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AUDIT OF FINANCIAL STATEMENTS 2012-13: REVISED REPORTING REQUIREMENTS & OTHER IMPORTANT ISSUES Himanshu Kishnadwala 09 Aug 2013.

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Presentation on theme: "AUDIT OF FINANCIAL STATEMENTS 2012-13: REVISED REPORTING REQUIREMENTS & OTHER IMPORTANT ISSUES Himanshu Kishnadwala 09 Aug 2013."— Presentation transcript:

1 AUDIT OF FINANCIAL STATEMENTS : REVISED REPORTING REQUIREMENTS & OTHER IMPORTANT ISSUES Himanshu Kishnadwala 09 Aug 2013

2 Introduction Contractor, Nayak & Kishnadwala 2  Increased focus on role of auditor in recent times due to some wrong and some ‘right’ reasons  Audit consists of 3 major activities: a) Conduct of the audit (using SAs) b) Ensuring compliance of AS c) Ensuring adequate disclosure as per statute, AS, etc.  Since last several years, the focus of audit has shifted to (b) and (c) ignoring (a).

3 Contents Contractor, Nayak & Kishnadwala 3  Revised Schedule VI and AS – Some Issues  ICAI Announcements  Corporate Law Updates - MCA Circulars  RBI Circulars  Other Developments for FY  Standards On auditing – SA 700 series  Some issues on CARO

4 Some Issues Revised Schedule VI and AS 4 Contractor, Nayak & Kishnadwala

5 Current vs. Non Current Contractor, Nayak & Kishnadwala 5 A liability is classified as Current if it satisfies any of the following criteria: a)it is expected to be settled in the company’s normal operating cycle; b)it is held primarily for the purpose of being traded; c)it is due to be settled within 12 months after the reporting date; or d)the company does not have an unconditional right to defer settlement of the liability for at least 12 months after the reporting date.

6 Current vs. Non Current … Contractor, Nayak & Kishnadwala 6 An asset is classified as Current when it satisfies any of the following criteria: (a)It is expected to be realized in, or is intended for sale or consumption in the company’s normal operating cycle; (b)It is held primarily for the purpose of being traded; (c)It is expected to be realized within 12 months after the reporting date; or (d)It is cash or cash equivalent unless it is restricted from being exchanged or used to settle a liability for at least 12 months after reporting period date.

7 What is Operating Cycle? An Operating Cycle (OC) is the time between the acquisition of assets for processing and their realization in cash or cash equivalents.  If an OC cannot be identified, it is assumed to have a duration of 12 months  If a company is engaged in multiple businesses, the OC can be different for each line of business Contractor, Nayak & Kishnadwala 7

8 Operating Cycle – some issues  Different OC for different customers based on different credit terms? say., PSU and non PSU customers  Can OC differ from year to year?  Whether lead time for procuring raw material should be included in OC?  Is credit period allowed by supplier reduced in determination of OC?  To determine OC to consider:  Normal business behaviour  Industry practice  Liquidity position ?? Contractor, Nayak & Kishnadwala 8

9 Operating Cycle – some issues…  Industry specific OC:  Manufacturing Companies: To determine business-wise  Real Estate Companies: Can be determined project-wise  Finance Companies: Difficult to determine – to be assumed at 12 months  Service companies: To determine business-wise  Relevance of OC for classification of:  Trade receivables / payables – OC relevant  Supplier/Customer advances – OC relevant  Borrowings – OC relevant  Loans – 12 months period  Other assets / liabilities – 12 months period Contractor, Nayak & Kishnadwala 9

10 Current vs. Non Current … Determining Whether Current or Non-Current? For Assets: To consider expectation of receipt For Liabilities: To consider obligation to pay Whether accounting policy for classification of items into Current / Non Current is to be disclosed?  Neither the RS VI nor the GN on RS VI requires such disclosure  However, disclosure preferable in case of OC > 12 months  In other cases, though not required, maybe given as it lends higher transparency to the FS Classification may have impact on CARO reporting  Whether funds raised on short term basis are used for long term purposes? Contractor, Nayak & Kishnadwala 10

11 Trade Payables 11  A payable shall be classified as ‘trade Payables’ if it is in respect of amount due on account of goods purchased or services received in the normal course of business.  Amount under contractual obligations can no longer be included within trade payables.  An argument can be made that any obligation, except statutory obligation, incurred by a Co pertains to goods & services received in normal course.  GN is unclear & subject to interpretations. Contractor Nayak and Kishnadwala

12 Trade Payables… Contractor Nayak and Kishnadwala 12  Considering the ambiguity only the following may be excluded from trade payables :  Liability towards purchase of Fixed Assets, including finance lease liability.  Statutory dues and all due to government/regulatory bodies.  Contractually reimbursable expenses incurred on behalf of third party which are not charged to Statement of P&L of the Co.  Can the following items be classified as Trade Payable:  Outstanding Audit fees  Amount due to party on account administration expenses

13 Fixed Assets Contractor, Nayak & Kishnadwala 13 Revised Schedule VI requires:  “Except in the case of the first financial statements laid before the company (after its incorporation) the corresponding amounts (comparatives) for the immediately preceding reporting period for all items shown in the financial statements including notes shall also be given.”  Thus, previous years figures for each class of Fixed Asset has to be given as against the current practice of just mentioning the previous years total of fixed assets. To illustrate (FY 2011 – 12) :  Tata Motors give their previous figures under each current year figure in the table for fixed assets  Grasim Industries reproduces the entire FA schedule of previous year

14 Investments 14  Non Current Investments shall be classified as “trade Investment” or “Other Investments”.  The term “trade investments” is defined neither in Revised Schedule VI nor Accounting Standards.  The term “trade investment” is normally understood as an investment made by a company in shares or debentures of another company, to promote the trade or business of the first company.  Whether investment in subsidiary to be classified as “trade investment” or “other investment” ? Contractor Nayak and Kishnadwala

15 Investments… 15 As per Revised Schedule VI: Expected to be realised within 12 months of BS date As per AS 13:  Investment that by its nature is readily realisable and intended to be held for not more than 1 year from the date of investment.  Investment made in December 2011 and expected to be realised in February 2013 (i.e. after 14 months) – whether current or non-current?  Since AS overrides RS VI, investment will be non-current, though expected to be realised within 12 months of next BS date (i.e. 31st March 2012) Contractor Nayak and Kishnadwala

16 16 Statement of Profit and Loss Whether Revenue should be Gross or Net? As per GN on terms used in FS, Sales Turnover is defined as: “aggregate amount for which sales are effected or services rendered by an enterprise” Guide to Company Audit mentions “Total turnover is the aggregate amount for which sales are effected, giving the amount of sales in respect of each class of goods dealt with by the company and indicating quantities separately” Statement of CARO and Part II of existing Schedule VI defines turnover as “aggregate amount for which sales are effected by the company. Sales effected would include sale of goods as well as services rendered by the company.” Contractor Nayak and Kishnadwala

17 17 Whether Revenue should be Gross or Net? … As per GN on Tax Audit, turnover maybe interpreted to mean “the aggregate amount for which sales are effected or services rendered by an enterprise” Para 10 of AS 9 requires “disclosure of Gross Turnover with separate deduction for Excise Duty”. GN on VAT states “VAT is collected from customers on behalf of VAT authorities and … should not be recorded as revenue of the enterprise” Statement of Profit and Loss… Contractor Nayak and Kishnadwala

18 18 Whether Revenue should be Gross or Net? … Service Tax For Service Tax, sec 83 of the Finance Act, 1994, provides that the provisions of certain sections (like sec 9C, 12A, etc.) of the Central Excise Act, 1944 shall apply, so far as may be, in relation to service tax as they may apply to a duty of excise. Section 12 A of the Central Excise Act, 1944, which provides that the amount of excise duty shall form part of the price of the goods sold. On a similar analogy, service tax would form part of the price of the services provided. Statement of Profit and Loss… Contractor Nayak and Kishnadwala

19 19 Whether Revenue should be Gross or Net? … Excise Duty Since format of RS VI clearly mentions Excise Duty as a deduction from Sales, the same would be necessary. Service Tax / VAT GN On Revised Schedule VI Such taxes are generally collected from the customer on behalf of government. Depending on whether company is acting as agent or principal, such taxes should be included in Sales (i.e. Gross or excluded (i.e. Net). Statement of Profit and Loss… Contractor Nayak and Kishnadwala

20 Revenue from Operations – Other Operating Revenue vs. Other Income 20  The term “Other Operating Revenue” is not defined by RS VI.  It would include Revenue arising from a company’s operating activities, i.e., either its principal or ancillary revenue-generating activities, but which is not revenue arising from the sale of products or rendering of services.  Whether a particular income constitutes “other operating revenue” or “other income” is to be decided based on the facts of each case and detailed understanding of the company’s activities. Contractor Nayak and Kishnadwala

21 Revenue from Operations – Other Operating Revenue vs. Other Income… 21 Whether the following is “Other Operating Revenue” or “Other Income”?  A Company engaged in manufacture and sale of industrial and consumer products also has one real estate arm.  A consumer products company owns a 10 storied building. The company currently does not need one floor for its own use and has given the same temporarily on rent.  Sale of Fixed Assets  Sale of Scrap  Interest from customers on delayed payments  Foreign Exchange Gains Contractor Nayak and Kishnadwala

22 Revenue from Operations – Other Operating Revenue vs. Other Income Contractor Nayak and Kishnadwala 22 Whether the following is “Other Operating Revenue” or “Other Income”?  Sale of Carbon credits  Dividend from Joint Venture/Subsidiary  Insurance Claims Received – Kansai Nerolac Paints Limited  Indirect Tax Claims Received – Kansai Nerolac Paints Limited.

23 Are the following statements correct?  The company follows the accrual basis of accounting and the AS issued by ICAI.  For Fixed Asset schedule previous years’ figures not necessary for each asset  Cost for the purpose of calculating Inventory is determined on Moving Average basis.  Provision is made for obsolete inventories  Trade receivables due for a period exceeding 6 months Contractor, Nayak & Kishnadwala 23 Disclosure of Accounting Policies

24 ICAI Announcements 24 Contractor, Nayak & Kishnadwala

25  Para 46 / 46A of AS 11 inserted by MCA in 2009 / 2011  Option available to add / deduct foreign exchange differences arising on long-term foreign currency monetary items insofar as they relate to the acquisition of a depreciable capital asset to the cost of the asset  In other cases (i.e. for other than for depreciable assets), to be accumulated in a “ Foreign Currency Monetary Item Translation Difference Account (FCMITDA)” in the balance sheet.  The FCMIDTA can be credit or debit  Issue is if it is debit, under Revised Schedule VI, where is FCMITDA to be presented in the BS? Presentation of FCMITDA in BS Contractor, Nayak & Kishnadwala 25

26  As per ICAI FAQs on AS 11 notification issued in May 2009: “ The FCMITDA should be shown as a separate line item in the Balance Sheet, in line with treatment given to Deferred Tax Asset/Liability, i.e. after the head ‘Investments’ or after the head ‘Unsecured Loans’ as the case may be and separately from current assets and current liabilities.”  As per Revised Schedule VI, no line item has been specified for the presentation of FCMITDA  Companies were therefore following different practices for disclosure of such FCMITDA esp. when the balance was an asset. Contractor, Nayak & Kishnadwala 26 Presentation of FCMITDA in BS…

27  Council of ICAI vide announcement in April 2013 said: “ An asset is a resource controlled by the enterprise as a result of past events from which future economic benefits are expected to flow to the enterprise.”  Where the balance in FCMITDA represents foreign currency translation loss, it does not meet the above definition of ‘asset’ as it is neither a resource nor any future economic benefit would flow to the entity therefrom. Accordingly, such balance cannot be reflected as an asset. Contractor, Nayak & Kishnadwala 27 Presentation of FCMITDA in BS…

28  Therefore, the Council decided that debit or credit balance in FCMITDA should be shown on the “Equity and Liabilities” side of the balance sheet under the head ‘Reserves and Surplus’ as a separate line item.  This would be a negative reserve. Contractor, Nayak & Kishnadwala 28 Presentation of FCMITDA in BS…

29  The Council of the Institute at its meeting held on January 2013 considering recent changes in the enhancement of tax audit limit, decided to change the applicability of Accounting Standards for Level II entities from Rs. 40 lakhs to Rs. 1 crore with effect from the accounting year commencing on or after April 01,  This has implications on applicability of ICAI notified AS to non- corporate entities Contractor, Nayak & Kishnadwala 29 Change in criteria for Level II Entity

30 MCA Circulars Corporate Law Updates 30 Contractor, Nayak & Kishnadwala

31 Sec 372A(3) of The Companies Act, 1956: “No company shall grant a loan to any body corporate at a rate of interest lower than the prevailing bank interest as made public under section 49 by RBI.” Movement of bank rates over the last few years is as under: Contractor, Nayak & Kishnadwala 31 Sec 372A of Companies Act, 1956 PeriodBank Rate (%) April 2003 To 13th February th February, 2012 to 16th April, th April, 2012 to 28th January, th January, 2013 onwards 8.75

32 Sec 372A of Companies Act, 1956 … Contractor, Nayak & Kishnadwala 32  Section does not apply (among others) to loans:  By companies whose principal business is acquisition of securities  By private companies (unless subsidiary of public company)  Loans or Guarantees to Wholly Owned Subsidiary  Position to be seen at time of giving loan

33 Issue: The restriction imposed by Section 372A(3) of The Companies Act, 1956, had resulted in companies not being able to invest in tax free bonds issued by the government which had interest in the range of 6.75% to 7.5%. Clarification: In view of the above difficulty, MCA issued a circular no. 06/2013 dated 14/03/2013 whereby it clarified that in cases where the effective yield (effective rate of return) on tax free bonds is greater than the yield on prevailing bank rate, there is no violation of Section 372A(3) of Companies Act, Contractor, Nayak & Kishnadwala 33 Clarification on Sec 372A(3)…

34 Companies (Acceptance of Deposits Amendment) Rules, 2013 Contractor, Nayak & Kishnadwala 34  In the definition of ‘deposits’ in the Companies (Acceptance of Deposits) Rules, 1975,: Rule 2, in clause (b), for sub clause (x), currently excludes “any amount raised by the issue of bonds or debentures secured by the mortgage of any immovable property of the Company or with an option to convert them into shares in the Company provided that in the case of such bonds or debentures secured by the mortgage of any immovable property the amount of such bonds or debentures shall not exceed the market value of such immovable property”.

35 Companies (Acceptance of Deposits Amendment) Rules, 2013 … Contractor, Nayak & Kishnadwala 35  This has been substituted as:- “(x) any amount raised by the issue of bonds or debentures secured by the mortgage of any fixed assets referred to in Schedule VI of the Act excluding intangible assets of the Company or with an option to convert them into shares in the Company: Provided that in the case of such bonds or debentures secured by the mortgage of any fixed assets referred to in Schedule VI of the Act excluding Intangible assets the amount of such bonds or debentures shall not exceed the market value of such fixed assets"

36 Clarification by circular no. 04/2013 dated 11/02/2013: Sec 117C of The Companies Act, 1956 requires companies to create a Debenture Redemption Reserve (DRR) to which 'adequate amounts' shall be credited out of its 'profits' every year until such debentures are redeemed, and shall utilize the same exclusively for redemption of a particular set or series of debentures only. The revised requirements with regard to 'adequacy' of debenture redemption reserve (DRR) are as follows: Contractor, Nayak & Kishnadwala 36 Debenture Redemption Reserve

37 Circular dated 18/04/2002:Circular dated 11/02/2013: For Manufacturing and Infrastructure Companies, adequacy of DRR: For public issue: 50% of the value of debentures For Privately placed debentures: 25% of the value of debentures For Manufacturing and Infrastructure Companies, adequacy of DRR: For public issue: 25% of the value of debentures For Privately placed debentures: 25% of the value of debentures For NBFCs registered with RBI, adequacy of DRR: For public issue: 50% of the value of debentures For Privately placed debentures: No DRR required For NBFCs registered with RBI, adequacy of DRR: For public issue: 25% of the value of debentures For Privately placed debentures: No DRR required 37 Debenture Redemption Reserve…

38 Contractor, Nayak & Kishnadwala 38 Every company required to create/maintain DRR shall before the 30 th April of each year, deposit or invest a sum not less than 15% of the amount of its debentures maturing during the year ending on the 31st March next following in any one or more of the following methods:  In deposits with any scheduled bank, free from charge or lien  In unencumbered securities of the CG or SG;  In unencumbered securities mentioned in clauses (a) to (d) and (ee) of section 20 of the Indian Trusts Act, 1882;  In unencumbered bonds issued by any other company which is notified under clause (f) of section 20 of the Indian Trusts Act, 1882; Debenture Redemption Reserve…

39 Contractor, Nayak & Kishnadwala 39  The amount deposited or invested above shall not be utilized for any purpose other than for the repayment of debentures maturing during the year referred to above, provided that the amount remaining deposited or invested, shall not at any time fall below 15 % of the amount of debentures maturing during the 3lst day of March of that year. Debenture Redemption Reserve…

40 RBI Circulars 40 Contractor, Nayak & Kishnadwala

41 Realisation of Export Proceeds Contractor, Nayak & Kishnadwala 41 Master Circular on Export of Goods and Services dt. 02/07/2012: Para B.3: “It is obligatory for the exporter to realise and repatriate the full value of goods or software to India within a stipulated period as under:  Units in SEZs: No specific time period;  Status Holder Exporters: Within12 months from the date of export;  100 % EOUs: Within12 months from the date of export w.e.f 1/9/2004;  Goods exported to a warehouse established outside India: As soon as it is realised and in any case within 15 months from the date of shipment of goods;  In all other cases: W.e.f 3/6/2008, this period has been enhanced to 12 months from the date of export, till 30/9/2012.” The relaxation extended w.e.f. 01/10/2012 to 31/3/2013 vide A.P. (DIR Series) Circular No. 52 dated 20/11/2012 issued by RBI.

42 Write-off of unrealised export bills Contractor, Nayak & Kishnadwala 42 A.P. (DIR Series) Circular No. 88 dated March 12, 2013: The following liberalization in the limits of “write-offs” of unrealized export bills:  Self “write-off” by an exporter (Other than Status Holder Exporter): 5%*  Self “write-off” by Status Holder Exporters: 10%*  “Write-off” by Authorized Dealer bank :10%* *of the total export proceeds realized during the previous calendar year.  The above limits will be related to total export proceeds realized during the previous calendar year and will be cumulatively available in a year.

43 Clarification by A. P. (DIR Series) Circular No. 12 dated 31/7/2012 issued by RBI:  In terms of Circular No. 124 dated May 10, 2012, it was stipulated that in respect of all future forex earnings, an exchange earner will be eligible to retain only 50% of the export earnings in EEFC accounts and the balance 50% shall be surrendered for conversion to rupee balances.  It has now been decided that 100 % credit of forex earnings to the EEFC account have to be converted to Rupees before the last day of succeeding month (after adjusting for utilization of the balances for approved purposes or forward commitments). Contractor, Nayak & Kishnadwala 43 Retention of Forex earnings in EEFC account

44 Accordingly, balances outstanding in an EEFC account as on July 31, 2012 and those balances that would accrue from August 1, 2012 shall get converted to Rupee balances on or before September 30, Similar procedure may be followed for accruals during the subsequent months. Contractor, Nayak & Kishnadwala 44 Retention of Forex earnings in EEFC account

45 Circular DNBS.CC.PD.NO.265/ / , Dated : NBFCs that are predominantly engaged in lending against the collateral of gold jewellery shall:  Hereafter maintain a Loan-to-Value(LTV) ratio not exceeding 60% for loans granted against the collateral of gold jewellery and  Disclose in their Balance Sheet a % of such loans to their total assets  Those NBFCs having such loans comprising 50% or more of their financial assets shall maintain a minimum Tier I Capital of 12% by April 1, NBFCs should not grant any advance against bullion/primary gold and gold coins. Contractor, Nayak & Kishnadwala 45 Circulars: NBFC

46 Cost Accounting Records Service Tax Deferred Tax Asset / Liability Domestic Transfer Pricing Sec 80 IB / 80 IC Other Developments in FY Contractor, Nayak & Kishnadwala

47 Coverage of certain sectors under Cost Accounting Records Contractor, Nayak & Kishnadwala 47 The auditor has to report under CARO 2003, clause 4(viii) as under:  “where maintenance of cost records has been prescribed by the Central Government under clause (d) of sub-section (1) of section 209 of the Act, whether such accounts and records have been made and maintained;”  Every auditor thus needs to verify whether the company is covered by the new Cost Accounting Record Rules, 2011 and if yes whether the prescribed cost records have been maintained.

48  Cost Accounting Record Rules, 2011 issued on June 3, 2012 state that:  These rules apply to every Company including a foreign company which is engaged in the production, processing, manufacturing, or mining activities and wherein:  aggregate value of net worth as on the last date of the immediately preceding financial year exceeds five crores of rupees or  the aggregate value of the turnover made by the company from sale or supply of all products or activities during the immediately preceding financial year exceeds twenty crores of rupees or  the company’s equity or debt securities are listed or are in the process of listing on any stock exchange, whether in India or outside India. Contractor, Nayak & Kishnadwala 48 Coverage of certain sectors under Cost Accounting Records…

49 Contractor, Nayak & Kishnadwala 49 The definition of processing activity is very wide. Several industries and sectors now fall in the ambit of these rules.  “Processing Activity” includes any act, process, procedure, function, operation, technique, treatment or method employed in relation to i.altering the condition or properties of inputs for their use, consumption, sale, transport, delivery or disposal; or ii.accessioning, arranging, describing, or storing products; or iii.developing, fixing, and washing exposed photographic or cinematographic film or paper to produce either a negative image or a positive image; or iv.printing, publishing, finishing, perforation, trimming, cutting, or packaging; or

50 Coverage of certain sectors under Cost Accounting Records… Contractor, Nayak & Kishnadwala 50 v.pumping oil, gas, water, sewage or any other product; or vi.transforming or transmitting, distributing power or electricity; or vii.harboring, berthing, docking, elevating, lading, stripping, stuffing, towing, handling, or warehousing products; or viii.preserving or storing any product in cold storage; or ix.constructing, reconstructing, reconditioning, repairing, servicing, refitting, finishing or demolishing of buildings or structures; or x.farming, feeding, rearing, treating, nursing, caring, and stocking of living organisms; or xi.telecasting, broadcasting, telecommunicating voice, text, picture, information, data or knowledge through any mode or medium; or xii.obtaining, compiling, recording, maintaining, transmitting, holding or using the information or data or knowledge; or xiii.executing instructions in memory to perform some transformation and/or computation on the data in the computer's memory.

51 Coverage of certain sectors under Cost Accounting Records… Contractor, Nayak & Kishnadwala 51  Every company to which these rules apply, including all units and branches thereof shall, in respect of each of its financial year commencing on or after the 1st day of April, 2011, keep cost records as prescribed by the rules.  All such cost records and cost statements, maintained under these rules shall be reconciled with the audited financial statements for the financial year specifically indicating expenses or incomes not considered in the cost records or statements so as to ensure accuracy and to reconcile the profit of all product groups with the overall profit of the company.

52  Service Tax has shifted from positive list to negative list. Earlier services specified in section 65(105) were subject to taxation.  Now this entire approach has changed and every services not specified in the negative list and specifically exempt is subject to service tax.  Also, reverse charge mechanism is implemented. Services where service tax will be payable by person other than service provider are covered in Notification 30/212 dt effective from  Place Of Provision(POP) Rules, 2012 have been introduced vide Notification No. 28/2012 dated w.e.f. 01/07/2012 which help in determining whether a particular service is provided in taxable territory or non taxable territory. Contractor, Nayak & Kishnadwala 52 New Service Tax Provisions

53  At what rate to measure DTL / DTA for ?  AS 22 ‘Accounting for Taxes on Income’ states that: “Deferred tax assets and liabilities are usually measured using the tax rates and tax laws that have been enacted. However, certain announcements of tax rates and tax laws by the government may have the substantive effect of actual enactment. In these circumstances, deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using such announced tax rate and tax laws”.  Thus, Tax rates announced by the Finance Bill 2013 will have to be used for measuring DTA / DTL as on March 31, Contractor, Nayak & Kishnadwala 53 Measurement of DTA / DTL

54 Tax Rates for Domestic Company Income Slab ( `) Rate of Tax (%) Surcharge (%) EC/SHEC (%) Effective Rate of Tax (%) Up to 1crore30Nil crore to 10 crore Above 10 crore Contractor, Nayak & Kishnadwala 54 Measurement of DTA / DTL … Tax Rates for Foreign Company Income Slab ( `) Rate of Tax (%) Surcharge (%) EC/SHEC (%) Effective Rate of Tax (%) Up to 1crore40Nil crore to 10 crore Above 10 crore

55 Domestic Transfer Pricing Contractor, Nayak & Kishnadwala 55  With the advent of the provisions of Domestic transfer pricing, an entity will have to ensure that the disclosures presented under the following requirements do not contradict with each other:  Related Party Disclosures under AS 18  Disclosures under sec 40A(2)(b) and  Disclosures under Domestic Transfer Pricing

56 Section 80 IB / 80 IC Contractor, Nayak & Kishnadwala 56  The assessees which avail the benefit of Sec 80 IB / 80 IC of the Income Tax Act, 1961 will have to ensure that identical data is presented under disclosures:  as per AS 17, Segment Reporting and  that presented for sec 80 IB / 80 IC.

57 SA 700, 705, 706, 710 Standards on Auditing 57 Contractor, Nayak & Kishnadwala

58 New Standards on Audit Contractor, Nayak & Kishnadwala 58 SA NumberTitle of SAOld Number SA 700 (R)Forming an Opinion and Reporting on FSAAS 28 SA 705Modifications to the Opinion in the Independent Auditor’s Report None SA 706Emphasis of Matter Paragraphs and Other Paragraphs in the Independent Auditor’s Report None SA 710 (R)Comparative Information – Corresponding Figures and Comparative Financial Information AAS 25

59 New Standards on Audit … Contractor, Nayak & Kishnadwala 59 SA NumberTitle of SAOld Number SA 800Special Considerations-Audits of FS Prepared in Accordance with Special Purpose Framework None SA 805Special Considerations-Audits of Single Purpose FS and Specific Elements, Accounts or Items of a FS None SA 806Engagements to Report on Summary FSNone

60 SA 700 (REVISED) FORMING AN OPINION & REPORTING ON FS Contractor, Nayak & Kishnadwala Effective for audits of financial statements for periods beginning on or after April 1, 2011 Announcement by ICAI in April 2012 to postpone applicability by one year i.e. April 1,

61 Contractor, Nayak & Kishnadwala 61  Earlier AAS 28 “The Auditors’ Report on FS”  SA 700 (R) deals with:  Auditor’s responsibility to form an opinion on FS  Form / Content of auditor’s report issued as a result of an audit of FS In the context of general purpose financial statements  To promote consistency in audit reports  To promote user’s understanding Scope

62 Auditor’s Objective Contractor, Nayak & Kishnadwala 62  Form an opinion on FS based on evaluation of conclusions drawn from audit evidence obtained AND  Express clearly that opinion through a written report that also describes the basis for opinion

63 Definitions Contractor, Nayak & Kishnadwala 63  General Purpose Financial Statements (GPFS):  FS prepared in accordance with a general purpose framework  General Purpose Framework:  A Financial reporting framework (FRF) designed to meet common financial information needs of a wide range of users. It may be a fair presentation framework or a compliance framework

64 Fair Presentation Vs. Compliance Contractor, Nayak & Kishnadwala 64 Fair Presentation FrameworkCompliance Framework Refers to FRF that requires compliance with requirements of the framework AND Refers to FRF that requires compliance with requirements of the framework BUT Acknowledges that the following may be necessary for fair presentation of FS: Management may need to provide disclosures beyond those specifically required by FRF Management may have to depart (in extremely rare situations) from a requirement of framework Does not contain the acknowledgement as in fair presentation framework

65 Issue: Contractor, Nayak & Kishnadwala 65  Whether audit conducted under LLP Act would be Fair Presentation Framework or Compliance Framework? Ans: LLP Act, 2008 read with LLP Rules, 2009 prescribes neither any strict format to maintain the books of accounts nor compliance with any accounting standards. Thus, audit under LLP Act would be a fair presentation framework.

66 What is FRF? Contractor, Nayak & Kishnadwala 66  FRF not defined in SA 700(R)  Para 22 of SA 700 (AAS 28) mentions: “Paragraph 3 of “Framework of Statements on Standard Auditing Practices and Guidance Notes on Related Services”, issued by the ICAI, discusses the financial reporting framework. The paragraph reads as under: “ Financial statements are ordinarily prepared and presented annually and are directed towards the common information needs of a wide range of users. Many of those users rely on FS as their major source of information because they do not have the power to obtain additional information to meet their specific information needs.”

67 What is FRF? … Contractor, Nayak & Kishnadwala 67 Thus, FS need to be prepared in accordance with one, or a combination of: (a) relevant statutory requirements, e.g., the Companies Act, 1956, (b) Accounting Standards issued by ICAI; and (c) other recognised accounting principles and practices, e.g., those recommended in the Guidance Notes issued by the ICAI”  The above Framework issued in 2001 has been withdrawn pursuant to the issuance of the “Framework for Assurance Engagements”, by the ICAI in July, 2007 which doesn’t define FRF.  What are the implications of the above ??

68 Definitions … Contractor, Nayak & Kishnadwala 68  Financial Statements (FS):  Complete set of general purpose FS including related notes which include Significant accounting policies and Other Explanatory Information  FRF determines what constitutes complete set of FS  Unmodified Opinion:  Opinion expressed when the auditor concludes that the FS are prepared, in all material respects, in accordance with FRF.  Financial Reporting Standards means:  AS promulgated by ICAI  AS notified by Companies (AS) Rules, 2006  AS for Local Bodies promulgated by ICAI

69 Issue: Contractor, Nayak & Kishnadwala 69  Whether audit conducted under Income Tax Act to be considered as General Purpose Financial Statements (GPFS)? Ans: It is to be considered GPFS and SA 700 to be applied for audits for which we issue form 3CB. Footnote 9 to SA 800 states that “In India, financial statements prepared for filing with income tax authorities are considered to be general purpose financial statements.” ICAI has however postponed the application of SA 700 (R) for Form 3CB upto 31 st March 2014

70 Forming an Opinion on FS Contractor, Nayak & Kishnadwala 70  SA 700(R) requires the auditor to form an opinion on whether the FS are prepared in all material respects in accordance with the applicable FRF  To form that opinion, auditor to conclude, whether reasonable assurance has been obtained that the FS as a whole are free from material misstatement, whether due to fraud or error

71 Forming an Opinion on FS … Contractor, Nayak & Kishnadwala 71  The conclusion shall take into account:  whether Sufficient Appropriate Audit Evidence (SAAE) has been obtained in accordance with SA 330;  whether uncorrected misstatements are material, individually or in aggregate in accordance with SA 450;  The required evaluations are: Whether all material requirements of the applicable FRF have been followed including consideration of qualitative aspects of entity’s accounting practices, indicators of possible bias in management’s judgements;

72 Forming an Opinion on FS … Contractor, Nayak & Kishnadwala 72  Whether, in view of the requirements of the applicable FRF:  The FS adequately disclose significant accounting policies selected and applied;  The accounting policies selected and applied are consistent with the applicable FRF and are appropriate;  The accounting estimates made by management are reasonable;  The information presented in the FS is relevant, reliable, comparable and understandable;  The FS provide adequate disclosures to enable the intended users to understand the effect of material transactions and events on the information conveyed in the FS and  The terminology used in FS including the title is appropriate.

73 Forming an Opinion on FS … Contractor, Nayak & Kishnadwala 73 When the FS are prepared in accordance with a fair presentation framework, evaluation to also include:  Whether the FS achieve fair presentation by considering the following:  The overall presentation, structure and content of the FS; and  Whether the FS, including the related notes, represent the underlying transactions and events in a manner that achieve fair presentation.  Whether the FS adequately refer to or describe the applicable FRF.

74 Form of Opinion Contractor, Nayak & Kishnadwala 74  The auditor shall express an unmodified opinion when the auditor concludes that the FS are prepared, in all material respects, in accordance with the applicable FRF.  The auditor shall modify the opinion in the auditor’s report in accordance with SA 705 if he:  concludes that, based on the audit evidence obtained, the financial statements as a whole are not free from material misstatement; or  is unable to obtain sufficient appropriate audit evidence to conclude that the financial statements as a whole are free from material misstatement.

75 Form of Opinion … Contractor, Nayak & Kishnadwala 75  If FS prepared in accordance with the requirements of a fair presentation framework do not achieve fair presentation:  the auditor shall discuss the matter with management and,  depending on the requirements of the applicable FRF and how the matter is resolved, shall determine whether it is necessary to modify the opinion in the auditor’s report in accordance with SA 705.  When the FS are prepared in accordance with a compliance framework, the auditor is not required to evaluate whether the FS achieve fair presentation.  However, if in extremely rare circumstances if he concludes that such FS are misleading, the auditor shall discuss the matter with management and, depending on how it is resolved, shall determine whether, and how, to communicate it in the auditor’s report.

76 Auditor’s Report Contractor, Nayak & Kishnadwala 76 Elements of Audit Report *:  Title  Addressee  Introductory Paragraph  Management’s Responsibility for the FS  Auditor’s Responsibility  Auditor’s Opinion  Other Reporting Responsibilities  Signature of the Auditor  Date of Auditor’s Report  Place of Signature * To be given in writing

77 Auditor’s Report … Contractor, Nayak & Kishnadwala 77  Title:  Independent Auditor’s Report  It affirms that auditor has met all ethical requirements w.r.t. independence  It distinguishes AR from reports issued by others  Addressee:  Applicable law and regulation may specify “addressee”  Audit Report normally addressed to those for whom it is prepared – shareholders / Those charged with governance

78 Auditor’s Report … Contractor, Nayak & Kishnadwala 78  Introductory Para  Identify the entity whose FS have been audited  State that FS have been audited  Identify title of each statement that comprises FS (each statement forming part of FS to be named here)  Refer to summary of significant accounting policies and other explanatory information  Specify date or period covered by each FS

79 Auditor’s Report … Contractor, Nayak & Kishnadwala 79  Management’s Responsibility for the FS  Describe responsibility of those persons in the entity responsible for preparation of FS (SA 200).  Can be referred as ‘management’s’ or ‘Those charged with Governance’ (TCWG)  To describe the responsibility in the manner in which the same is described in the terms of the audit engagement  Responsibility to include … (next slide)

80 Auditor’s Report … Contractor, Nayak & Kishnadwala 80  Description to include: an explanation that management is responsible for the preparation of the FS Designing, implementation and maintenance of internal controls relevant to preparation of FS that are free from material misstatement, whether due to fraud or error.  Where the FS are prepared in accordance with a fair presentation framework, the explanation of management’s responsibility for the FS in the auditor’s report shall refer to “the preparation and fair presentation of these FS” or “the preparation of FS that give a true and fair view”, as appropriate in the circumstances.

81 Auditor’s Report … Contractor, Nayak & Kishnadwala 81  Auditor’s Responsibility  The auditor’s report shall state the following: the responsibility of the auditor is to express an opinion on the financial statements based on the audit the audit was conducted in accordance with SAs issued by ICAI and that the SAs require the auditor to: Comply with ethical requirements plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free from material misstatement

82 Auditor’s Report … Contractor, Nayak & Kishnadwala 82 Auditor’s Responsibility …  The report shall describe an audit by stating that:  An audit involves performing procedures to obtain audit evidence about the amounts and disclosures in the FS;  The procedures selected depend on the auditor’s judgment, including the assessment of the risks of material misstatement of the financial statements, whether due to fraud or error.  In making those risk assessments, the auditor considers internal control relevant to the entity’s preparation of the financial statements in order to design audit procedures that are appropriate in the circumstances, but not for the purpose of expressing an opinion on the effectiveness of the entity’s internal control. (phrase to be omitted if so required)

83 Auditor’s Report … Contractor, Nayak & Kishnadwala 83 Auditor’s Responsibility …  Audit also includes evaluation of : Appropriateness of accounting policies used; Reasonableness of management’s accounting estimates; and Overall presentation of FS  Where the FS are prepared in accordance with a fair presentation framework, the description of the audit in the auditor’s report shall refer to “the entity’s preparation of FS that give T&F view”  The auditor’s report shall state whether the auditor believes that the audit evidence the auditor has obtained is sufficient and appropriate to provide a basis for the auditor’s opinion.

84 Auditor’s Report … Contractor, Nayak & Kishnadwala 84  Auditor’s Opinion  Unmodified opinion expressed as : In case of Fair Presentation framework: FS present fairly, in all material respects, in accordance with {applicable FRF} Or FS give a True & Fair view of in accordance with {applicable FRF} In case of Compliance framework: FS are prepared, in all material respects, in accordance with {applicable FRF}

85 Auditor’s Report … Contractor, Nayak & Kishnadwala 85  Other Reporting Responsibilities  If the auditor addresses other reporting responsibilities in the auditor’s report on the FS that are in addition to the auditor’s responsibility under the SAs to report on the FS, these other reporting responsibilities shall be addressed in a separate section in the auditor’s report that shall be sub- titled “Report on Other Legal and Regulatory Requirements,” or otherwise as appropriate to the content of the section. For e.g. CARO requirements

86 Auditor’s Report … Contractor, Nayak & Kishnadwala 86  Other Reporting Responsibilities…  Format of Audit Report if it contains a separate section on other reporting responsibilities: Title Addressee Report on FS Introductory Para Management Responsibility for FS Auditor’s Responsibility Auditor’s Opinion Report on Other Legal & Regulatory Requirements

87 Auditor’s Report … Contractor, Nayak & Kishnadwala 87  Signature of Auditor  Audit Report to be signed in auditor’s personal name  Where firm appointed as auditor, report signed in personal name and in name of audit firm  Also, mention membership number issued by ICAI  Include, wherever applicable, the registration number of the firm, allotted by the ICAI

88 Contractor, Nayak & Kishnadwala 88 Implementation Guide on SA 700 issued by ICAI mentions: Q. 21 Where a firm is appointed as auditor, the suggested manner to sign would be: For XYZ and Co Chartered Accountants Firm’s Registration Number Signature Name of signing member Designation (Partner / Proprietor) Membership Number Place and Date: Auditor’s Report …

89 Contractor, Nayak & Kishnadwala 89  Date of Audit Report: Not earlier than date on which auditor has obtained sufficient & appropriate audit evidence on which to base auditor’s opinion.  It informs users that auditor has considered effect of events and transactions that occurred upto that date  Place of Signature: The auditor’s report shall name specific location, which is ordinarily the city where the audit report is signed.

90 Auditor’s Report prescribed by any Law or Regulation Contractor, Nayak & Kishnadwala 90  If the prescribed terms are significantly different from the requirements of SAs, SA 210 requires the auditor to evaluate  whether users might misunderstand the assurance obtained from the audit, and if so,  whether providing additional explanation in the auditor’s report can mitigate such misunderstanding.  If the additional explanation in his report cannot mitigate possible misunderstanding, SA 210 requires the auditor not to accept the audit engagement.

91 Auditor’s Report prescribed by any Law or Regulation… Contractor, Nayak & Kishnadwala 91  If the applicable law or regulation compels an auditor to accept such an engagement, then as per SA 210, such an audit does not comply with the SAs.  When reporting on such audits, the auditor does not include any reference to the audit having been conducted in accordance with the SAs in his Auditor’s Report  Auditor’s Report, in this case, to refer to Standards on Auditing only if it at minimum includes all elements as described by SA 700(R).

92 What is different from SA 700 (AAS 28) and current audit reports? Contractor, Nayak & Kishnadwala 92  SA 700 lays down very specific formats, title and manner of audit reports  All reports now required to adhere to the revised formats  Revised reporting applicable even to Tax Audit report in Form 3CB (or reports under other statutes where audits are carried out of GPFS)

93 SA 705 MODIFICATIONS TO THE OPINION IN THE INDEPENDENT AUDITOR’S REPORT Effective for audits of financial statements for periods beginning on or after April 1, 2011 Announcement by ICAI in April 2012 to postpone applicability by one year i.e. April 1,

94 Scope Contractor, Nayak & Kishnadwala 94  SA 705 deals with the auditor’s responsibility to issue an appropriate report in circumstances when, in forming an opinion in accordance with SA 700(R), the auditor concludes that a modification to the auditor’s opinion on the financial statements is necessary.

95 Types of Modified Opinion Contractor, Nayak & Kishnadwala 95  SA establishes 3 types of modified opinions:  Qualified Opinion  Adverse Opinion  Disclaimer of Opinion  Decision on which type of modified opinion is appropriate depends on:  Nature of matter giving rise to the modification i.e. whether the FS are materially misstated or in case of inability to obtain SAAE maybe materially misstated And  Auditor’s Judgement about the pervasiveness of the effects or possible effects of the matter on the FS

96 Definitions Contractor, Nayak & Kishnadwala 96 Pervasive: In context of misstatements, to describe effects or possible effects on FS that are undetected due to an inability to obtain SAAE. Pervasive effects are those that, in the auditor’s judgment:  Are not confined to specific elements, accounts or items of the FS;  If so confined, represent or could represent a substantial proportion of the FS  In relation to disclosures, are fundamental to users’ understanding of the FS

97 Report with Modified Opinion… Contractor, Nayak & Kishnadwala 97 Circumstances when modification to Opinion is required: The auditor concludes that based on the audit evidence obtained, the FS as a whole are not free from material misstatement. The same may be due to:  Appropriateness of the selected accounting policies: Not consistent with applicable FRF; FS do not represent underlying transactions and events in a manner that achieves fair presentation;

98 Report with Modified Opinion… Contractor, Nayak & Kishnadwala 98 Circumstances when modification to Opinion is required: …  Appropriateness of adequacy of disclosures in FS FS do not include all disclosures required by applicable FRF; Disclosures not presented as per applicable FRF; FS do not contain disclosures necessary to achieve fair presentation  Inability to obtain SAAE Circumstances beyond control of entity; (e.g. records destroyed or seized by authorities) Circumstances relating to nature of timing of auditor’s work; (e.g. timing such that physical inventory cannot be taken ) Limitations imposed by management (e.g. auditors prevented from obtaining external confirmations, etc.)

99 Determining Type of Modification Contractor, Nayak & Kishnadwala 99 Nature of Matter giving rise to the Modification Auditor’s Judgement about the Pervasiveness of the effects or possible effects on the FS Material but not PervasiveMaterial and Pervasive FS are materially misstated Qualified OpinionAdverse Opinion Inability to obtain SAAE Qualified OpinionDisclaimer of Opinion The auditor shall disclaim an opinion when, in extremely rare circumstances involving multiple uncertainties, the auditor concludes that, notwithstanding having obtained SAAE regarding each of the individual uncertainties, it is not possible to form an opinion on the FS due to the potential interaction of the uncertainties and their possible cumulative effect on the FS.

100 Limitation after accepting Engagement Contractor, Nayak & Kishnadwala 100 Auditor accepts Engagement Management imposes Limitation Likely to result in Qualification /Disclaimer Request Management to remove Limitation Manag ement refuses Communicate to Those Charged with Governance Determine the possibility of performing alternative procedures to obtain sufficient & appropriate audit evidence Unable to obtain SAAE Determine possible effect on FS Material but not Pervasive Material & Pervasive Qualify the Opinion Resign, if not possible, Disclaim the opinion

101 Form & Content of the Auditor’s Report Contractor, Nayak & Kishnadwala 101  Basis of Modification Para  In addition to other elements as per SA 700 (R), amend Auditor’s Responsibility statement and provide description of matter giving rise to modification  It is to be placed immediately before the Opinion para with the heading “Basis for Modified Opinion”

102 Description in Basis of Modification Para Contractor, Nayak & Kishnadwala 102 Cause of ModificationDescription in Basis of Modification Para a.Material Misstatement of FS relating to Specific amounts in FS Description & Quantification of financial effects of misstatements unless impracticable If it is impracticable to quantify the financial effects, state so. b.Material misstatements of FS relating to narrative disclosures Explanation of how disclosures are misstated c.Material misstatement of FS relating to non-disclosure of information required to be disclosed Nature of omitted information Include omitted disclosures if Not prohibited by law or regulation It is practicable to do so Sufficient & appropriate audit evidence has been obtained about omitted information d.Inability to obtain SAAEThe reasons for that inability

103 Auditor’s Opinion Contractor, Nayak & Kishnadwala 103  Qualified Opinion is expressed as:  Except for the effects of the matter(s) described in the basis for qualified opinion para  In case of Fair Presentation framework: The FS present fairly, in all material respects (or give a true & fair view) in accordance with the {applicable FRF}  In case of Compliance framework: The FS have been prepared, in all material respects in accordance with the {applicable FRF}

104 Auditor’s Opinion… Contractor, Nayak & Kishnadwala 104  Adverse Opinion is expressed as:  In the auditor’s opinion, because of the significance of the matter(s) described in the Basis of Adverse Opinion para  In case of Fair Presentation framework: The FS do not present fairly, in all material respects (or give a true & fair view) in accordance with the {applicable FRF}  In case of Compliance framework: The FS have not been prepared, in all material respects in accordance with the {applicable FRF}

105 Auditor’s Opinion… Contractor, Nayak & Kishnadwala 105  Disclaimer of Opinion is expressed as: Because of the significance of the matter(s) described in the Basis for Disclaimer of Opinion para, the auditor has not been able to obtain SAAE to provide a basis for an audit opinion & accordingly, the auditor does not express an opinion on the FS.

106 Description of Auditor’s Responsibility Contractor, Nayak & Kishnadwala 106  When the auditor expresses a qualified or adverse opinion:  the auditor shall amend the description of the auditor’s responsibility to state that the auditor believes that the audit evidence the auditor has obtained is sufficient and appropriate to provide a basis for the auditor’s modified audit opinion.  When the Auditor Disclaims an Opinion:  The auditor shall amend the introductory paragraph of the auditor’s report to state that the auditor was engaged to audit the FS  Also, amend the description of the auditor’s responsibility:  “ Because of the matter(s) described in the Basis for Disclaimer of Opinion paragraph, we were not able to obtain sufficient appropriate audit evidence to provide a basis for an audit opinion ”

107 Issue: Contractor, Nayak & Kishnadwala 107  Whether Basis for Qualified Opinion paragraph to be stated in bold or italics?  SA 705 doesn’t require to highlight the modification. However, if the applicable statute requires the auditor to highlight the same, it should be so presented.  Thus, for audits under Companies Act, the qualification will have to be presented in bold or italics.

108 What is different from current audit reports? Contractor, Nayak & Kishnadwala 108  SA 705 lays down very specific manner in issuing modified audit reports  Circumstances in which modified reports need to be issued very clearly laid down  There are several illustrations in the SA and Implementation guide giving manner of issuing modified reports under revised SA.

109 SA 706 EMPHASIS OF MATTER PARAGRAPHS AND OTHER PARAGRAPHS IN THE INDEPENDENT AUDITOR’S REPORT Effective for audits of financial statements for periods beginning on or after April 1, 2011 Announcement by ICAI in April 2012 to postpone applicability by one year i.e. April 1,

110 Scope Contractor, Nayak & Kishnadwala 110  This Standard deals with additional communication in the Auditor’s Report when auditor considers necessary to draw user’s attention to:  Matter(s) presented or disclosed in FS are of such importance that they are fundamental to user’s understanding of FS Or  Matter(s) other than those presented or disclosed in FS that are relevant to user’s understanding of audit or auditor’s responsibilities or audit report

111 Definitions Contractor, Nayak & Kishnadwala 111  Emphasis of Matter Paragraph (EOM):  A paragraph included in the auditor’s report that refers to a matter appropriately presented or disclosed in the financial statements that, in the auditor’s judgment, is of such importance that it is fundamental to users’ understanding of the financial statements

112 Definitions… Contractor, Nayak & Kishnadwala 112  Other Matter Paragraph (OM):  A paragraph included in the auditor’s report that refers to a matter other than those presented or disclosed in the financial statements that, in the auditor’s judgment, is relevant to users’ understanding of the audit, the auditor’s responsibilities or the auditor’s report.

113 Requirements w.r.t EOM para Contractor, Nayak & Kishnadwala 113  Auditor should obtain SAAE evidence that the matter is not materially misstated in the FS  EOM para shall refer only to information presented or disclosed in the FS  Widespread use of EOM para diminishes the effectiveness of the auditor’s communication of such matters, by implying that matter has not been appropriately presented or disclosed in FS

114 Requirements w.r.t EOM para… Contractor, Nayak & Kishnadwala 114  EOM paragraph is not a substitute for  Need for expression of qualified opinion, adverse opinion or Disclaimer of opinion;  Disclosures to be made by the management in FS as required by applicable FRF.  Placement: immediately after Opinion para  Heading: “Emphasis of Matter” or other appropriate heading to be used

115 Requirements w.r.t EOM para… Contractor, Nayak & Kishnadwala 115  EOM para must include a clear reference to  Matter being emphasised  Where relevant, disclosure that fully describes the matter can be found in FS  Indicate that audit opinion is not modified in respect of matter emphasised

116 Circumstances to include EOM para in Auditor’s Report Contractor, Nayak & Kishnadwala 116  An uncertainty relating to the future outcome of an exceptional litigation or regulatory action.  Early application (where permitted) of a new accounting standard that has a pervasive effect on the FS in advance of it’s effective date  A major catastrophe that has had, or continues to have, a significant effect on the entity’s financial position.

117 Requirements w.r.t OM para Contractor, Nayak & Kishnadwala 117  Heading: Other Matter or other appropriate heading  Placement: Immediately after Opinion para and any EOM para; or elsewhere if content of other matter para is relevant to Other Reporting Responsibilities section.  Any matter can be included in this para provided not prohibited by Law and Regulation

118 Communication to TCWG Contractor, Nayak & Kishnadwala 118  If the auditor expects to include an EOM or OM paragraph in the auditor’s report, the auditor shall communicate with TCWG regarding this expectation and the proposed wording of this paragraph  Spot the auditor in the picture?

119 SA 710 (R) COMPARATIVE INFORMATION – CORRESPONDING FIGURES AND COMPARATIVE FINANCIAL STATEMENTS Contractor, Nayak & Kishnadwala Effective for audits of financial statements for periods beginning on or after April 1, 2011 Announcement by ICAI in April 2012 to postpone applicability by one year i.e. April 1,

120 Scope Contractor, Nayak & Kishnadwala 120  The SA deals with the auditor’s responsibilities regarding comparative information in an audit of FS.  The nature of the comparative information that is presented in an entity’s FS depends on the requirements of the applicable FRF. There are two different broad approaches to the auditor’s reporting responsibilities in respect of such comparative information:  corresponding figures and  comparative FS.  This SA addresses separately the auditor’s reporting requirements for each approach.

121 Definitions Contractor, Nayak & Kishnadwala 121  Comparative information (CI) – The amounts and disclosures included in the FS in respect of one or more prior periods in accordance with the applicable FRF. Corresponding FiguresComparative FS DefinitionCI where amounts and other disclosures for the prior period are included as an integral part of the current period FS, and are intended to be read only in relation to the amounts and other disclosures relating to the current period CI where amounts and other disclosures for the prior period are included for comparison with the FS of the current period but, if audited, are referred to in the auditor’s opinion. Level of Detail dictated primarily by its relevance to the current period figures. comparable with that of the FS of the current period. Audit Reporting the auditor’s opinion on the FS refers to the current period only the auditor’s opinion refers to each period for which FS are presented

122 Audit Procedures Contractor, Nayak & Kishnadwala 122  The auditor shall determine whether the FS include the CI required by the applicable FRF and whether such information is appropriately classified. For this purpose, the auditor shall evaluate whether:  The CI agrees with the amounts and other disclosures presented in the prior period; and  The accounting policies reflected in the CI are consistent with those applied in the current period or, if there have been changes in accounting policies, whether those changes have been properly accounted for and adequately presented and disclosed.

123 Audit Procedures… Contractor, Nayak & Kishnadwala 123  If the auditor becomes aware of a possible material misstatement in the CI while performing the current period audit, the auditor shall perform such additional audit procedures as are necessary in the circumstances to obtain SAAE to determine whether a material misstatement exists.  If the auditor had audited the prior period’s FS, the auditor shall also follow the relevant requirements of SA 560 (R).  As required by SA 580 (R), the auditor shall request written representations for all periods referred to in the auditor’s opinion.  The auditor shall also obtain a specific written representation regarding any prior period item that is separately disclosed in the current year’s statement of profit and loss

124 Audit Reporting for Corresponding Figures Contractor, Nayak & Kishnadwala 124  When corresponding figures are presented, the auditor’s opinion shall not refer to the corresponding figures except in the circumstances described as under: 1. If the auditor’s report on the prior period, as previously issued, included a modification which is unresolved, the auditor shall modify his opinion on the current period’s FS. In the Basis for Modification paragraph in the auditor’s report, he shall either:  Refer to both the current period’s figures and the corresponding figures in the Basis for modification para when the effects or possible effects of the matter on the current period’s figures are material; OR  In other cases, explain that the audit opinion has been modified because of the effects or possible effects of the unresolved matter on the comparability of the current period’s figures and the corresponding figures

125 Audit Reporting for Corresponding Figures… Contractor, Nayak & Kishnadwala If the auditor obtains audit evidence that a material misstatement exists in the prior period FS on which an unmodified opinion has been previously issued: The auditor shall verify whether the misstatement has been dealt with as required under the applicable FRF and, if that is not the case, the auditor shall express a qualified opinion or an adverse opinion in the auditor’s report on the current period FS, modified with respect to the corresponding figures included therein.

126 Audit Reporting for Corresponding Figures… Contractor, Nayak & Kishnadwala If FS of prior period were audited by a predecessor auditor, and the auditor is allowed and decides to refer to the predecessor auditor’s report for the corresponding figures: Then the auditor shall state in an OM para that the FS of the prior period were audited by the predecessor auditor, the type of opinion expressed by him along with the reasons for the same and the date of that report. 4. If the FS of prior period were not audited: The auditor shall state in an OM para that the corresponding figures are unaudited. However, it will not relieve the auditor from obtaining SAAE that the opening balances do not contain material misstatements that materially affect current period’s FS.

127 Issues in CARO 127 Contractor, Nayak & Kishnadwala

128 Introduction Contractor, Nayak & Kishnadwala 128  Increased focus on role of auditor in recent times due to some wrong and some ‘right’ reasons  Audit consists of 3 major activities: a) Conduct of the audit (using SAs) b) Ensuring compliance of AS c) Ensuring adequate disclosure as per statute, AS, etc.  Focus in Audit has to shift to (a) to conduct effective audits.

129 Conclusion Contractor, Nayak & Kishnadwala 129  Companies Bill 2012 lays done several additional restrictions, responsibilities and penalties for an auditor, penalties, etc. (including class action suits)  Globally also, auditor role and reporting is undergoing a change  Audits are becoming very challenging  Adequate and advance planning necessary for proper conduct of audit  If proper audits not done, auditor will have to face FRRB, QRB, NFRA, etc.

130 Contractor, Nayak & Kishnadwala 130 WISH YOU HAPPY AUDITING !!


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