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Chapter 11: Islam Islam means “submission” in Arabic

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1 Chapter 11: Islam Islam means “submission” in Arabic
Story of Muhammad’s life, words, and deeds (hadith) are basis of Islam Teachings of Quran and of Muhammad’s life are fulfilled in the life of a community (the umma) Combination of religion and government makes Islam similar to empires

2 The Origins of Islam The Prophet: His Life and Teaching
Visited by Angel Gabriel in 610 C.E. at age forty; visits continued for twenty years After Muhammad’s death, his words were memorized and written down as the Quran Quran regarded as absolute, uncorrupted word of God Discovery of paper and printing speeds the spread of the Quran

3 The Origins of Islam The Five Pillars of Islam Declaring the Creed
Praying five times a day facing Mecca Giving alms to the poor Fasting each day during Ramadan Making a hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca)

4 The Origins of Islam The Five Pillars of Islam [cont.]
Jihad (sacred struggle) sometimes called the “sixth pillar” For some it means the extension of Muslim lands (dar al-Islam) For others it means personal struggle Faithful Muslims will attain paradise Many parallels among Islam, Judaism, and Christianity

5 The Origins of Islam Responses to Muhammad
Residents of Mecca found his moral teachings too demanding and questioned his mental stability Meccan Christians and Jews did not believe their monotheism needed purification Death of many of first-generation followers caused remainder to relocate

6 The Origins of Islam Responses to Muhammad [cont.]
The Hijira and the Islamic Calendar Muhammad invited to Medina to adjudicate dispute Flight to Medina (622 C.E.) known as hijira and is Year One of the Islamic calendar Converted many in Medina but not Jews Created religious community (umma) interlocked with Islamic government (dar al Islam) Formulated legal code based on the Quran

7 The Origins of Islam Responses to Muhammad [cont.]
Muhammad Extends His Authority Warfare between early Muslims and Mecca with Muhammad ultimately winning in 630 C.E. Muslims destroyed Meccan idols, captured Ka’aba, and turned it and its sacred black rock into Islmic shrine By time of Muhammad’s death in 632, Muslims were well on their way to creating an Arabia-wide federation dedicated to faith and the political structure of Islam

8 The Origins of Islam Responses to Muhammad [cont.]
Connections to Other Monotheistic Faiths Muslims claim Abraham (Hebrew) as the first Muslim and see Jews, Christians, and Muslims as “children of Abraham” Accept earlier prophets including Jesus as people whose ideas were later corrupted by followers Believe there will be no further revelations Christians and Jews allowed to practice their faith but were subject to a special tax

9 Successors to the Prophet
Problem of successor to Muhammad initially met by election of close associates as caliph Military successes spread Islam: Damascus in 636 and Jerusalem in 638 Administered conquered lands with garrison towns which were unstable Islam an empire or a religion?

10 Successors to the Prophet
Religious Conflict and Sunni-Shi’a Division Should caliph be from Muhammad’s family [Shi’ites] or from Ummayad clan of recent caliphs [Sunni] ? Two Shi’a caliphs were assassinated and war broke out (680); eleven Shi’a imams or caliphs were assassinated in all Shi’a wanted imam to model religious principles; opponents saw post as political

11 Successors to the Prophet
Religious Conflict and the Sunni-Shi’a Division [cont.] Hereditary line of Muhammad’s family ended with the disappearance of the “twelfth imam” – hidden by God Office of caliph no longer exists but dispute continues 83% of Muslims are Sunni today

12 Successors to the Prophet
Umayyad Caliphs Build an Empire Urban life eroded tribal life, created class differences, and mixed Arab and non-Arab elites Used Byzantine and Persian governing practices Revolts from 740s onward but some military victories including Talas River (751), which halted Chinese advance westward. (Tang Empire forces)

13 Successors to the Prophet
The Third Civil War and the Abbasid Caliphs From northern Iran Abbasids claimed caliphate in 750 Continued imperial quest of the Umayyads Abbasids successfully ruled empire for a century with centralized administration and good local relations

14 Successors to the Prophet
The Weakening of the Caliphate Abbasids faced succession issues and civil war Began to rely more on slave troops Civilian administration became more corrupt Tax collection became exploitive

15 Successors to the Prophet
The Weakening of the Caliphate [cont.] The Emergence of Quasi-Independent States Distance of rulers from people prompted revolts Ismaili (2nd largest banch of Shi’ism)and Shi’ite leaders promoted rebellion In 945 rebels took control of Baghdad and effectively ended the empire, but allowed Abbasids to continue to rule in name only Arrival of Seljuk Turks led to creation of sultanate over government while Abbasids administered the religious side (1055)

16 Successors to the Prophet
The Weakening of the Caliphate [cont.] Mongols and the Destruction of the Caliphate Temujin (later called Chinngis Khan) forged alliance with Turks and built extensive empire Hulegu, grandson of Chinngis Kahan and ruler of much of SE Asis, conquered Baghdad (1258) and executed Abbasid caliph Death of Hulegu’s brother and military defeat ended expansion of Mongol empire Muslims continued to expand and win converts despite military defeats

17 Spiritual, Religious, and Cultural Flowering
Fall of Caliphate in 1258 meant fall of umma Some scholars saw this as decline of Islam Others point to continued spread of Islam and its acceptance by Mongol descendents Current distribution of Muslims shows presence in areas never reached by Caliph or converted after end of caliphate

18 Spiritual, Religious, and Cultural Flowering
Islam Reaches New Peoples India Muslim raids into India led to conquest of Delhi by 1211 and creation of Delhi Sultanate ( ) Controlled subcontinent by 1335 Most Muslim rulers accommodated Hinduism Converts to Islam escaped “untouchable” status Many Muslims were near the top of the social hierarchy

19 Spiritual, Religious, and Cultural Flowering
Islam Reaches New Peoples [cont.] Southeast Asia Most conversions occurred in 14-15th centuries Sub-Saharan Africa Islam arrived via traders and Sufis Ghana was major trading center, rival of Arabs Traders converted to Islam; masses in 19th century Wave of conversions accompanied defeat of Ghana by Almoravids

20 Spiritual, Religious, and Cultural Flowering
Islam Reaches New Peoples [cont.] Sub-Saharan Africa [cont.] Mansa Musa of Mali, orthodox Muslim, made hajj in 1324 and revealed wealth of area Timbuktu a major center of learning Spread of Islam into East Africa met fierce resistance in Christian Ethiopia

21 Spiritual, Religious, and Cultural Flowering
Law Provides an Institutional Foundation Legal system of Islam, shari’a, survived fall of caliph Laws administered by religious scholars (ulama)

22 Spiritual, Religious, and Cultural Flowering
Sufis Provide Religious Mysticism The Role of Mysticism Rose as rejection of materialism of Umayyad Sufis enabled followers to experience God directly Sufis attracted adherents with simplicity Some emphasized ecstatic practices (characterized by ecstasy) while others were more sober and meditative

23 Spiritual, Religious, and Cultural Flowering
Intellectual Achievements History Formal history introduced by al-Tabari (c ) A prominent historian and interpreter of the Qur’an Ibn Khaldun ( ) was first to apply social science theory to the understanding of history Favored cyclical view of history where new waves of invasion introduced new cycles of history

24 Spiritual, Religious, and Cultural Flowering
Intellectual Achievements [cont.] Philosophy Studied philosophy from Greeks and Indians Attracted to Platonism Mutazilites argued that Quran should be seen as metaphorical, not literal, word of God. Enabled Christian and Jewish philosophers to encounter Greek and Indian texts due to their interaction with multiple societies.

25 Spiritual, Religious, and Cultural Flowering
Intellectual Achievements [cont.] Mathematics, Astronomy, and Medicine Astronomy texts from India to Baghdad by 770 al-Khwarazmi (d. c. 846) developed algebra Medical cures were spread around the empire Qanum fi’l-tibb (Canon of Medicine) of Ibn Sina (d. 1037) dominated Christian medical thinking for three hundred years. Served as a chief medical text for 500 years.

26 Spiritual, Religious, and Cultural Flowering
The Extension of Technology Islam a communication network connecting all major Eurasia civilizations Exchanged information with all of them Agricultural exchange extensive Used irrigation to offset absence of monsoon rains prevalent in India, source of many new crops

27 Spiritual, Religious, and Cultural Flowering
City Design and Architecture Muslim governments built great cities Mosques were a necessary element of every city and neighborhood Writings of Ibn Battuta-travelled the entire Islamic territory, underscore link between cities, commerce, and travel

28 Relations with Non-Muslims
Dhimmi Status Three choices for non-Muslim in Muslim state Conversion For worshippers of one God who accepted Muslim rule Status defined by The Pact of Umar ( ) Defined their legal status within Muslim lands Paid special tax but could worship in their own faith Couldn’t build new churches, seek converts, wear Muslim clothing, or build houses higher than Muslim houses Fight against the Muslim state

29 Relations with Non-Muslims
The Crusades ( ) Called by Pope Urban II at request of Alexius I Were political as much as religious efforts Early crusades were successful and brutal European crusaders were mercenaries Crusades could capture but not hold holy places of Christianity Crusades divided Christianity along east-west lines

30 Relations with Non-Muslims
A Golden Age in Spain Berbers revitalized Spanish culture and broke Byzantine control of trade in western Mediterranean End of Spanish caliphate (1030) opened door to start of Christian reconquista Rich hybrid culture survived in midst of reconquista Ferdinand and Isabella defeated Muslims in 1492 and expel Jews from Spain; Muslims follow

31 Judaism, Christianity, and Islam: What Difference Do They Make?
Sources of friction among religions with common heritage Are proselytizing religions in search of converts Each sought to be the government in its areas of predominance Each became identified with a specific geographic region But there was also peaceful coexistence

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