Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

POLYMER MATRIX COMPOSITES

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "POLYMER MATRIX COMPOSITES"— Presentation transcript:

1 POLYMER MATRIX COMPOSITES
CREATING A MATERIAL ADVANTAGE POLYMER MATRIX COMPOSITES OPPORTUNITIES and CHALLENGES Terry MCGRAIL CYTEC ENGINEERED MATERIALS STRATEGIC R&T DIRECTOR WILTON CENTRE UK

2 A market and technology leader in:
Fibre preforms and Resin Infusion PRIFORM™ Aerospace Composite Prepreg Engineering Adhesives and Primers Carbon fibre Manufacture and Weaving Global Business Sales $620M pa Products qualified on virtually every military & civil aircraft in the western world Unequaled aircraft qualification database Primary supplier of prepreg into Formula 1

3 Cytec Industries, Inc. (NYSE: CYT)
CARBON FIBRE PRODUCTION E M D FIBERITE NARMCO Fothergill ROOTS OF CYTEC ENGINEERED MATERIALS

4 TYPICAL CIVIL AIRCRAFT COMPOSITE SECONDARY STRUCTURES
Cockpit components Doors Interiors: sidewall, ceiling and floor panels; storage and cargo bins; lavatories and galleys Radome Air conditioning ductwork Pylon fairings Leading edge slats Ailerons Tail planes and elevators Fin boxes and rudders Engine components and cowlings Exteriors: Wing to body fairings Flaps, spoilers and deflectors % by Weight Composites Use on Large Commercial Transports Slower adopter than military Conservative – safety paramount Not as “performance” driven—cost is a key issue Mostly secondary structures and interiors

5 CURRENT & FUTURE COMPOSITE OPPORTUNITIES ON CIVIL AIRCRAFT
787 A380 % Composite 747 757/767 A 777 A330/340 A310 5% 50% 1982 737 C/E Spoiler 1995 777 C/E Empanage 1993: 13% of wing is composite 1989: A320 C/E tail plane 1985: A310 C/E tail fin box 1986 747 Winglet A350

6 AIRBUS COMPOSITES USE CURRENT AIRBUS % weight of composite FUTURE AIRBUS 350 with composite wings >25% composite

7 BOEING COMPOSITES USE BOEING 787 COMPOSITE FUSELAGE & WINGS TARGET >50% COMPOSITE PROTOTYPE FLYING IN 2008 SOME OF THE CHALLENGES BONDING LARGE COMPOSITE AND METAL STRUCTURES MONITORING THE HEALTH OF BONDS AND STRUCTURES DETECTION OF DAMAGE & REPAIR OF BONDS AND STRUCTURES OPPORTUNITIES FOR SELF-HEALING SUPPLY CHAIN – FIBRES, FABRICS, PREFORMS LIGHTENING STRIKE PROTECTION FIRE, SMOKE TOXICITY

8 CURRENT and FUTURE OPPORTUNITIES - MILITARY AIRCRAFT
UCAV Mirage F15 F18CD C17 AV 8B Rafale F18 E/F UCAV Euro Fighter F35 F/A 22 B2 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 F-22 F-35 JSF Global Hawk F-18

9 CYCOM 977 THERMOPLASTIC TOUGHENED EPOXY USED ON F22
F-22 Raptor 25% composite by weight Weight reduction - specific strength Temperature performance Stealth characteristics Radar transparency Lower cost

10 CRITERIA FOR MATRIX SELECTION
What thermal properties does the application demand? Upper use-temperature USE TEMPERATURE AREA OF APPLICATION POLYMER MATRIX LOW AMBIENT AIRCRAFT INTERIORS PHENOLICS <120oC CIVIL SUBSONIC EPOXY RESINS FORMULA 1 EPOXY TP BLENDS POLYAROMATIC TPs oC CIVIL & MILITARY EPOXY RESINS SUBSONIC & SUPERSONIC EPOXY TP BLENDS CYANATE ESTERS oC MILITARY BISMALEIMIDES SUPERSONIC oC JET ENGINE PROXIMITY POLYIMIDES TS or TP >500oC ENGINE METAL ALLOYS HIGH >>500oC ENGINE & BRAKES CERAMICS CARBON - CARBON

11 CRITERIA FOR MATRIX SELECTION
SELECTION OF MATRIX BY PRICE – RAW MATERIALS + PROCESSING COSTS Cheap TS Phenolics TS Epoxies TP Polyphenylene sulfide (PPS) TS Epoxy/thermoplastic blends T/P TS Bismaleimides (BMIs) TP Polyetherketoneketone (PEKK) TP Polyetherimide (Ultem) TS Cyanate esters TS Polyimide (PMR15) TP Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) Expensive

12 POLYMER MATRIX EVOLUTION
PRE-1980s BRITTLE EPOXY RESINS LOW DAMAGE TOLERANT COMPOSITE STRUCTURES EARLY 1980s THERMOPLASTIC COMPOSITES – APC2 (ICI) HIGH DAMAGE TOLERANCE – AT A PRICE

13 POLYMER MATRIX EVOLUTION
PRE-1980s BRITTLE EPOXY RESINS LOW DAMAGE TOLERANT COMPOSITE STRUCTURES EARLY 1980s THERMOPLASTIC COMPOSITES – APC2 (ICI) MID-1980s EPOXY:ENGINEERING THERMOPLASTIC BLENDS CIBA; Bucknell & Partridge, Cranfield University;Cecere, Hedricks & McGrath,VPI ICI, Hercules, BASF, Toray IMPROVED EPOXY RESIN TOUGHNESS AFFORDABLE COMPOSITES WITH IMPROVED DAMAGE TOLERANCE NO REDUCTION IN OTHER PROPERTIES AND PROCESSABILTY COMPOSITE USE IN PRIMARY CIVIL AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES HIGH DAMAGE TOLERANCE – AT A PRICE TOUGHENED BMIs

14 TYPICAL EPOXY FORMULATION FOR BLENDING WITH PES

15 EPOXY:PES COPOLYMER BLENDS
VARIATION OF PES-TYPE POLYMER BACKBONE

16 PES COPOLYMER END-GROUP VARIATIONS
The amine end-groups on the polymer can be varied from 0% to 100%

17 EFFECT ON MORPHOLOGY OF PES END-GROUPS
Phase inverted Smaller phase size Phase inverted morphology No chemical reaction between epoxy and PES Co-continuous morphology Covalent bonding between Epoxy and PES Phase inverted morphology Co-inclusions in PES phase

18 EPOXY:NH2-PES COPOLYMER BLENDS
HISTORICAL DATA Thermoplastic Variables versus Morphology & Fracture Toughness G1c MORPHOLOGY Particulate Ribbon Co-continuous Phase inverted MORPHOLOGY Phase inverted Co-continuous NH2-PES copolymer backbone structure Number of reactive ends on NH2-PES copolymer Amount of PES in blend MW of PES copolymer

19 STRUCTURE-PROPERTY RELATIONSHIPS
EPOXY:THERMOPLASTIC BLEND CYCOM 977 range Thermo-mechanical properties Environmental resistance Morphology of cured blend CO-CONTINUOUS Reaction induced phase separation by spinodal decomposition process Thermoplastic copolymer backbone No of reactive ends Mn of thermoplastic copolymer Amount of thermoplastic copolymer Epoxy resin mixture Curing agent Cure temperature Viscosity and processability

20 EPOXY ENGINEERING POLYMER BLENDS AS COMPOSITE MATRICES
ICI in MID-1980s EPOXY:THERMOPLASTIC BLENDS IMPROVED RESIN TOUGHNESS IMPROVED COMPOSITE DAMAGE TOLERANCE NO REDUCTION IN OTHER PROPERTIES AND PROCESSABILTY CYCOM 977 RANGE OF COMPOSITE PREPREGS NOW INDUSTRIAL STANDARD FOR PRIMARY STRUCTURES ON CIVIL AND MILITARY AIRCRAFT

21 PREPREG - THE MOST EXPENSIVE ROUTE TO COMPOSITE STRUCTURES
CHALLENGES THERMOPLASTICS – CHEAPER AND EASIER PROCESSING SUPER-TOUGH THERMOSETTING RESINS CHEAPER & STIFFER REINFORCING FIBRES SIMPLER PREPREGGING PROCESS & LESS SCRAP ROOM TEMP STORAGE & TRANSPORT OF PREPREG LOWER COST PREPREG FABRICATION PROCESSES: - OUT-OF-AUTOCLAVE PROCESSING - AUTOMATIC TAPE-LAYING LESS EXPENSIVE PROCESSING NEEDED ABILITY TO MAKE MORE COMPLEX STRUCTURES INCREASED AUTOMATION

22 THE CHALLENGE OF PROCESSING COSTS
Breakdown of construction costs of aircraft composite part Material cost 25% Total processing cost 75% How do we reduce material costs? How do we reduce processing costs?

23 REDUCE PROCESSING COSTS USING RESIN INFUSION
Resin Transfer Moulding (RTM & VARTM) Liquid Resin Infusion (LRI, SCRIMP, RIFT) Resin Film Infusion (RFI) 3D fibre preform for injection with epoxy resin Pressure Resin Heat Vacuum Dry carbon preform WHY USE RESIN INFUSION? Eliminates prepregging – labour reduction in processing Enables complex & integrated net shape parts to be made in one piece Allows for innovative engineering No autoclave required & lower cost tooling Eliminates the need for fasteners and adhesives so reduces fault lines Tailored fibre placement local property improvement

24 MATRICES FOR COMPOSITES
Processability Fluidity of matrix Epoxy resins - low viscosity precursors Crosslinked cured resin Brittle epoxy Poor damage resistance High modulus High temperature + Engineering Thermoplastic Property Property Tough Matrix Good damage resistance Cycom 977-2 Not suitable for RI processes High viscosity resin - Processable as prepreg

25 MAJOR DISADVANTAGE OF LRI COMPARED TO PREPREG?
High toughness EPOXY:TP blends are too viscous to process because: RI process requires permeation of the resin throughout the fibre preform to get: No voids or porosity in composite structure Complete wetting of fibres for mechanical properties Practicable injection times (resin pot-life) Safe injection temperature & pressure Highly viscous EPOXY:TP blends do not satisfy these criteria

26 THE PROBLEM - EPOXY:THERMOPLASTIC BLEND VISCOSITY
Epoxy resin + hardener + 25% thermoplastic – Cycom 977-2 Epoxy resin + hardener – For RI viscosity needs to be < 1000 cps CYTEC SOLUTION – “SOLUBLE FIBRE TECHNOLOGY” - PRIFORM

27 SOLUBLE FIBRE TECHNOLOGY – THE CONCEPT PRIFORM™
3D FIBRE PREFORM TP fibre Dissolves 977-2 Composite part INJECT LOW VISCOSITY RESIN 977-20 EPOXY RESIN + CURING AGENT  = <1000 cps EPOXY + CURING AGENT THERMOPLASTIC MATRIX  = 100K cps WOVEN FABRIC 977-2 RESIN FORMULATION Epoxy resin + hardener 75% w/w Thermoplastic 25% w/w THERMOPLASTIC CO-WEAVE WITH CARBON FIBRE THERMOPLASTIC FIBRES

28 SOLUBILITY OF THERMOPLASTIC FIBRE IN EPOXY RESIN
Fibre dissolution test in epoxy at 120oC using hot-stage microscope Single fibre between two microscope slides and resin

29 1 min 2 min 0 min 3 min 6 min 7 min 4 min 5 min
SOLUBILITY OF PES-COPOLYMER FIBRE IN EPOXY RESIN Fibre dissolution test in epoxy at 130oC using hot-stage microscope Single fibre between two microscope slides and resin 40 µ diameter thermoplastic fibre Dissolution tests in at 130oC Epoxy resin 1 min 2 min 0 min 3 min 6 min 7 min 4 min 5 min Fibre residue

30 Dissolution time of a single fibre in 977-20 versus temperature
THERMOPLASTIC FIBRE SOLUBILITY Dissolution time of a single fibre in versus temperature

31 Fracture Toughness G1c versus % Thermoplastic
Toughened with TP fibre Toughened with TP powder

32 Temperature 180 °C 120-140 °C Injection 55-85 °C Time
NEW PROCESSING CYCLE Temperature Curing and phase separation 180 °C Fibre dissolution °C Injection 55-85 °C Time

33 FIBRE DISSOLUTION DURING CURE CYCLE
TP fibre is not soluble at resin injection temperature – resin flow front is unaffected TP fibres remain dormant until resin injection has been completed TP fibre slowly dissolves as temperature of mould is raised Dissolved TP then diffuses and enters into reaction with the epoxy The TP phase separates to give co-continuous morphology Epoxy resin is toughened by the TP – identical to matrix

34 PRIFORM 977-20 vs 977-2A: Dry data

35 PRIFORM 977-20 vs 977-2A: Wet/120°C data

36 A330/340 SPOILER CENTRE HINGE EXAMPLE
RFI composite Centre Hinge solution 4 Kg each, 35% weight reduction Weight savings = 24 Kg total Bonded to spoiler/wing Cost reduction - estimated 25% Innovative engineering Centre hinge issues Machined forged aluminium 6 Kg each - 12 per aircraft Labour intensive assembly Bolted to spoiler/wing

37 SOLUBLE FIBRE TECHNOLOGY - PRIFORM™
A novel technology for the manufacture of high toughness composite parts for aircraft primary structures via a cost-effective liquid resin infusion process CARBON FIBRE PREFORM FOR INFUSION WITH EPOXY RESIN

38 COMPOSITE CENTRE FITTING BY RI PROCESS
Carbon fibre + TP fibre preform for RI process Finished article! Demonstrator part for the Airbus A spoiler centre fitting Properties equivalent to Cycom 977-2 Now in production – A340 maiden flight completed Fischer Advanced Composites Components - proprietary design

39 THE FUTURE FOR COMPOSITES ----------?
>50% COMPOSITE UNMANNED MILITARY PLANES >50% COMPOSITE CIVIL AIRCRAFT STRUCTURE FAST SHIPS – RAPID TRANSIT OF MAIL & MILITARY SUPPLIES MILITARY VEHICLES – LIGHTWEIGHT – EASILY TRANSPORTED DOMESTIC CARS – GREEN TECHNOLOGY MASS TRANSPORT – GREEN TECHNOLOGY WIND TURBINES & INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS

40 KEY CHALLENGES LIQUID RESIN INFUSION Match uniaxial prepreg properties
Textiles technology – weaving, stitching, NCFs, non-woven fabric, 3D weaving Low viscosity resins – RT injectable Super tough – Boeing Materials Spec properties Tough high temperature matrix – BMI? Low temperature curable resins Low cost tooling Engineering design MULTI-FUNCTIONAL COMPOSITES – STRUCTURAL PROPERTIES + ? Lightening strike protection Energy generation and storage Fire, Smoke, Toxicity minimisation Health monitoring In-flight structure adjustment Self-healing

41 KEY CHALLENGES NANO-TECHNOLOGY COULD THIS GIVE ALL THE ANSWERS?:
Mechanical properties – stiffness, strength – weight reduction toughness, damage resistance Electrical properties – conductivity, dielectric, irradiation screening, LSP Energy generation and storage Thermal conductivity Fire resistance Barrier to solvents, water, gases High performance from cheap resins CHALLENGES: Dispersing & exfoliating Characterisation of dispersions Functionalisation versus properties Processing of viscous/thixotropic dispersions Affordability - >>$100/g for SWNTs SHE


Download ppt "POLYMER MATRIX COMPOSITES"

Similar presentations


Ads by Google