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Manufacturing with Composites

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Presentation on theme: "Manufacturing with Composites"— Presentation transcript:

1 Manufacturing with Composites
Chapter 19 Manufacturing with Composites

2 Composite - Definition
Structures made of two or more distinct materials The materials maintain their identity during the process The materials maintain their identity after the final component is fully formed.

3 Key Points Fabric Types Resin Types Manufacturing Techniques
Curing Techniques Sandwiches and Honeycombs Joining of Composites Pros and Cons of Composites

4 Where are Composites Used?
Recreational boats Cars Airplanes and other aircrafts Aerospace High performance sporting goods Appliances, tools, and machinery Tanks and pipes

5 What is a Composite? First produced about 50 years ago
A “Judicious” combination of two or more materials that produces a “Synergistic” effect Focusing on using glass, graphite and Kevlar and impregnated with a plastic resin for manufacturing. Areas used recreational

6 Judicious Implies that the components are carefully selected to provide the desired physical and chemical characteristics

7 Synergistic The whole product is better than the sum of its individual components Word coined by Buckminster Fuller Illustrated concept by using a rope as an example The term synergy was coined by Buckminster Fuller. He illustrated his concept of synergy with the following analogy. “If one has one hundred individual strings, each is capable of lifting one pound therefore the maximum load of the strings would be 100 pounds. However, if those same strings are twisted, braided, or woven into a rope, the rope will lift far more than a 100 pounds.

8 Composites are made up of a fiber and a matrix
Fiber can be short or long strands of material Matrix is a the material that holds the fibers together Natural composites – celery, corn stalks, and sugar cane Manmade composite – reinforced concrete Reinforced concrete can be considered a composite with the steel as the fiber and the concrete as the matrix.

9 Composite Classification
Matrix Material that surrounds the other components Fillers Randomly oriented equally dispersed particles Fiber Reinforcement Usually the main component in differing forms

10 Simple and Advanced Composites
Simple Composite (Reinforced plastic) – Fiber laid in random directions or very short Advance Composite – Long fibers are laid in a given direction, long, and continuous

11 Fiber orientation Unidirectional Biaxial (Cross-ply) Laminates
Random orientation Laminates Cross layering of unidirectional composites

12 Composite System Categories
Fiber – Resin Fiber – Ceramic Carbon – Metal Metal – Concrete Metal – Resin Metal – Elastomer Fiber – Elastomer Wood – Resin When adding fibers to a resin matrix, one cannot predict the properties of the composite by analyzing the components. When a composite is created the fibers and resin create new properties. Example, glass fibers are strong but are vulnerable to damage and a certain plastic weak but, versatile and tough. Combining the two will strengthen the strengths and hide the weaknesses.

13 Typical Fabrics Used in Composites
Glass Can be long and continuous or short Can use many different types ex: Soda lime – easy and low cost Fiberglass white color can be dyed to any color Kelvar Can be long and continuous Same family as nylon Distinctive yellow color Graphite (carbon) Made by burning a material in the absence of oxygen, other elements burn off leaving carbon Should be called carbon fiber Always black

14 Strength to Weight


16 Why Chose Glass? Excellent thermal and impact resistance
High tensile strength Good chemical resistance Outstanding insulating properties Lower cost

17 Glass Types E-glass Low cost - $1 per pound
Used in 90% of glass reinforcement Good electrical resistance Used in aircraft radomes and antennae and computer circuit boards Good resistance to sodium carbonate (base) Good high temperature performance High strength glass $6 per pound S-glass or S2-glass(U.S.) R-glass (Europe) T-glass (Japan) Contains more silica oxide, aluminum oxide, and magnesium oxide 40% to 70% stronger Originally used for military applications (S2 for commercial) Good resistance to hydrochloric and sulfuric acid Good resistance to sodium carbonate (base) Good high temperature performance C-glass Corrosion resistant Good resistance to hydrochloric and sulfuric acid Poor high temperature performance

18 Why Chose Graphite? Higher tensile strength and stiffness than glass
Used in high-tech applications where product needs exceptional fiber properties and customer is willing to pay premium

19 Why Chose Kevlar? Highest quality High breaking strength
More impact resistant Lightest weight Highest tensile strength

20 Comparisons of Fibers & Steel

21 Comparisons of Fibers & Steel

22 Hybrids Combination of different fibers within a single matrix
Intraply Interply

23 Hybrids Interply Knitting Selective Placement

24 Resins Must be compatible with fibers Two types Thermoplastic
Needs higher temperature processing Remains plastic and can be reheated and reshaped Used less High performance Higher costs Higher temperature performance Better damage resistance Higher compressive strength High vibrational damping Viscoelasticity Thermosetting Crosslinks during curing Sets into final rigid form Used widely Lower price tag Ease of handling Good balance of mechanical, electrical, and chemical resistance properties

25 Resins – Two Types Thermoplastics Thermosetting ABS PMMS Epoxy
Fluorocarbon (Teflon) Nylon Polycarbonate Polyphenylene sulfide Polypropylene Styrene Vinyl Vinylidines Epoxy Bakelite Melamine Polyesters Urea-formaldehyde Urethanes Silicones

26 Manufacturing Techniques
Hand layup or Hand-lay Pre-preg Filament winding Pultrusion

27 Open Mold Processes Hand Lay-up Spray-up Tape-laying Filament winding

28 Hand layup Oldest, Inexpensive, Little equipment required
Repair technicians and backyard boat builders use this technique with fiberglass Requires some skill to do Wasteful use of resin Product heavier compared to using other techniques Good for one of a kind products or prototypes

29 Hand layup Method A form is coated with resin using a paintbrush, roller, swab, spatula or any other method Fabric is pressed into the resin Another coat of resin is applied on top

30 Pre-preg Method Fabric saturated with resin
Excess squeezed out by rollers Cured to B stage, material tacky Can be stored a week to 10 days if not used right away. Refrigeration lengthens shelf life Can be wrapped around a mandrel, cut by computer controlled machines or laid up on forms by robots Must be put under pressure to finish curing

31 Filament Winding Method
Good for convex shapes having no indentations Individual fibers are drawn through the resin and wrapped around a mandrel When complete pressure cured, mandrel removed Good method for aircraft nose cones, radar domes and missile nose cones and bodies

32 Pultrusion Method Good method for selective placement composites
A bundle of arranged fibers are drawn through a resin bath Then pulled through a selected shape heated die Cured and cut to size Good method to create channels, flange beams, T-bars, and other shapes in very long lengths

33 Pultrusion

34 Curing Techniques Pressure forms Vacuum bagging Autoclaving

35 Pressure Form Method Uses a heated internal and external mold
Can be used in mass production, but requires expensive equipment

36 Vacuum Bagging Method Simple and cheapest method
Used after hand layup or pre-preg of material Piece is placed in a polyethylene, rubber, or airtight flexible bag Vacuum pull in the bag exerts equal pressure approximately 12 lb/in2 Part or entire bag is heated to cure

37 Autoclaving Method Used when parts require more than one atmosphere of pressure An oven that can be sealed and pressure is then applied by air or other gasses

38 Other Composite Forms Sandwiches
Styrofoam, syntactic foam, or polyurethane foam wrapped in fiberglass, Kevlar, or graphite fibers and fused together Balsa wood could be used as a core to make sailboats Recent developments using ceramic cores for heat resistance

39 Other Composite Forms Honeycombs
Honeycombed aluminum, Nomex, fiberglass, graphite, or other material wrapped and bonded to composite materials Used in helicopter blades, truck and aircraft bodies, and some parts of aircraft wings and tail surfaces

40 Joining Composites Joined in conventional methods by threads, pins, rivets, and other mechanical methods Thermoplastic polymers joined by fusion welding Chemical joining Adhesives

41 Composites vs. Traditional Materials
Pros Cons Lighter Stronger No fatigue failure No corroding Hard to break Complicated shapes Delaminate Blisters Fabric cutting difficult Material and curing costs high

42 Environmental Concerns
Reduction of styrene emissions Exposure limited to 50 parts per million (OSHA) Hard to meet standards and costly Achieved by reducing styrene, better transferring to molds, curing in closed systems Development of biodegradable reinforced plastics Filling up landfills with computer and car parts, packaging, etc. Create matrices from soybean protein and use plant-based fibers such as ramie, pineapple leaves and banana stems Could be used in car and train interiors, computers and as packaging materials Low cost (when acceptance increases), biodegradable and renewable on a yearly basis

43 Websites

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