2 Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde by Robert Louis Stevenson BiographyAndBackground
3 Robert Lewis Stevenson Born 1850 ~ Edinburg, Scotland ~ SicklyFather designed lighthousesStudied literature at Edinburg UniversityHad to move to a warmer climate because of his deteriorating healthMoved to California in 1879 and married Fanny Osbourne; the travel almost killed himDoctors told him he would die in a few months, but he lived until 1894
4 Robert Louis Stevenson ~continued~ His first great writing success was Treasure Island ~ thrilling story of a swashbuckling pirate named Long John Silver.Other works include: A Child’s Garden of Verses and KidnappedRobert Louis Stevenson died on December 3, At the time of his death, he was working with friends in Scotland preparing an edition of his complete works.
5 Other Interesting Facts Robert Louis Stevenson has a good claim to be the inventor of the Sleeping Bag, taking a large fleece-lined sack with him to sleep on the journey through France described in his book Travels with a Donkey in the Cevennes
6 Interesting Facts ~Continued~ In his tale of Dr. Jekyll & Mr. Hyde, one of the first ‘psychological’ thrillers, Stevenson portrays how two contradictory personalities – one conventional ‘good’, the other an example of increasingly uncontrolled ‘evil’ – can coexist in one body. It is said that this was an idea modeled on the late 18th century case of Deacon Brodie, a respectable Edinburgh businessman by day who was a gambler, adulterer, armed robber & murderer by night – and nobody knew until he bungled a robbery, was eventually caught and hanged on a gallows of his own invention!
7 Symbolism and The Novella Symbolism is the practice of representing things by means of symbols or of attributing symbolic meanings or significance to objects, events, or relationships.A Novella is longer and more complex than short stories but shorter and simpler than novels
8 Symbolism and The Novella ~ Continued The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde became an instant success in 1886Britain was experiencing a period of intense social, economic, and spiritual change, after many decades of confident growth & national self-fulfillment.
9 Symbolism and The Novella ~ Continued Dr. Jekyll & Mr. Hyde perfectly captured some readers’ fears that their careful built society was hypocritical.It was a symbolic expression of threats to traditional British society: struggle between the social classes for power with an increase in political power of the working class
10 Symbolism and The Novella ~ Continued Others saw a challenge in the long-held religious belief in God’s creation of the universe being replaced by the evolution theoryMany considered Hyde to be a model of the strong yet evil individual who would survive while Jekyll who represented good did not survive over evil and fell
11 Symbolism and The Novella ~ Continued Another group found some of the new ideas being considered about the human mindSigmund Freud and his psychoanalysis as a method of treating emotional disorders and believed humans are influenced by impulses of which they were not aware and are often expressed in dreams
12 Symbolism and The Novella ~ Continued To people who leaned toward this psychological symbolism, Hyde represents Dr. Jekyll’s subconscious desire to be freed from his society’s restrictions
13 Gothic GenreGothic fiction is an important genre of literature that combines elements of both horror and romance. As a genre, it is generally believed to have been invented by the English author Horace Walpole, with his 1764 novel The Castle of Otranto. The effect of Gothic fiction depends on a pleasing sort of terror, an extension of essentially Romantic literary pleasures that were relatively new at the time of Walpole's novel.Prominent features of Gothic fiction include terror (both psychological and physical), mystery, the supernatural, ghosts, haunted houses and Gothic architecture, castles, darkness, death, decay, doubles, madness, secrets and hereditary curses.The stock characters of Gothic fiction include tyrants, villains, bandits, maniacs, Byronic heroes, persecuted maidens, femmes fatale, madwomen, magicians, vampires, werewolves, monsters, demons, revenants, ghosts, perambulating skeletons, the Wandering Jew and the Devil himself.
14 Sigmund Freud’s Psychoanalysis Theory Ego, super-ego, and idMain article: Ego, super-ego, and id- In his later work, Freud proposed that the psyche could be divided into three parts: Ego, super-ego, and id. The id is known as the child-like portion of the psyche that is very impulsive and only takes into account what it wants and disregards all consequences. The super-ego is the moral code of the psyche that solely follow right and wrong and takes into account no special circumstances in which the morally right thing may not be right for that situation. Finally, the ego is the balance between the two. It is the part of the psyche that is, usually, portrayed in the person's action, and after the super-ego and id are balanced, the ego acts in a way that takes both impulses and morality into consideration.
15 Feud’s Theory Simplified Id – The division of the Psyche associated with instinctual impulses and demands for immediate satisfaction of primitive needsEgo ~ The personality component that is conscious, most immediately controls behavior, and is most in touch with external realitySuper-ego ~ The division of the psyche that develops by the incorporation of the perceived moral standards of the community, is mainly unconscious, and includes the conscience.
16 Time and Place ~Setting~ The novella takes place in London in the 1880s. Settings include Jekyll’s fine home in a formerly grand neighborhood now in decay; Lanyon’s comfortable home in Cavendish Square, where many distinguished doctors have their houses and offices; and Hyde’s house in Soho, a part of London know for its immigrant populations.
17 Time and Place continued The Victorian Era 1830s to the beginning of 1900sBritain’s Queen Victoria ruled for sixty-four yearsBritain was world’s leading economic and military power and controlled a vast empireMany changes included: railroads, postal system; improved medical and sanitary advances; government supported schools; growing industry; cities became populated
18 Time and Place The Victorian Era ~continued Eventually, worry began to cloud the thoughts of the people. Poverty became a formidable problem. The strength of the British Empire was challenged by difficult foreign wars. Workers demanded more power, women entered workforce and changes disturbed & frightened many Britons. Then Jekyll and Hyde was written.
19 Character Descriptions Mr. Utterson: The narrator of the book, Utterson is a middle-aged lawyer, and a man in which all the characters confide throughout the novel. As an old friend of Jekyll, he recognizes the changes and strange occurrences of Jekyll and Hyde, and resolves to further investigate the relationship between the two men. He is perhaps the most circumspect, respected, and rational character in the book, and it is therefore significant that we view Hyde's crimes and Jekyll's hypocrisy through his observant, but generally sympathetic perspective.
20 Character Descriptions ~Continued~ Richard Enfield: Mr. Utterson's cousin, a younger man who is assumed to be slightly more wild than his respectable and sedate relative. While initially it is assumed that Enfield will play a large role in this novel as it is he who is witnesses Hyde's initial crime, Enfield only appears in two scenes. In both, he walks past Hyde's mysterious door with Mr. Utterson.
21 Character Descriptions ~Continued~ Dr. Lanyon: A former friend and colleague of Dr. Jekyll. Ten years before the events in the novel, he suspended his friendship with Dr. Jekyll because of a disagreement over scientific endeavors. Lanyon is highly respected, rational, and values truth and goodness above all else.
22 Character Descriptions ~Continued~ Dr. Henry Jekyll: A prominent middle-aged doctor described as both tall and handsome. He is also extremely wealthy with a fortune well over two million dollars. All that know him describe him as respected and proper. However, as the novel progresses, we subtly witness his hypocritical behavior, which Stevenson claimed was Jekyll's fatal flaw. The doctor's belief that within each human being there exist forces of good and evil leads to his experiments that try to separate the two. Although presented as a scientific experiment, Jekyll undertook this task to allow himself a release from the respectable guise of Dr. Jekyll. In the book, Jekyll's voice is only heard in the concluding chapter, only after being described through the lens of Utterson, Lanyon, Poole, and Enfield.
23 Character Descriptions ~Continued~ Edward Hyde: A small, deformed, disgusting man somewhat younger than Dr. Jekyll who is apparently devoid of a profession. Lanyon, Utterson and Enfield all describe witnessing something indefinably evil and horrific in Edward Hyde's face. He is often compared to animals, implying that he is not a fully evolved human being. Despite these descriptions, Hyde is generally civilized in his interactions with others, most notably Utterson and Lanyon. Dr. Jekyll describes Hyde as "pure evil," who menaces society at night, trampling a girl in the street and murdering Sir Danvers Carew. We learn at the end of the story that Edward Hyde and Dr. Henry Jekyll are in fact the same person.
24 Character Descriptions ~Continued~ Sir Danvers Carew: A highly respected and prominent member of English society who Edward Hyde brutally murders. Carew is described as "silver haired" and "gentle."
25 Character Descriptions ~Continued~ Mr. Guest: Mr. Utterson's law office clerk who discovers the handwriting similarity between notes from Mr. Hyde and Dr. Jekyll.
26 Character Descriptions ~Continued~ Richard Poole: Dr. Jekyll's faithful butler. When fearful for his master's life, Poole seeks out Mr. Utterson's assistance. The two men discover Edward Hyde dead in Dr. Jekyll's cabinet and then, from a letter written by Dr. Jekyll's hand, learn of the doctor's fantastic experiments.
27 Beware of Booga Moments! 1 Booga ~ kind of scary2 Boogas ~ scary3 Boogas ~ really scary