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IAEA Training Course on Radiation Protection for Doctors (non-radiologists, non-cardiologists) using Fluoroscopy What can radiation do? L03.

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Presentation on theme: "IAEA Training Course on Radiation Protection for Doctors (non-radiologists, non-cardiologists) using Fluoroscopy What can radiation do? L03."— Presentation transcript:

1 IAEA Training Course on Radiation Protection for Doctors (non-radiologists, non-cardiologists) using Fluoroscopy What can radiation do? L03

2 Answer True or False 1.It is accepted that the carcinogenic effects of radiation have a threshold. 2.For deterministic effects of radiation, the severity increases with dose. 3.Radiation risk in children is 2-3 times lower than people above 45 years. 4.Skin injuries and lens opacities are deterministic effects of radiation. IAEA Training Course on Radiation Protection for Doctors (non-radiologists, non-cardiologists) using Fluoroscopy L03. What can radiation do? 2

3 Educational Objectives Different radiation effects Their probability in fluoroscopy practice Special concerns in children, young & pregnant females IAEA Training Course on Radiation Protection for Doctors (non-radiologists, non-cardiologists) using Fluoroscopy L03. What can radiation do? 3

4 What can radiation do? When used appropriately it can benefit an individual by aiding in the diagnosis of disease at an early stage where treatment may be more effective than if detected late. In case of inappropriate use it also has a potential to harm an individual by placing them at increased risk of radiation-induced cancer later in life. Benefit and Risk must be carefully balanced when X ray imaging is undertaken IAEA Training Course on Radiation Protection for Doctors (non-radiologists, non-cardiologists) using Fluoroscopy L03. What can radiation do? 4

5 Cancer Genetic effects Skin injuries Cataract Infertility Death What can radiation do? IAEA Training Course on Radiation Protection for Doctors (non-radiologists, non-cardiologists) using Fluoroscopy L03. What can radiation do? 5

6 IAEA Training Course on Radiation Protection for Doctors (non-radiologists, non-cardiologists) using Fluoroscopy L03. What can radiation do? 6

7 IAEA Training Course on Radiation Protection for Doctors (non-radiologists, non-cardiologists) using Fluoroscopy L03. What can radiation do? Deterministic Effects (predictable and preventable) Cataract formation Skin injury Impaired fertility Threshold 7

8 Stochastic and Deterministic Effects A stochastic effect is one where the severity of radiation damage is not related to the dose and the probability of occurrence increases with increasing radiation dose, e.g., development of cancer. There is no threshold for stochastic effects. A deterministic effect is one where the severity depends upon the radiation dose, e.g., skin burns. There is a threshold for deterministic effects. IAEA Training Course on Radiation Protection for Doctors (non-radiologists, non-cardiologists) using Fluoroscopy L03. What can radiation do? 8

9 You mean I can get cancer even if I am working with small amount of radiation? This requires discussion on how radiation effects occur Physician IAEA Training Course on Radiation Protection for Doctors (non-radiologists, non-cardiologists) using Fluoroscopy L03. What can radiation do? 9

10 Is there RADIATION in this room? IAEA Training Course on Radiation Protection for Doctors (non-radiologists, non-cardiologists) using Fluoroscopy L03. What can radiation do? 10

11 Radiation from Natural Sources Normally 1-3 mSv/year In areas of high background, 3-13 mSv/year IAEA Training Course on Radiation Protection for Doctors (non-radiologists, non-cardiologists) using Fluoroscopy L03. What can radiation do? 11

12 High dose fluoroscopy CT Radiography IAEA Training Course on Radiation Protection for Doctors (non-radiologists, non-cardiologists) using Fluoroscopy L03. What can radiation do? 12 Relative Dose Ranges in Medical Imaging

13 IAEA Training Course on Radiation Protection for Doctors (non-radiologists, non-cardiologists) using Fluoroscopy L03. What can radiation do? 13 Effects of Radiation on Cells

14 Nucleus Double membrane surrounding the chromosomes and the nucleolus. Pores allow specific communication with the cytoplasm. The nucleolus is a site for synthesis of RNA making up the ribosome. Chromosomes

15 Direct Effect Incoming photon strikes the DNA molecule and damages it; either a base pair is damaged or a support strand is damaged. Damage from direct effect is rare; possibly as low as 1%.

16 Indirect effect Incoming photon interacts with a water molecule The ionizing radiation breaks chemical bonds in the water molecule The water molecule fragments form highly reactive chemicals such as hydrogen peroxide and other free radicals These highly reactive chemicals attack the DNA molecule damaging its chemical bonds

17 IAEA Training Course on Radiation Protection for Doctors (non-radiologists, non-cardiologists) using Fluoroscopy L03. What can radiation do? Induction of DNA changes 17

18 IAEA Training Course on Radiation Protection for Doctors (non-radiologists, non-cardiologists) using Fluoroscopy L03. What can radiation do?

19 IAEA Training Course on Radiation Protection for Doctors (non-radiologists, non-cardiologists) using Fluoroscopy L03. What can radiation do? radiation hits a cell nucleus! No change DNA mutation 19

20 IAEA Training Course on Radiation Protection for Doctors (non-radiologists, non-cardiologists) using Fluoroscopy L03. What can radiation do? DNA Mutation p  a D Cell survives but mutated Stoch.eff. Mutation repaired Unviable Cell Viable Cell Cell death 20

21 IAEA Training Course on Radiation Protection for Doctors (non-radiologists, non-cardiologists) using Fluoroscopy L03. What can radiation do? Deterministic effects caused by cell death: burns, organ failure, death At 3 wksAt 6.5 mos Surgical flap Following ablation procedure with arm in beam near port and separator cone removed. About 20 minutes of fluoroscopy. Reproduced from Wagner – Archer, Minimizing Risks from Fluoroscopic X Rays, 3rd ed, Houston, TX, R. M. Partnership, 2000 21

22 IAEA Training Course on Radiation Protection for Doctors (non-radiologists, non-cardiologists) using Fluoroscopy L03. What can radiation do? Normal process Altered process due to mutated genes 22

23 IAEA Training Course on Radiation Protection for Doctors (non-radiologists, non-cardiologists) using Fluoroscopy L03. What can radiation do? Altered process due to mutated genes 23

24 Stochastic effects  Carcinogenesis  Hereditary effects  Effects in the embryo/foetus IAEA Training Course on Radiation Protection for Doctors (non-radiologists, non-cardiologists) using Fluoroscopy L03. What can radiation do? 24

25 Carcinogenesis

26 IAEA Training Course on Radiation Protection for Doctors (non-radiologists, non-cardiologists) using Fluoroscopy L03. What can radiation do? 26

27 So now that you have scared me with this information, what should I do? It is not our intent to scare you with these facts, but to educate about potential long-term risks. IAEA Training Course on Radiation Protection for Doctors (non-radiologists, non-cardiologists) using Fluoroscopy L03. What can radiation do? 27

28 OK, I agree that radiation can cause cancer, but how do I know if I will get cancer!!! IAEA Training Course on Radiation Protection for Doctors (non-radiologists, non-cardiologists) using Fluoroscopy L03. What can radiation do? 28

29 Life Insurance Agent Malpractice Insurance Probability IAEA Training Course on Radiation Protection for Doctors (non-radiologists, non-cardiologists) using Fluoroscopy L03. What can radiation do? 29

30 IAEA Training Course on Radiation Protection for Doctors (non-radiologists, non-cardiologists) using Fluoroscopy L03. What can radiation do? 30

31 Radiosensitivity Probability of a cell, tissue, or organ suffering an effect per unit dose Will be greater if the cell: Is highly mitotic Is undifferentiated Younger Cells IAEA Training Course on Radiation Protection for Doctors (non-radiologists, non-cardiologists) using Fluoroscopy L03. What can radiation do? 31

32 Risk versus Age at Exposure Estimated Risks of Radiation- Induced Fatal Cancer from Pediatric CT David J. Brenner Carl D. Elliston Eric J. Hall Walter E. Berdon AJR 2001;176:289–296 IAEA Training Course on Radiation Protection for Doctors (non-radiologists, non-cardiologists) using Fluoroscopy L03. What can radiation do? 32

33 Cancer risk estimate: 4–6% per 1000 mSv (depending on projection method) ! Note: The probability best applies to a group of people and is not suitable for individual cases LIFE SPAN STUDY Atomic Bomb Survivors IAEA Training Course on Radiation Protection for Doctors (non-radiologists, non-cardiologists) using Fluoroscopy L03. What can radiation do? 33

34 Heritable Effects

35 Heritable effects Effects to be observed in offspring born after one or both parents had been irradiated prior to conception. IAEA Training Course on Radiation Protection for Doctors (non-radiologists, non-cardiologists) using Fluoroscopy L03. What can radiation do? 35

36 Heritable effects Descendants of Hiroshima and Nagasaki survivors were studied but no statistical abnormalities were detected. IAEA Training Course on Radiation Protection for Doctors (non-radiologists, non-cardiologists) using Fluoroscopy L03. What can radiation do? 36

37 A cohort of 31,150 children born to parents who were within 2 km of the hypocenter at the time of the bombing was compared with a control cohort of 41,066 children. No indicator was significantly modified by parental radiation exposure. IAEA Training Course on Radiation Protection for Doctors (non-radiologists, non-cardiologists) using Fluoroscopy L03. What can radiation do? 37 Heritable effects

38 In the absence of human data the estimation of hereditary effects is based on animal studies. IAEA Training Course on Radiation Protection for Doctors (non-radiologists, non-cardiologists) using Fluoroscopy L03. What can radiation do? 38

39 ICRP publication 103 HERITABLE EFFECTS OF RADIATION Risks to offspring following prenatal exposure: Whole population: 0.2% per Sv Adults: 0.1% per Sv IAEA Training Course on Radiation Protection for Doctors (non-radiologists, non-cardiologists) using Fluoroscopy L03. What can radiation do? 39

40 …above …above the prevalent background dose, an increment in dose dose results in a proportional increment increment in the probability of heritable effects of of 0.1-0.2% per Sv of dose. IAEA Training Course on Radiation Protection for Doctors (non-radiologists, non-cardiologists) using Fluoroscopy L03. What can radiation do? 40

41 OK, I understood that these radiation effects have a probability But, I want to know about ME, if I will get these IAEA Training Course on Radiation Protection for Doctors (non-radiologists, non-cardiologists) using Fluoroscopy L03. What can radiation do? 41

42 Do you worry about? Not really Yes Yes, Very much IAEA Training Course on Radiation Protection for Doctors (non-radiologists, non-cardiologists) using Fluoroscopy L03. What can radiation do? 42

43 Do you worry about? IAEA Training Course on Radiation Protection for Doctors (non-radiologists, non-cardiologists) using Fluoroscopy L03. What can radiation do? 43

44 If you work in such a manner that you adhere to prescribed dose limits of 20 mSv per year for whole working life of 18 to 65 years, your chance of excess cancer is 1 in 1000. Note: The probability calculations are for a group of people and not for individual cases IAEA Training Course on Radiation Protection for Doctors (non-radiologists, non-cardiologists) using Fluoroscopy L03. What can radiation do? 44

45 That sounds interesting. Is it possible to work in such a manner that I remain within 20 mSv/yr? It should be possible to achieve conditions so that you do not exceed ≈ 3 mSv/yr. Just wait for later information in this course IAEA Training Course on Radiation Protection for Doctors (non-radiologists, non-cardiologists) using Fluoroscopy L03. What can radiation do? 45

46 IAEA Training Course on Radiation Protection for Doctors (non-radiologists, non-cardiologists) using Fluoroscopy L03. What can radiation do? 46

47 Are there reports of increased cancer incidence among doctors using fluoroscopy ? One, Last Question!!! IAEA Training Course on Radiation Protection for Doctors (non-radiologists, non-cardiologists) using Fluoroscopy L03. What can radiation do? 47

48 Let us look into the data for other professional groups like radiologists… (Not all specialists using fluoroscopy have traditionally interacted with safety and radiation effects professionals) IAEA Training Course on Radiation Protection for Doctors (non-radiologists, non-cardiologists) using Fluoroscopy L03. What can radiation do? 48

49 Radiologists & radiological personnel: Eight cohorts 1.3 from US (radiologists, Army X ray technologists, radiological technologists 2.1 each from China, Canada, Denmark, Japan & UK Variety of data pertaining to cancer incidence for different sites, mortality data (cancer), now also to other diseases such as cardiovascular Variation from healthy worker effect to small increase IAEA Training Course on Radiation Protection for Doctors (non-radiologists, non-cardiologists) using Fluoroscopy L03. What can radiation do? 49

50 UK Radiologists Around 2700 male radiologists, registered from 1897 to 1979. Standardized mortality ratio (SMR) Annual exposure 0.1 Sv before 1950, 0.05 Sv in early 1950’s Compared mortality rates and death from circulatory disease: Observed number of deaths were generally close to or lower than expected. IAEA Training Course on Radiation Protection for Doctors (non-radiologists, non-cardiologists) using Fluoroscopy L03. What can radiation do? 50

51 US Radiological Technologists Over 146,000, predominantly females, 73% Total cancer death rates were lower than expected in general population Risks higher for those before 1950 Relative risk of mortality from circulatory disease higher for those starting work in earlier years [<1940=1.22, 1940’s=1.00, 1960+=1.00] IAEA Training Course on Radiation Protection for Doctors (non-radiologists, non-cardiologists) using Fluoroscopy L03. What can radiation do? 51

52 US Radiologists Study 1920-1939: Cohort with highest exposure, 15% higher mortality from cardiovascular disease than other physicians, after age 55. No information about smoking and other risk factors. IAEA Training Course on Radiation Protection for Doctors (non-radiologists, non-cardiologists) using Fluoroscopy L03. What can radiation do? 52

53 Studies of the Mortality of Atomic Bomb Survivors An Overview of Cancer and Non-cancer Diseases Follow up period: 1950–2003 86,611 cohort members People of both sexes and all ages Irradiated at different ages Studies of the Mortality of Atomic Bomb Survivors, Report 14, 1950–2003: An Overview of Cancer and Noncancer Diseases. K Ozasa et al 2012. RADIATION RESEARCH 177, 229–243 (2012)

54 The sex-averaged excess relative risk per Gy was 0.42 for all solid cancer at age 70 years after exposure at age 30 based on a linear model The risk increased by about 29% per decade decrease in age at exposure Studies of the Mortality of Atomic Bomb Survivors

55 Non neoplastic diseases Significan risks for non-neoplastic diseases of: Blood (ERR/Gy = 1.7) Circulatory system (ERR/Gy = 0.11) Respiratory system (ERR/Gy = 0.21) Non malignant respiratory diseases (pneumonia and influenza) ERR/Gy = 0.24 Whether these are causal relationships requires further investigation

56 Non-neoplastic effects of Radiation Risk of Cardiovascular Diseases following Radiation Exposures IAEA Training Course on Radiation Protection for Doctors (non-radiologists, non-cardiologists) using Fluoroscopy L03. What can radiation do? 56

57 Non cancer effects Data from the LSS cohort of Japanese atomic bomb survivors (Ozasa et al 2012*) excess risk of mortality ERR/Gy = 0.11, for heart disease overall ERR/Gy = 0.09, for cerebrovascular disease *Ozasa et al 2012. RADIATION RESEARCH 177, 229–243 (2012)

58 Non cancer effects Threshold for effects Heart disease: no threshold Cerebrovascular disease: Threshold of 0.5 Gy However, there is considerable uncertainty about the shape of the dose response at doses below 0.5 Gy There are excess risks of heart disease for radiotherapy patients with average heart doses of 1-2 Gy (single dose equivalent, after correction for fractionation effects). Excess risks of cardiovascular disease only become apparent 10-20 years after exposure at low doses. Long follow-up times are therefore required for assessment of risk

59 IAEA Training Course on Radiation Protection for Doctors (non-radiologists, non-cardiologists) using Fluoroscopy L03. What can radiation do? 59

60 IAEA Training Course on Radiation Protection for Doctors (non-radiologists, non-cardiologists) using Fluoroscopy L03. What can radiation do? 60

61 May involve small children, young females and pregnant patients IAEA Training Course on Radiation Protection for Doctors (non-radiologists, non-cardiologists) using Fluoroscopy L03. What can radiation do? 61

62 Radiosensitivity In Children and Young Patients Age is a primary determinant of radiosensitivity– the younger the patient, the higher the radiosensitivity Breast of 15 year old is 15 times more sensitive to radiocarcinogenesis than the breast of 45 year old IAEA Training Course on Radiation Protection for Doctors (non-radiologists, non-cardiologists) using Fluoroscopy L03. What can radiation do? 62

63 IAEA Training Course on Radiation Protection for Doctors (non-radiologists, non-cardiologists) using Fluoroscopy L03. What can radiation do? 63

64 674 children who underwent cardiac catheterization due to congenital anomalies, between the years 1950-1970 Expected number of malignancies for all sites was 4.75, while the observed number was 11.0 IAEA Training Course on Radiation Protection for Doctors (non-radiologists, non-cardiologists) using Fluoroscopy L03. What can radiation do? 64

65 ICRP statement in its last 2007 recommendations The available data on possible excess in non-cancer diseases (e.g., cardiovascular disorders) are judged to be insufficient to inform on risks at low doses. IAEA Training Course on Radiation Protection for Doctors (non-radiologists, non-cardiologists) using Fluoroscopy L03. What can radiation do? 65

66 DETERMINISTIC LENS THRESHOLD AS QUOTED BY ICRP OPACITIES THRESHOLD 0,5 - 2,0 Sv in SINGLE EXPOSURE 5 Sv in FRAC. EXPOS. >0,1 Sv/year CONTIN. ANNUAL RATE 5 Sv SINGLE EXPOS. > 8 Sv FRAC. EXPOS. >0,15 Sv/year CONTIN. ANNUAL RATE CATARACT IAEA Training Course on Radiation Protection for Doctors (non-radiologists, non-cardiologists) using Fluoroscopy L03. What can radiation do? 66 https://rpop.iaea.org/RPOP/RPoP/Content/InformationFor/HealthProfess ionals/6_OtherClinicalSpecialities/radiation-cataract/index.htm

67 IAEA Training Course on Radiation Protection for Doctors (non-radiologists, non-cardiologists) using Fluoroscopy L03. What can radiation do? 67

68 Re-Cap 1.What can radiation do? 2.Effects that have threshold 3.No threshold effects - cancer, genetic 4.Effects at the level of cell, DNA 5.Probability of cancer, genetic effects 6.Individual risk 7.Radiologists, technologists 8.Patients- Children, young & pregnant female IAEA Training Course on Radiation Protection for Doctors (non-radiologists, non-cardiologists) using Fluoroscopy L03. What can radiation do? 68

69 Answer True or False 1.ICRP states that radiation induced cataract can be produced if more than 150 mSv* is received in the lens as a continuous annual rate. 2.The risk for cancer is 10%/Sv. 3.Women have slightly higher risk (increase in cancer probability per unit effective dose) than men. IAEA Training Course on Radiation Protection for Doctors (non-radiologists, non-cardiologists) using Fluoroscopy L03. What can radiation do? 69 * In a recent statement ICRP (Statement on Tissue Reactions Approved by the Commission on April 21, 2011) the ICRP proposed a limit of 20 mSv/yr, averaged over 5 years, not exceeding 50 mSv at any single year.

70 Answer True or False 4.ICRP considers that the available data is insufficient to infer possible non-cancer diseases (e.g., cardiovascular disorders) particularly at low doses. 5.Breast of a 15 year old women is many times more sensitive to radio-carcinogenesis than the breast of a 45 year old women. IAEA Training Course on Radiation Protection for Doctors (non-radiologists, non-cardiologists) using Fluoroscopy L03. What can radiation do? 70

71 Thank you IAEA Training Course on Radiation Protection for Doctors (non-radiologists, non-cardiologists) using Fluoroscopy L03. What can radiation do? 71


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