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Causes of the Rev. in Fr. “Little by little, the old world crumbled, and not once did the king imagine that some of the pieces might fall on him.” ― Jennifer.

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Presentation on theme: "Causes of the Rev. in Fr. “Little by little, the old world crumbled, and not once did the king imagine that some of the pieces might fall on him.” ― Jennifer."— Presentation transcript:

1 Causes of the Rev. in Fr. “Little by little, the old world crumbled, and not once did the king imagine that some of the pieces might fall on him.” ― Jennifer Donnelly, Revolution Jennifer DonnellyRevolutionJennifer DonnellyRevolution * In regards to Louis XVI

2 Objectives Understand the causes that led to the French Revolution Understand the causes that led to the French Revolution

3 The Old Regime The Estates General The Estates General 1 st & 2 nd estates have privileges 1 st & 2 nd estates have privileges 3 rd estate pays most of the taxes 3 rd estate pays most of the taxes Why would this lead to a revolution? Why would this lead to a revolution?

4 Enlightened Ideas Montesquieu: Montesquieu: divide power so no 1 person can have absolute power divide power so no 1 person can have absolute power Rousseau: Rousseau: Believed in individual freedoms Believed in individual freedoms Direct Democracy Direct Democracy Locke: Locke: 3 natural rights: Life, Liberty, Property 3 natural rights: Life, Liberty, Property If govt fails to protect, people can overthrow If govt fails to protect, people can overthrow Why would this lead to a revolution? Why would this lead to a revolution?

5 Economic Crisis Unemployment rate Unemployment rate extremely high, especially among lower class workers extremely high, especially among lower class workers Taxes Taxes Tax system - corrupt Tax system - corrupt The ppl w/o money were paying the most The ppl w/o money were paying the most

6 Economic Crisis Food Shortage/High Prices Food Shortage/High Prices The harvest of 1788 was extremely small The harvest of 1788 was extremely small If not a lot of bread, what happens to the price? If not a lot of bread, what happens to the price? Price of bread skyrockets Price of bread skyrockets High Debt High Debt Louis XIV & XVI fought many wars: Louis XIV & XVI fought many wars: Fr. support the American Rev Fr. support the American Rev The kings rich lifestyle The kings rich lifestyle Versailles Versailles Marie – “Madame Deficit” Marie – “Madame Deficit” Why would this lead to a revolution? Why would this lead to a revolution?

7 Weak Ruler Indecisive king Indecisive king Put off dealing with the problem until it was too late Put off dealing with the problem until it was too late Marie Marie interfered w/Govt interfered w/Govt Gave bad advice Gave bad advice She was Austrian She was Austrian Why would this lead to a revolution? Why would this lead to a revolution?

8 Review The Estates General The Estates General Enlightened Ideas Enlightened Ideas Division of Power Division of Power Individual rights Individual rights Economic Crisis Unemployment Taxes Food shortage/high prices High debt Weak Ruler

9 Solution? Louis XVI has a huge debt, & needs to pay it off to restore the nations economy Louis XVI has a huge debt, & needs to pay it off to restore the nations economy How can he solve this? How can he solve this? Can’t tax the lower class or middle class Can’t tax the lower class or middle class they have no more money to give they have no more money to give Tax the upper class? Tax the upper class? When Louis wants to tax the upper class he needs to …. When Louis wants to tax the upper class he needs to …. call the Estates General and the real problems begin call the Estates General and the real problems begin

10 Objectives: Dawn of Revolution Explain the outcome of the Estates General meetingExplain the outcome of the Estates General meeting Explain the effects of Louis the XVI stationing troops at VersaillesExplain the effects of Louis the XVI stationing troops at Versailles

11 The Estates General Meets The RulesThe Rules –1st & 2nd Estate wanted old rules –3rd Estate wanted to meet together –King sided w/nobles The National Assembly –Created by the 3 rd Estate –Pass laws in the name of the French people –Declared end to the Absolute Monarchy –1 st deliberate act of the revolution

12 The Suggested Voting Pattern: Voting By Estates Pattern suggested by the 3 rd Estate: Vote by Head! Commoners 3rd Estate Aristocracy 2nd Estate Clergy 1st Estate Commoners 3rd Estate Aristocracy 2nd Estate Clergy 1st Estate

13 Tennis Court Oath 3 rd Estate3 rd Estate –Locked out of the meeting room Broke into a tennis courtBroke into a tennis court –Wanted a new constitution –Stay there until they get it –“Tennis Court Oath” Louis stations troops in VersaillesLouis stations troops in Versailles Predict what happens…Predict what happens…

14 The Bastille WHO:WHO: –City people/third estate WHAT:WHAT: –Parisians storm the Bastille WHY:WHY: –Swiss guards at Versailles – What message is this sending? –feared troops were coming to break up the assembly & kill citizens –Mobs decided to storm the Bastille to get gunpowder Great symbolic act of the revolutionGreat symbolic act of the revolution –still celebrate today – “Bastille Day”

15 Storming the Bastille, July 14, 1789 YA rumor that the king was planning a military coup against the National Assembly. Y18 died. Y73 wounded. Y7 guards killed. YIt held 7 prisoners [5 ordinary criminals & 2 madmen].

16 The Great Fear WHO:WHO: –Peasants in the country WHAT:WHAT: –rebellion spread to the country –peasants attacked nobles – broke into their houses –tore up papers that show feudal dues they owe WHY:WHY: –rumors of a plot against common people

17 Bread Riot WHO:WHO: –Parisian women WHAT:WHAT: –and broke into Versailles –Demanded that the National Assembly provide bread –demanded that Louis and Marie return to Paris WHY:WHY: – joined in the “Great Fear” –mad about bread prices Louis XVI and his family left Versailles, never to returnLouis XVI and his family left Versailles, never to return Signaled a change of power and reformsSignaled a change of power and reforms “Let them eat cake”, not really“Let them eat cake”, not really

18 Objectives Identify the rights adopted by the National Assembly Identify the rights adopted by the National Assembly Explain the division in the Legislative Assembly Explain the division in the Legislative Assembly Video: Chapter 4-5 (19:57-30) Video: Chapter 4-5 (19:57-30)

19 The National Assembly adopted: A Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen Some nobles and clergy responded to the uprisings Some nobles and clergy responded to the uprisings August 27, 1789 – adopted “A Declaration….”August 27, 1789 – adopted “A Declaration….” Stated that men are equal: “Liberty, Equality, Fraternity”Stated that men are equal: “Liberty, Equality, Fraternity” Guaranteed equal justice, freedom of speech and religion Guaranteed equal justice, freedom of speech and religion Women? Slaves?Women? Slaves? Go over answers to the reading Go over answers to the reading

20 Louis & family tried to escape France Advisors warned, he was in danger Advisors warned, he was in danger Tried to escape to the Austrian NetherlandsTried to escape to the Austrian Netherlands He was caught He was caught What does this do to his reputation?What does this do to his reputation? people didn’t trust him anymore people didn’t trust him anymore Increased the influence of his enemies Increased the influence of his enemies RadicalsRadicals

21 The National Assembly completed a new constitution Created a limited constitutional monarchy Created a limited constitutional monarchy like Britainlike Britain Their job was doneTheir job was done (remember the Tennis Court?) (remember the Tennis Court?) Elected the Legislative Assembly Elected the Legislative Assembly This body could create the lawsThis body could create the laws the king still had power to enforce the lawsthe king still had power to enforce the laws

22 The Legislative Assembly split into 3 groups Radicals - left side - Opposed the monarchy - wanted major changes - wanted a republic  Sans-culottes Moderates - center - wanted some reforms Conservatives – right - few changes - liked the king wanted limited monarchy limited monarchy  Émigrés

23 People influence the government Sans-culottes –Parisian workers & shopkeepers –Wanted revolution to bring change Émigrés –Nobles who fled France –Hoped to undo the revolution –Restore the Old Regime

24 Objectives Identify of the National Convention cause the revolution to become violent. Identify of the National Convention cause the revolution to become violent. Analyze how the Directory was formed. Analyze how the Directory was formed.

25 September Massacre Rumors spread Rumors spread king supporters were going to take over the city king supporters were going to take over the city Citizens responded Citizens responded Raided prisons, murdered over 1,000 prisoners Raided prisons, murdered over 1,000 prisoners nobles and priests were killed as well nobles and priests were killed as well Under pressure from the radicals Under pressure from the radicals Set aside the constitution Set aside the constitution King was deposed King was deposed The Legislative Assembly ended The Legislative Assembly ended

26 The Revolution Gets Violent The National Convention The Revolution Gets Violent The National Convention The National Convention The National Convention Abolished the monarchy Abolished the monarchy declared France a republic declared France a republic every man had the right to vote every man had the right to vote Leaders were Radicals – Jacobins Leaders were Radicals – Jacobins wanted to remove the king Jean-Paul Marat Called for death of all king supporters Set the revolution on a violent path Set the revolution on a violent path Louis is tried for treason beheaded by the Guillotine

27 Louis XVI’s Head (January 21, 1793) c The trial of the king discovered a secret cupboard of documents. c Proved Louis’ knowledge of foreign intervention. c The National Convention voted 387 to 334 to execute the monarchs.

28 Robespierre begins the “Reign of Terror” Set out to build a “Republic… of virtue” Set out to build a “Republic… of virtue” wiping out any trace of Monarchy wiping out any trace of Monarchy determined who was an “enemy” of the state determined who was an “enemy” of the state Committee for Public Safety Committee for Public Safety Many killings by Guillotine Many killings by Guillotine some of the Jacobin leaders some of the Jacobin leaders Marat Marat Ruled as a dictator Ruled as a dictator This period was the “Reign of Terror” This period was the “Reign of Terror”

29 National Convention turned on Robespierre Nobody was safe Nobody was safe Turned on Robespierre to save themselves Turned on Robespierre to save themselves “Down with the tyrant” “Down with the tyrant” Killed by Guillotine Killed by Guillotine

30 The Directory is formed  because people were sick of the terror –moderate leaders drafted a new plan –A new Constitution (again)  The Directory –Called for a two-house legislature –5 man executive body  some were corrupt  All moderates  but they brought order –found a general to command France’s armies  Napoleon Bonaparte


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