Late Stages of the French Revolution Moderates- In 1794 take control of the government from Robespierre. Royalists- want France to return to a monarchy. Radicals- Jacobins in power with Robespierre heading the Committee of Public Safety. His Reign of Terror ends with his execution. Political Factions 1794- Moderates set up a 5 man government called the Directory= very corrupt. In 1799 the Directory is overthrown with the help of Napoleon. A 3 man governing board called the Consulate is set up. Napoleon later becomes 1st Consul.
Napoleon- Savior of the Revolution Born in Corsica in 1769. Becomes a lieutenant in the French Army at age 20. Quickly became a general during the turmoil of the revolution. Becomes the most feared general in all of Europe. 1st Consul 1799 Consul for Life 1801 Emperor 1804
Militarily Conquers much of Europe Creates new social and government systems throughout Europe. Can never take over Britain. Invades Russia in 1812. In 1813, Napoleon defeated in the Battle of Nations at Leipzig by a combined military force of Russia, Britain, Austria, and Prussia.
Militarily Napoleon abdicates throne and is exiled to the island of Elba in the Mediterranean Sea. Napoleon escapes from exile and return to France. For 100 Days he leads his army again. Finally defeated at Waterloo in 1815.
Politically REFORMS: Modernizes finances, regulates economy, encourages new industry, built canals and roads, promoted public education, made peace with The Church. ALSO: Supported across class lines Women lose rights- maintain minor status
Legacy Removed the “Old Order” from much of Europe. Napoleonic Codes- embody Enlightenment principles of equality, religious tolerance, advancement on merit not family name. Soon after, all of Europe would change.
Death Dies on the island of St. Helena in the Atlantic Ocean in 1821.