26. A B a b D d d e E A B a b D d d E e A B a a b b D d d E e Prophase Metaphase Anaphase Telophase
27. Meiosis I separates homologous chromosomes Meiosis II separates sister chromatids
28. Genes code for proteins in taste buds Incomplete dominance ◦ AA = very bitter ◦ Aa= taste some bitterness ◦ aa = no taste
29. 1. You get some of your dad’s traits 2. You express traits from mom she wasn’t expressing (recessive) 3. You express a combo of their two alleles (incomplete/codominance, multiple gene inheritance) 4. Mutations, change in gene expression, environmental effects etc. All increase diversity, which increases chances someone survives!
30. Lots of examples, but all involve a dysfunctional protein ◦ i.e hemoglobin in sickle cell anemia, enzyme in tay-sachs, light absorbing pigment in color blindness, clotting protein in hemophilia, connective protein in Marfans etc.
Transcription/Translation Simulation 10 minutes to get as far as you can, then we will discuss
1. Transcription DNA code used to make messenger RNA The sleeve represents the nucleus, which protects the DNA and keeps it from being damaged, altered or lsot
2. Translation Protein assembled based on mRNA instructions in the ribosome with the help of tRNAs which carry each amino acid
2b. Slightly different versions of each other (aka different alleles for the same gene) Came about most likely due to a mistake when the original one was being replicated
2c. Individual is heterozygous in gene 1 and homozygous in gene 2. 1a and 1b chromosomes are homologous to each other as are chromosomes 2a and 2b
3a. Joke= protein Word = amino acid Protein is made of many amino acids, like a joke is made of many words The order of the amino acids determines the proteins structure and function
3b Depends on the word. Some words are very important – some words aren’t i.e. What do you call that cow with no legs? Ground beef – the mistaken word doesn’t have a big affect What do you call a birth with no legs? Ground beef completely changes the joke Same thing in proteins! Some amino acids are critical, some will just change things slightly
3c. Mutations usually bad, but very rarely can have positive effect. Important in evolution
4a Depends on letter Biggest effect on start codon Deletion/Addition is most serious
4c. Imagine: THE FAT CAT ATE THE DOG Changing one later, may or may not have a big effect ◦ THE FAT CAT ATE THA DOG ◦ THE FAT CAT ATE THE HOG Deletion has huge effect ◦ THE ATC ATA TET HAD OG Addition also has large effect ◦ THE GFA TCA TAT ETH EDO G
5. tRNA must complement mRNA Beef = UGU or UGC so tRNAs can be ACA or ACG What= AUG so tRNA must be UAC
7. tRNA must be complementary to mRNA which is complementary to DNA So the order of amino acids depends on the sequence of the DNA
Performance Task This is the same task you did in the beginning of the year so you can see if you have learned this material You will take an end of year performance task as well Take it like a quiz – if you do well, I will count it, if not I won’t
R.A.F.T. on Transcription/Translation Include the following in your representation: ◦ DNA ◦ promoter ◦ RNA polymerase, transcription factors ◦ mRNA ◦ Ribosome ◦ tRNA ◦ Start codon, stop codon ◦ Amino acids ◦ Protein You can use the book, notes, or if need be a computer
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