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G Terms. What is term? #1. Arabic word for “holy warrior”; in Islam, a fighter who declares war against nonbelievers. In the mid-tenth century, Turks.

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Presentation on theme: "G Terms. What is term? #1. Arabic word for “holy warrior”; in Islam, a fighter who declares war against nonbelievers. In the mid-tenth century, Turks."— Presentation transcript:

1 G Terms

2 What is term? #1. Arabic word for “holy warrior”; in Islam, a fighter who declares war against nonbelievers. In the mid-tenth century, Turks who converted to Islam often became these warriors and raided communities.

3 ghazi #1. Arabic word for “holy warrior”; in Islam, a fighter who declares war against nonbelievers. In the mid-tenth century, Turks who converted to Islam often became these warriors and raided communities.

4 What is the term? #2. Russian for “openness” or “publicity”; a policy instituted in the late 1980s by Soviet premier Mikhail Gorbachev (1985-1991) calling for openness in speech and in thinking, which allowed greater cultural and intellectual freedom and ended most censorship of the media.

5 glasnost # 2. Russian for “openness” or “publicity”; a policy instituted in the late 1980s by Soviet premier Mikhail Gorbachev (1985-1991) calling for openness in speech and in thinking, which allowed greater cultural and intellectual freedom and ended most censorship of the media.

6 What is the term? #3. The belief among the majority of the world’s scientists that hydrocarbons produced through the burning of fossil fuels, and excessive deforestation have caused a greenhouse effect, trapping heat in the atmosphere and increasing global temperatures over time.

7 global warming #3. The belief among the majority of the world’s scientists that hydrocarbons produced through the burning of fossil fuels, and excessive deforestation have caused a greenhouse effect, trapping heat in the atmosphere and increasing global temperatures over time.

8 What is the term? #4. The increasingly interconnnected nature of the world’s various peoples and societies in terms of politics, economics, and culture. Though this phenomenon began in the sixteenth century, it achieved its greatest impact in the late twentieth and early twenty-first century.

9 globalization #4. The increasingly interconnnected nature of the world’s various peoples and societies in terms of politics, economics, and culture. Though this phenomenon began in the sixteenth century, it achieved its greatest impact in the late twentieth and early twenty-first century.

10 What is the term? #5. The khanate that formed the western part of the Mongol Empire from around 1241 to 1480 in what is now south-central Russia. The Mongols did not occupy Russia as they had China and Persia and therefore had an uneven impact there.

11 Golden Horde #5. The khanate that formed the western part of the Mongol Empire from around 1241 to 1480 in what is now south-central Russia. The Mongols did not occupy Russia as they had China and Persia and therefore had an uneven impact there.

12 What is the term? #6. An architectural style, originating in France in the twelve century, that was characterized by pointed arches, ribbed vaults, and large stained- glass windows. This style is marked by an emphasis on space and light ; exteriors are often dark and forbidding, but the interiors represent lightness, harmony, and order.

13 Gothic #6. An architectural style, originating in France in the twelve century, that was characterized by pointed arches, ribbed vaults, and large stained- glass windows. This style is marked by an emphasis on space and light ; exteriors are often dark and forbidding, but the interiors represent lightness, harmony, and order.

14 What is the term? #7. A Turkish title meaning ‘lord of the steppe”; its bearer was equivalent to an emperor. The title is commonly associated with Chinggis (Genghis) Khan (r. 1206-1227)

15 Great Khan #7. A Turkish title meaning ‘lord of the steppe”; its bearer was equivalent to an emperor. The title is commonly associated with Chinggis (Genghis) Khan (r. 1206-1227)

16 What is the term? #8. A major Chinese initiative (1958-1960) led by Mao Zedong (r. 1949-1976) that was intended to promote rapid economic growth and collective living arrangements through large agricultural units called communes, small-scale industrialization in the rural areas, and a broader knowledge of modern technology among ordinary people. Such policies gave rise to a massive economic crisis, widespread famine, and starvation, exacerbated by several years of poor weather.

17 Great Leap Forward #8. A major Chinese initiative (1958-1960) led by Mao Zedong (r. 1949-1976) that was intended to promote rapid economic growth and collective living arrangements through large agricultural units called communes, small-scale industrialization in the rural areas, and a broader knowledge of modern technology among ordinary people. Such policies gave rise to a massive economic crisis, widespread famine, and starvation, exacerbated by several years of poor weather.

18 What is the term? #9. In the 1930s in the Soviet Union, these were a massive attempt to cleanse society of supposed “enemies of the people.” Nearly a million people were executed between 1936 and 1941, and between 4 and 5 million more were sentenced to forced labor in a gulag.

19 Great Purges #9. In the 1930s in the Soviet Union, these were a massive attempt to cleanse society of supposed “enemies of the people.” Nearly a million people were executed between 1936 and 1941, and between 4 and 5 million more were sentenced to forced labor in a gulag.

20 What is the term? #10. A term referring to one of two different ruptures in the history of the Christian church. The first came to a head in 1054 between the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church after centuries of tension between them. The second, from 1378 to 1417, was when the Catholic Church has two rival claimants to the papacy.

21 Great Schism #10. A term referring to one of two different ruptures in the history of the Christian church. The first came to a head in 1054 between the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church after centuries of tension between them. The second, from 1378 to 1417, was when the Catholic Church has two rival claimants to the papacy.

22 What is the term? #11. A rammed-earth fortification along the northerner border of China, built and rebuilt over many centuries beginning around 500 B.C.E. Intended to prevent the penetration into China of nomadic peoples considered “barbarians” by the Chinese, it involved forced labor of hundreds of thousands of subjects.

23 Great Wall #11. A rammed-earth fortification along the northerner border of China, built and rebuilt over many centuries beginning around 500 B.C.E. Intended to prevent the penetration into China of nomadic peoples considered “barbarians” by the Chinese, it involved forced labor of hundreds of thousands of subjects.

24 What it the term? #12. A potent military weapon of the Byzantine navy used in the mid-eighth century, comprised of combustible oil that floated on the water and burst into flames when it hit its target. The weapon was responsible for many Byzantine naval victories and enabled the endurance of the Byzantine Empire (330-1453).

25 Greek fire #12. A potent military weapon of the Byzantine navy used in the mid-eighth century, comprised of combustible oil that floated on the water and burst into flames when it hit its target. The weapon was responsible for many Byzantine naval victories and enabled the endurance of the Byzantine Empire (330-1453).

26 What is the term? #13. An increase in developing nations’ food production; beginning in the 1950s, that stemmed from the introduction of high-yielding wheats, hybrid seeds, chemical fertilizers, and other agricultural advancements.

27 Green Revolution #13. An increase in developing nations’ food production; beginning in the 1950s, that stemmed from the introduction of high-yielding wheats, hybrid seeds, chemical fertilizers, and other agricultural advancements.

28 What is the term? #14. An association of craftspeople, merchants, or professionals that operated variously in many civilizations during the pre-industrial era. In Europe by the second half of the twelfth century, guilds became professional associations defined by rules that regulated, protected, and policed the membership.

29 guild #14. An association of craftspeople, merchants, or professionals that operated variously in many civilizations during the pre-industrial era. In Europe by the second half of the twelfth century, guilds became professional associations defined by rules that regulated, protected, and policed the membership.

30 What is the term? #14. A network of Soviet prison/labor camps, established in the early twentieth century across the country.

31 gulag #14. A network of Soviet prison/labor camps, established in the early twentieth century across the country.

32 What is the term? #15. The signing of treaties and agreements under threat of military violence, such as the opening of Japan to the U.S. trade in 1853 after Commodore Matthew Perry’s demands.

33 gunboat diplomacy #15. The signing of treaties and agreements under threat of military violence, such as the opening of Japan to the U.S. trade in 1853 after Commodore Matthew Perry’s demands.


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