT ≈ top-level conceptual relation {Descriptors} =  {Classes},{Individuals} Individual  Class Concept ≠ Subject/Topic/Domain

15 Beijing, 27th April 200415 Formalization and Core Ontology Creation

16 Beijing, 27th April 200416 Datamodel mapping and its effects on translation  agrovoc_schema:Descriptor agrovoc:River agrovoc:Amazon   owl:Class(agrovoc:River)  owl:Individual(agrovoc:Amazon(rdf:type agrovoc:River))

17 Beijing, 27th April 200417 Datamodel mapping and required transformations  agrovoc:RT  agrovoc_schema:Descriptor agrovoc:Fishing_vessel agrovoc:Fishing_gear agrovoc:Fishing_vessel,RT,Fishing_gear   Class(agrovoc:Fishing_vessel partial (restriction(agrovoc:RT someValuesFrom(agrovoc:Fishing_gear))))

18 Beijing, 27th April 200418 Core Fishery Ontology – 2:DOLCE+ top

19 Beijing, 27th April 200419 Going practical: Generic Use Cases and Ontology Design Patterns  Foundational ontologies are applied  Sample Generic Use Cases: who does what, when and where? what are the parts of sth? what is it made of? what’s the place of sth? what’s the time frame of sth? how can you do what you do? does my behaviour conform to that rule? what’s the function of that artifact? how is it built? how did that phenomenon happen? what’s your role in that affair? is my scheduling compatible with yours?

20 Beijing, 27th April 200420 This talk: using UML class diagrams  Non-standard use of UML to visualize ODPs: generalisation  subsumption (“subClassOf”) association  two-way conceptual relation (“property”) attribute  one-way conceptual relation (“property”) assuming reasoning capabilities with classification and role chaining association with no cardinality: 0..* realization  instantiation role  non-rigid property

21 Beijing, 27th April 200421 Core Fishery Ontology – 3:Fishery Technique Ontology Design Pattern

22 Beijing, 27th April 200422 Modularization and alignment

23 Beijing, 27th April 200423 Minimal case of alignment asfa:Trawlers cof:Fishing_vessel dolce+:physical_object foundational core domain = rdfs:subClassOf

24 Beijing, 27th April 200424 DOLCE foundational ontology – “ground” OntoWordNet fragments – “posts” Fishery core ontology – “walls” Fishery domain ontologies – “roof” and “floors” Realistic layers in fishery ontology alignment The “toyhouse”

25 Beijing, 27th April 200425 Alignment method  Does the class to be aligned (or a proximal one) exist in COF? if so, align it, e.g.: Class(figis:Marine_fishes partial cof:Aquatic_organism) Otherwise:  Does the class exist in WordNet? if so, include the OntoWordNet fragment related to that class into the library, e.g.: Class(figis:Aquatic_resource partial own:Asset) Otherwise:  Do the experts think the class is very relevant for fishery, or the class has a rich taxonomy under it? if so, create a small taxonomy that sketches a new core ontology for that domain, e.g. by adapting them from OntoWordNet (e.g. vehicles, equipments) or from existing ones (biomedicine) Otherwise:  Align the class directly under a generic class in the foundational layer, e.g.: Class(figis:Country partial dolce+:Political_Geographic_Object).

26 Beijing, 27th April 200426 Consistency issues  From ASFA formalization, we get that: Class(asfa:Trap_fishing partial asfa:Catching_methods) Class(asfa:Trap_fishing partial asfa:Fishing)  From the alignment, we know that (transitively): Class(asfa:Catching_methods partial dolce+:Object), while Class(asfa:Fishing partial dolce+:Activity)  And from DOLCE+ we know that: (disjointClasses dolce+:Object dolce+:Activity)  Hence the intersection: Class(asfa:Trap_fishing partial (intersection asfa:Catching_methods asfa:Fishing))  is inconsistent

27 Beijing, 27th April 200427 BT polysemy issues  From AGROVOC we know: Class(agrovoc:Blood_Cells partial agrovoc:Blood)  From a biomedical ontology(ON9.3) we know: Class(agrovoc:Blood_Cells partial on9:Cellular_structure) Class(agrovoc:Blood partial on9:Tissue) (DisjointClasses on9:Tissue on9:Cellular_structure) Class(on9:Tissue partial (restriction(dolce+:constituent someValuesFrom(on9:Cellular_structure))))  Therefore, on the basis of ON9, we can suggest that Class(agrovoc:Blood_Cells partial agrovoc:Blood)  is a polysemous use of the BT relations (a cellular structure cannot be a tissue, because the two classes are disjoint), therefore it is possibly the case that: Class(agrovoc:Blood_Cells partial (restriction(dolce+:constituent someValuesFrom(agrovoc:Blood))))

28 Beijing, 27th April 200428 Refinement, annotation, and merging

29 Beijing, 27th April 200429 ReLearning procedure  Given RT relations and axioms from reference ontologies: Class(asfa:Trawlers partial (restriction(asfa:RT someValuesFrom(asfa:Pelagic_fisheries)))) Class(own:Instrumentality partial (restriction(dolce+instrument_for someValuesFrom(dolce+:Activity))))  and we know transitively that: Class(asfa:Trawlers partial own:Instrumentality) Class(asfa:Pelagic_fisheries partial cof:Fishing_activity)  then we can infer that: Class(asfa:Trawlers partial (restriction(dolce+instrument_for someValuesFrom(asfa:Pelagic_fisheries))))

30 Beijing, 27th April 200430 Annotations  Domain lexicon (synonyms and multilingual labels)  Subject trees (topics)  Identification codes (unique identitifers)  Comments (glosses, scope notes, examples, etc.)

31 Beijing, 27th April 200431 Merging  Homonymic merging: agrovoc:Trawlers figis:Trawlers asfa:Trawlers  fos_vessel:Trawler  Heterogeneous taxonomic position (emergent polysemy): Class(agrovoc:Dredgers partial agrovoc:Ships) Class(asfa:Dredgers partial asfa:Work_platforms)  Expert’s merging (emergent synonymy): asfa:Ships figis:Non-fishing_vessels

32 Beijing, 27th April 200432 Post-processing lifecycle

33 Beijing, 27th April 200433 FOS Ontology Library Figures  35828 domain classes have been integrated in the library  272 classes and 164 properties populate the DOLCE-Lite-Plus foundational ontology, with about 1200 axioms  809 classes populate the top part of OntoWordNet resulting from the alignment of WordNet to DOLCE+  170 classes and 48 properties populate the COF, with about 650 axioms  154 classes have been reused from OntoWordNet in order to align ASFA and AGROVOC to DOLCE+ (for the parts not covered by COF)  22274 domain classes have been aligned (13554 classes not yet aligned come from the non-fishery part of AGROVOC, which have been included in the integration because have some RT relations with the fishery part).  12700 domain classes have been merged  9944 domain individuals have been aligned  4700 domain individuals have been merged.

34 Some implemented ontology-driven services for fishery A few slides. There exists an exhaustive presentation by Margherita Sini (FAO-GILW)

35 Beijing, 27th April 200435 Query taxonomy (derived from expert and user requirement)  Document search Survey search Regulation search Fact sheet search  Within-document search Instance search Individual search Value search Fact search Concept search Object type search Activity type search Method/Technique search  Data search Database query Multiple-database query  Within-ontology search

36 Beijing, 27th April 200436 Mock-up for querying distributed dynamic data "tell me what vessels from a nearby country are currently in the marine area 50N060W within Atlantic Ocean, provided that also some Thunnus alalunga stock can be fished by those vessels, through allowed techniques" (retrieve ?ves (exists (?type ?tech ?spec ?cou ?stock) (and (instance-of ?ves ?type) (superrelations ?type Fishing-Vessel) (superrelations ?tech Fishing-Technique) (has-depend-ons ?type ?tech) (has-depend-ons ?tech ?spec) (subrelations ?spec |Thunnus alalunga|) (instance-of ?cou Country) (instance-of ?stock Aquatic-Stock) (FLAG-STATE ?ves ?cou) (WEAK-CONNECTION ?cou |Atlantic Ocean@fig|) (OCEANIC-POSITION ?stock |50N060W@fig|) (OCEANIC-POSITION ?ves |50N060W@fig|) (fail (has-depend-ons ?tech |Drifting longlines@fig|)) (RESOURCE-SPECIES ?stock |Thunnus alalunga|)))) -> (|i||Atlantic Enterprise II|) Blue: core concept types Pale blue: domain concept types Red: individuals Dark red: individual(s) found

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