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Mr. Hartwell -- F-M Meteorology Weather vs. Climate.

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Presentation on theme: "Mr. Hartwell -- F-M Meteorology Weather vs. Climate."— Presentation transcript:

1 Mr. Hartwell -- F-M Meteorology Weather vs. Climate

2 Weather The state or condition of the atmosphere on a day-to-day basis.

3 Weather MeteorologyMeteorology – study of the atmosphere and its motions; prediction of weather From Greek root meteoron, “high in the sky”


5 U.S. & World Geography Understanding weather is important How can you report the weather if you don’t know where it’s happening? Learn the locations of: –50 U.S. States –7 Major continents & mountain ranges –All major oceans & seas

6 Climate The condition of the atmosphere over many years. Cyclic—patterns

7 Climate ClimatologyClimatology –study of meteorological trends; projection

8 NCODA: Navy Coupled Ocean Data Assimilation

9 Continents affect climate Temperature gradient between tropics & poles drives Earth’s climate Atmosphere & oceans try to equalize temperatures Antarctica—modulates atmospheric processes

10 Scales of Weather 1.Synoptic 2.Mesoscale 3.Microscale 4.Storm-scale cumulus systems

11 Synoptic Weather

12 Mesoscale Weather Right: Northeast RADAR 9/9/07

13 Microscale Weather Weather events too small for a weather map, for example

14 Storm-Scale Cumulus Systems Specific storm-related weather

15 Map Plotting Latitude: a place on Earth north or south of the Equator Longitude: a place east or west of the Prime Meridian

16 ‘+’ = North and/or East ‘—’= South and/or West

17 Mr. Hartwell -- F-M Meteorology Hydrologic Cycle Carbon Dioxide Cycle

18 Atmosphere & Cycles Weather involves water in the atmosphere (hydrologic cycle). Climate also involves trace atmospheric gases (carbon-dioxide cycle)

19 Trace Gases Carbon Dioxide (CO 2 ) Water vapor (H 2 0) Ozone (O 3 ) Methane (CH 4 ) CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons) Modify energy balance in atmosphere

20 Sinks vs. Sources Cycles involve storage and release of gases in the atmosphere. Source—supplies / releases gases to atmos. Sinks—remove / store gas from atmos.

21 Carbon Cycle

22 Hyrdologic Cycle

23 Hydrologic Cycle Water plays a major role in climate & weather. A change in one component causes change in weather. EX: Less cloud cover  more sun hitting ground  warms ground & atmos.

24 Mr. Hartwell -- F-M Meteorology Time Zones UTC/GMT/Z Military Time Int. Date Line

25 Time Zones Earth has _____ time zones. 24—One for each of the 24 hours it takes for Earth to rotate on its axis. TZ—used to coordinate global weather observations. Coordinating times is CONFUSING!


27 UTC UTC = Coordinated Universal Time (Universel Temps Coordonne) UTC = GMT (Greenwich Meridian Time; Greenwich, England) Z = Zulu (UTC without the last 2 zeros)

28 Military Time UTC observations recorded in military time. 24 hour clock Examples: 12 midnight = 0000 12:30 am = 0030 1:00am  12:59pm is “normal” 1:00pm = 1:00 + 1200 = 1300 4:30pm = __________ = _______


30 US Time zones Eastern (New York, Florida)= -5 GMT standard time -6 GMT Daylight Savings Time EST = Eastern Standard Time EDT = Eastern Daylight Time

31 Daylight Savings Time Advanced time so afternoons are longer Widespread use in 1916 to conserve wartime coal use


33 Daylight Savings Time Advanced time so afternoons are longer Widespread use in 1916 to conserve wartime coal use Complicates weather observation

34 US Time zones Eastern (New York, Florida)= 0 (-5 GMT) Central (Illinois, Louisiana)= -1 hour from Eastern time Western (Utah, New Mexico)= -2 Pacific (Oregon, California)= -3 Alaska= -4 Hawaii= -6 hours from Eastern time

35 International Date Line 180 o longitude Halfway around world from Greenwich, England 24 hour difference on one side vs. other East = backward 1 day West = forward 1 day EX: Australia is on tomorrow’s date


37 Time Zones 2 Try this in your logbook: If there are 24 time zones on Earth, how many degrees make up each time zone? Think about it quietly, then we will share with the class.

38 Time Zones 3 T. Zones are roughly parallel to lines of longitude. They are adjusted to local areas. WHY? So 1 major city or other population center does not have 2 different times.

39 Mr. Hartwell -- F-M Meteorology Meteorological Organizations Types of Meteorologists

40 Public Organizations (Government) NOAA—National Oceanographic & Atmospheric Administration NWS—National Weather Service NCDC—National Climatic Data Center

41 NOAA Conducts ocean & atmosphere research Environmental outreach Regulates use of resources (ie: fisheries)

42 NWS Collects / collates weather observations Uses computer models Issues alerts –Severe weather –Flooding –Tsunamis Weather safety


44 Private Organizations AMS—American Meteorological Society WMO—World Meteorological Society NASCAS—National Association of Storm Chasers And Spotters

45 AMS Development & dissemination of education & information Atmospheric, oceanic, hydrologic sciences For enthusiasts & academics

46 WMO Agency of the United Nations Authoritative voice on state & behavior of the Earth’s… –Atmosphere –Interaction with ocean –Climate

47 NASCAS World’s first professional storm chasing organization Provide accurate safety & educational information Safety & responsibility FREE MEMBERSHIP!

48 Types of Meteorologists 1) TV meteorologists 2) Weather forecasters 3) Consulting meteorologists 4) Climatologists

49 TV Meteorologists Presents the weather information and forecasts to many people by television B.S. or M.S. in meteorology Member of the American Meteorological Society. Courses in meteorology involve mathematics and physics. Produce interesting graphics.

50 Weather Forecasters Analyze data and produce forecasts for TV Meteorologists, the National Weather Service, or other customers. Takes data from local weather sites, balloon launched instruments, RADAR/ satellites Ph.D. in meteorology or atmospheric science

51 Consulting Meteorologist Testify in court Paid to provide advice on weather B.S. or M.S. in meteorology, and may find a Ph.D. helpful

52 Climatologist Collect weather records and produce summaries of the records i.e.: next season's rainfall or temperature Most states have a State Climatologist Members of college or university faculties and do research

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