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© 2006 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Water Is a Powerful Solvent What are solutions and mixtures? A solution is made of two components, with uniform molecular properties throughout: The solvent, which is usually a liquid, and is the more abundant Component.
© 2006 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. The solute, often a solid or gas, is the less abundant component. Most mixtures are different from a solution, because solutions are homogenous mixtures. In a mixture the components retain separate identities, so it is NOT uniform throughout.
© 2006 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Salinity Salinity is the total quantity of dissolved inorganic solids in water. The heat capacity of water decreases with increasing salinity As salinity increases, freezing point decreases As salinity increases, evaporation slows
© 2006 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qeZgJzt 3m04 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qeZgJzt 3m04
© 2006 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. A Few Ions Account for Most of the Ocean’s Salinity Mostly Sodium Chloride Also, Sulfate, Magnesium, Calcium and Potassium
© 2006 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Fig. 7-6, p. 192
© 2006 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Components of Ocean Salinity The Earth’s Crust washes into the sea to add to the salinity of the ocean.
© 2006 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. http://videos.howstuffworks.com/discovery/ 31886-howstuffworks-show-episode-4- ocean-water-video.htm http://videos.howstuffworks.com/discovery/ 31886-howstuffworks-show-episode-4- ocean-water-video.htm
© 2006 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. The Ocean Is in Chemical Equilibrium Is the ocean becoming progressively saltier with age? No, the ocean is in chemical equilibrium. The proportion and amounts of dissolved solids remain constant. This concept is known as the “steady state ocean.“
© 2006 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Gas Concentrations Vary with Depth Oxygen is high at the surface and Carbon Dioxide is low. This is reversed as you increase in depth. Carbon Dioxide makes up most of the dissolved gasses in the ocean.
© 2006 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Dissolved Oxygen is very important to aquatic life Higher temperatures reduce the amount of dissolved oxygen
© 2006 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Fig. 7-12, p. 198 8.0 average ocean pH pH 7.07.58.59.0 0 Upper sunlit layer 2,000 1,000 Bottom of photo- synthetic zone 4,000 6,000 2,000 8,000 3,000 10,000 Depth (m) 12,000 Depth (ft) 4,000 CCD 14,000 5,000 16,000 18,000 6,000 8.0
© 2006 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. pH The Ocean’s Acid-Base Balance Varies with Dissolved Components and Depth
© 2006 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. pH changes as Carbon dioxide dissolves or as carbon is changed into Carbonate in the shells of animals. The ocean becomes more acidic with more dissolved CO 2
© 2006 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MgdlAt4 CR-4 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MgdlAt4 CR-4 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d0kacyy LVB4 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d0kacyy LVB4
Solids in Seawater. © 2006 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Look For The Following Key Ideas In Chapter 7 The polar nature of the water.
Fig. 7-CO, p Fig. 7-1, p. 186 Condensation Precipitation 111,000 Precipitation 385,000 Transpiration and Glaciers Evaporation 425,000 Groundwater.
Seawater Chemistry. Components of Seawater water’s ability to dissolve crustal material as it cycles from ocean to atmosphere have added solids and gases.
Chapter 7 Ocean Chemistry Oceanography An Invitation to Marine Science, 7th Tom Garrison.
Properties of seawater. Properties of water 1.Polarity and hydrogen bonding cohesion good solvent many molecules dissolve in H 2 O 2.lower density as.
What is salinity? What are the major sea salts? Salinity- the total quantity or concentration of all dissolved inorganic solids, or more precisely, ions.
Kaitlyn Johnson Block 2A Marine Science. By mass, seawater is about 96.5% water and 3.5% dissolved substances (various types of salts.) The world.
Seawater Chemistry JQ: If you add a pinch of salt to water, will it boil faster?
1 Chapter 7 Ocean Chemistry About solutions and mixtures A solution is made of two components, with uniform (meaning ‘the same everywhere’) molecular properties:
Chemical Properties of Seawater. I. The water molecule 1.Made of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom.
© 2006 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Sea Water Chemistry.
WOD: DIATRIBE (DYE uh tryb) n. a bitter verbal attack What properties does water have because it is a polar molecule? 10/21Ch 6.3 notes26 10/21Pg.
© 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. 7 Oceanography, An Invitation to Marine Science | 9e Tom Garrison Ocean Chemistry.
Properties of Water Marine and Freshwater. 1. Temperature THE most important limiting factor. THE most important limiting factor. A change in temperature.
CHEMICAL OCEANOGRAPHY Aquatic Science *** The ocean is the largest repository of organisms on the planet, with representatives from all phylums. *** Seawater.
Ocean Chemistry Unit 5. Colligative Properties of Seawater Heat Capacity – –heat required to raise 1 g of substance 1°C – –Heat capacity of water.
Seawater Chemical Properties. 2 / 33 Phases of Substances.
Seawater Chemistry. 1.Water is a powerful solvent. The total quantity (or concentration) of dissolved inorganic solids in water is its salinity. 2.Although.
Ocean Water Chemistry Chap 14, Sec 4. Essential Questions: 1. How salty is ocean water? 2. Why is the ocean salty? 3. Why doesn’t the salinity change.
Ocean Water Section 1 Key Ideas Describe the chemical composition of ocean water. Describe the salinity, temperature, density, and color of ocean water.
Ocean Water Chemistry Essential Question: How would you describe the composition of the ocean?
Seawater Chemistry 70% of the Earth is covered by ocean water!
PH and Salts Colligative Properties of Seawater vs. Freshwater Determining Salinity, Temperature, and Depth.
Ocean Water Chemistry Section Salinity -The amount of dissolved salt in water The ocean has 35g of salt per 1kg water or 35g salt per 1000g water.
Ocean Chemistry Unit 5. The chemical properties of the ocean are important to understand because the marine environment supports the greatest abundance.
Oceanography. What is the Forchhammer’s principle? a. The saturation level of seawater b. The constant proportion of solids in seawater c. The components.
Ocean Water Chemistry Earth’s Water Chapter 4.3 Pages
Chapter : Seawater Fig Density of seawater to g/cm 3 Ocean layered according to density Density of seawater controlled by temperature,
Properties of Ocean Water Can you see what the sea’s about?
Lesson 6: Ocean Layers I Chemical Oceanography. We have been learning about ocean chemistry What are two important cycling nutrients we have learned about?
Temperature SalinityDensityLight Everything Else.
General Chemistry Element –composed of atoms Nucleus –protons (+) and neutrons (0) Electrons (-)
Properties of Ocean Water. Dissolved Gases Gases… - Nitrogen (N), oxygen (O 2 ), and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) - Gases can enter the ocean from streams,
Ocean Water Chemical & Physical Properties of SeaWater.
Ocean Properties and Chemistry. Ocean Properties.
Ch. 21 Ocean Water Ch Properties of Ocean Water.
Ocean Water Section 1 Section 1: Properties of Ocean Water Preview Objectives Properties of Ocean Water Dissolved Gases Dissolved Solids Salinity of Ocean.
Carbon Dioxide and Carbonate system Carbon cycle - Why is it important? 1. Regulates temperature of the planet 2. Important for life in the ocean 3. Regulates.
Balancing equations. Law of Conservation of Mass This law states that matter is never created or destroyed during a chemical reaction but is instead just.
15 – 2 Sea water. Chemical Properties of Sea Water Sea water is 96.5% water, 3.5% salts Sea water is 96.5% water, 3.5% salts Salinity: Salinity: –Measures.
Matter and Change Chapter Nine: Acids, Bases and Solutions Chapter Ten: Chemical Reactions Chapter Eleven: The Chemistry of Living Things.
Oceans. Ocean-Atmosphere Links Exchange of water, carbon dioxide and heat. Surface ocean currents are driven by atmospheric circulation. Oceans and atmosphere.
The Carbon Cycle. Carbon Dioxide and Carbonate system Why is it important? 1. Regulates temperature of the planet 2. Important for life in the ocean 3.
Properties of Solutions. CA Standards Students know the definitions of solute and solvent. Students know how to describe the dissolving process at the.
Chemical Oceanography: Salinity. What is Salinity? A measure of the amount of salt in seawater, measured in parts per thousand (ppt) or (%o). A measure.
Chapter 6: Water and Seawater Fig Atomic structure Nucleus Protons and neutrons Electrons Ions are charged atoms.
The Nature of Water Compare and contrast the general structures of plant and animal cells. Compare and contrast the general structures of prokaryotic and.
Oceanography: Properties of Water. Density of Water Density - __________________________________ __________________________________ Density - __________________________________.
Oceanography Properties of Ocean Water. 1. Chemical Properties/Composition 400 billion kg of dissolved solids are carried by rivers into the ocean. –
Mixtures & Solutions Biology. Mixtures Combination of substances where components retain their own properties Do not combine chemically Are the following.
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