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1 1st INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON INDOOR AIR. VALENCIA (SPAIN). 24th- 26th OCTOBER 2002. Ventilation and Standards by Eric.F.Curd.

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Presentation on theme: "1 1st INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON INDOOR AIR. VALENCIA (SPAIN). 24th- 26th OCTOBER 2002. Ventilation and Standards by Eric.F.Curd."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 1st INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON INDOOR AIR. VALENCIA (SPAIN). 24th- 26th OCTOBER Ventilation and Standards by Eric.F.Curd.

2 2 INTRODUCTION. Control of air purity in the workspace. Current standards. Ventilation factors. CONSIDERATIONS:-.

3 3 Toxic gases,dusts and vapours. Aerosol deposition in the lungs depends on:- Physical factors. Chemical factors.

4 4 PHYSICAL FACTORS INCLUDE. Inhalation. Most common, as between m 3 of air enters the lungs each day. Cuts and skin immersion. Through the digestive tract.

5 5 BODIES DEFENCE MECHANISMS. Depends on many complex factors. Gravitational.(physical size and mass). Kinetic Impact removal. (Cilla). Viscous forces. (Mucus viscosity). Brownian movement.(Effective for less than 0.1μm). Agglomeration. (Bonding). Electric charges. Condensation. Thermal forces Molecular forces proportional to temperature difference and particulate diameter.

6 6 ATMOSPHERIC IMPURITIES. Consist of Permanent and man made Permanent atmospheric impurities consist of:- Sea spray. Wind erosion of soil rock and building material. Wind carried pollen. Volcanic pollutants. Evaporation. Radio activity. Man made pollutants consisting of:- SO 2 ;CO;CO 2 ;NOx from various combustion processes. Products from chemical,metallurgical processes etc. Radioactivity. Internal pollutants, smoking, cleaning products etc.

7 7 Contaminant Considerations. Type of contaminant present, inorganic/organic. The physical state of the contaminant,gaseous or particulate. Visible or invisible. Toxic or non toxic. Radioactive. Sub microscopic,microscopic or macroscopic. The method of collection. Proximity to the process. etc.

8 8 Classification. Dust.(from abrasion).(Grit above 100μm) Fumes.( μm). Viruses.( μm). Bacteria.( μm). Pollens.(10-100μm).Allergies (20-40μm). Fungi spores.(10-30μm). Mists and fogs. ( μm). Gases and vapours. ( μm). Dangerous size (below 5.0μm).

9 9 HEALTH EFFECTS. RESPIRATORY. FERTILITY. BIRTH DEFECTS. DERMATITIS. ORGAN DAMAGE. BLOOD DISORDERS. CANCER. ETC. IMMEDIATE ILLNESS (ACUTE). LONG TERM (CHRONIC).

10 10 STANDARDS. NATIONAL. EUROPEAN (CEN). INTERNATIONAL (ISO). INVENT CONSIDERATIONS.

11 11 CHALLENGE. HISTORY OVER 7000 YEARS. KHUFA PYRAMID 4700 BC. HUMBURABI 1750BC. HIPPOCRETES BC. LEAD TOXICITY. PLINEY THE ELDER 23-79AD LEAD AND SILVER TOXICITY. GALEN AD ACID MISTS. LEGISLATION IN LONDON 1273 REGARDING COAL. LEONARD DA VINCI FAN. GEORGIOUS AGRICOLA De Re METALLICA. UK DURING CENTURY. INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION NAVY AND SLAVE SHIPS.

12 12 CHALLENGE OF ASSOCIATED SCIENCES. PRINCIPLES OF OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH. CHEMICAL HEALTH HAZARDS. PHYSICAL HEALTH HAZARDS. BIOLOGICAL HEALTH HAZARDS. TOXICOLOGY,EPIDEMIOLOGY &PATHOLOGY. ENVIRONMENTAL AND BIOLOGICAL MONITORING. LEGAL REQUIREMENTS.

13 13 CHALLENGE OF ENVIRONMENTAL RESPONSIBILITY. HEALTH PROBLEMS, ANIMALS AND PLANTS. OZONE LAYER BREAKDOWN. GREEN HOUSE EFFECT. ENERGY USE. SAFE COLLECTION OF GASES ETC. RECOVERY AND RECYCLING. SOUND ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN. KEEPING UP TO DATE WITH CHANGE. SOUND ENGINEERING DESIGN.

14 14 CHALLENGE OF EDUCATIONAL INVOLVEMENT. UNIVERSITIES MUST INSTILL INTO STUDENTS:- SIMPLICITY TO WONDER. ABILITY TO QUESTION. THE POWER TO GENERALISE. THE CAPACITY TO APPLY.

15 15 CHALLENGE OF COMMUNICATION. DEFINITION OF WORK AREA. WHO IS THE TARGET AUDIENCE? WHO WILL USE THE STANDARD? WHAT DO THEY WANT? IDENTIFY OVERLAPPING STANDARDS. ENSURE NO CONFLICT OR DUPLICATION INTERNATIONALY. CORRECT PLANT OPERATION. INSTRUCTION AND TRAINING. ETC.

16 16 VENTILATION CONSIDERATIONS. METHODS OF VENTILATION. NATURAL. MECHANICAL EXTRACT- INDUCED INLET. MECHANICAL INLET -FORCED EXTRACT. MECHANICAL INLET -MECHANICAL EXTRACT.

17 17 METHODS OF DISTRIBUTION. UPWARD VENTILATION (DISPLACEMENT) DOWNWARDS VENTILATION. CROSSWISE VENTILATION. MIXED UPWARDS- DOWNWARDS VENTILATION.


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