Presentation on theme: "1 Law Enforcement Academy Asheville-Buncombe Technical Community College Asheville, North Carolina Crisis Intervention Team Training September 27 – October."— Presentation transcript:
1 Law Enforcement Academy Asheville-Buncombe Technical Community College Asheville, North Carolina Crisis Intervention Team Training September 27 – October 1, 2010 De-Escalation Skills
2 Overview 1 ½ days (12 hours) Lots of role-playing practice in small groups Goal is for you to feel very confident in your ability to de- escalate Model = E-LEAP E = engage (wed. pm) LEAP = listen, empathize, affirm, partner (thur. am) Specific strategies for consumers who are disoriented, intoxicated, suicidal, etc. (thur. pm)
3 Wednesday PM What is de-escalation Effective communication Non-verbals Behavioral crisis Engagement
4 What is verbal de-escalation? Verbal de-escalation is used during potentially dangerous, or threatening, situation in an attempt to prevent persons from causing harm to us, themselves, or others
5 Goals of Verbal De-escalation Open up clear lines of communication Build trust and validate the consumer’s situation Get the consumer talking about his situation Gathering the necessary information make a good resolution
6 What is De-Escalation De-escalation is less like a recipe or formula and more like a flexible set of options. No single set of de-escalation skills: we have tried to put together a effective set of skills by borrowing from multiple approaches De-escalation will not always work
7 What is de-escalation Both officer and consumer safety always remain paramount concerns in a crisis involving a person with mental illness. Once officers become skilled in de-escalation, they do not simply abandon all the training and experience that came before it. De-escalation is another tool that officers have at their disposal to be judiciously applied in controlling a potentially volatile situation, rather than serving as a substitute for sound judgment and attentiveness to safety.
8 Effective Communication 70% of communication misunderstood Effective communication is defined as passing information between one person and another that is mutually understood
9 Effective Communication Communication becomes more difficult when the person’s ability to understand what you are saying and/or their ability to express their own thoughts or needs are compromised by their symptoms. When they can’t express their needs, they become more angry and frustrated more quickly and more frequently Your ability to engage a consumer in conversation and successfully resolve a conflict often depends as much on how you say the words you choose as much as the words themselves.
10 Barriers to Effective Communication Barriers to communication are the things that keep the meaning of what is being said from being heard: Pre-judging Not listening Criticizing Name-calling Engaging in power struggles Ordering Threatening Minimizing Arguing
11 Effective Communication
12 Non-Verbal It is very important to be able to identify exactly what you are communicating to others non- verbally You may be trying to de-escalate the situation by talking to the other person, but your body language may be saying something else. The consumer will react to want you are saying with your body language
13 Personal Space Persons with mental illness often develop and altered sense of personal space. They require more space than usual to feel comfortable and feel intensely threatened when other people close in on them with no warning. Invasion or encroachment of personal space tends to heighten or escalate anxiety Personal space in American culture is about 3 feet Do not touch a hostile person – they might interpret that as an aggressive action Announce intention: “I need some space, so I am going to back up.”
14 Eyes One eyebrow raised = sternness Eyes wide open = surprise A hard stare = threatening gesture Closing eyes longer than normal = I am not listening
15 Body Posture Challenging postures that tend to threaten another person and escalate the situation include: Finger pointing may seem accusing or threatening Shoulder shrugging may seem uncaring or unknowing Rigid walking may seem unyielding or challenging Use slow and deliberate movements—quick actions may surprise or scare the other person
16 Voice Tone - Usually unconscious Volume - A raised voice could create fear or challenges Rate of speech - Speak slowly – This is usually interpreted as soothing Inflection of voice - I didn’t say you were stupid
17 Face Jaw set with clenched teeth shows that you are not open minded to listening to his or her side of the story A natural smile is good. A fake smile can aggravate the situation
22 What is a Behavioral Crisis? A crisis is a perception of an event or situation as an intolerable difficulty that exceeds the resources and coping mechanisms of the person Unless the person obtains relief, the crisis has the potential to cause severe behavioral malfunctioning.
23 Behavioral Crisis? Crisis intervention is emotional first aid which is designed to assist the person in crisis to return to normal functioning. The focus of crisis intervention is what’s happening here and how!
24 Behavioral Crisis 3 reasons that a consumer may be having a behavioral crisis: Medical condition Substance use Psychiatric condition: 1) thought disorder; 2) mood disorder; 3) anxiety disorder; 4) personality disorder
25 Behavioral Crisis The majority of encounters that you will have with consumers are because the symptoms of their illness are not under control. Most commonly, this occurs at the initial onset of illness, during a relapse (that can result for a variety of reasons) and when the person s using substances. The consumer’s behavior is usually a result of his or her illness, rather than being criminally motivated
26 Consumers typically will have one of 3 feelings Anger Fear Sadness/depression
27 What you may be seeing... Consumer’s Inner Experience Hostility, evasionFear Risk-takingElation Self-destructive behaviorDepression Odd, dangerous behaviorConfusion Very odd behaviorPsychosis Attempts at self-treatment (e.g. drugs) Hopelessness, demoralization
28 Behavioral Crisis Given the low likelihood that emotional people in crisis can succeed in rationalizing alternatives, law enforcement responses to emotional people in volatile situations cannot rely on convincing people by making a rational proposal to think differently. Rather, responders need to create a stable and respectful environment within which emotional individuals can take comfort and relief.
29 Engagement Be aware of your setting; personal safety first Move to a safe place if necessary Allow plenty of space Persons with mental illnesses often can be expected to process information slowly and to have difficulty remembering things. This includes understanding and remembering instructions given by a police officer.
30 Engagement Be aware that a uniform, gun, and handcuffs may frighten the person with mental illness so reassure consumer that no harm is intended. Remain calm You will likely have contact with the consumer again; how you treat him will be important for establishing trust
31 Engagement Know when to act: A person may be acting dangerously, but not directly threatening any other person or himself/herself. If possible, give the consumer time to calm down. This requires patience and continuous safety evaluation. Allow partner to de-escalate others on the scene as necessary
32 Engagement “It is the wise officer who can, at times, conceal his or her combat-ready status.” -Lt. Michael Woody
33 Avoid Maintaining continuous eye contact Crowding or “cornering” the consumer Touching the consumer unless you ask first or it is essential for safety Letting others interact simultaneously with the consumer Negative thoughts (“God, this is another one of those homeless people.”)
34 Avoid Expressing anger, impatience or irritation Inflammatory language (“You are acting crazy.”) Feeling as though you have to rush or feeling like you are stuck if it takes time to get the consumer talking Intervening too quickly or trying too hard to control the interaction by interrupting or talking over the consumer.
35 Avoid Saying “You need to calm down.” Shouting or giving rapid commands Arguing with the consumer Taking the words or actions of the consumer personally (They are symptoms of mental illness.) Lying, tricking, deceiving, threatening the consumer to get her to comply
36 Avoid Asking why questions. Why questions are logic-based. Persons in crisis are not logical. Typically, what ever has worked in the past is not working now. Why questions put the consumer on the defensive. Ask open-ended questions. Forcing discussion
37 Avoid Minimizing the consumer’s situation as a way to elicit conversation (“Things can’t be that bad, can they?”) Suggesting that things will get better; they may not Making promises that you may not be able to keep
38 Avoid Commands such as “drop the knife,” or “Get down on the ground” might seem to be straightforward and easy to understand. When dealing with people who live with mental illness, however, officers need to take into account the types of barriers to effective communication that the brain disorder might create. Telling the consumer “I know how you feel.”
39 Avoid Asking a lot of questions of the consumer in the beginning. This is a natural tendency, however, this is generally not a good idea, especially early in the interaction. In de-escalation, encouraging the consumer to continue talking is more effective than asking a lot of questions. It will help continue the dialogue and will provide the consumer with opportunities to give information that will help to resolve the crisis.
40 DO Speak in a calm, slow, clear voice You may need to repeat; the consumer may be distracted Be patient; give the situation time; time is on your side Try to reduce background noise and distractions Use “and” instead of “but” Obtain relevant information from informants
41 DO Allow the consumer to ventilate (“Tell me some more about that.” Use “please” and “thank you” often Remain friendly but firm Ask the consumer if she needs something Offer a cigarette, nutrition bar, warm clothing Forecast: Announce your actions and movements
42 DO Accept the consumer’s feelings, thoughts and behavioral; acceptance is not easy when a consumer is behaving in a bizarre or hostile manner Respect the dignity of the consumer without regard to sex, race, age, sexual orientation
43 Hot Buttons Consumers will sometimes push a hot button We all have them Example: The consumer calls you a “pig” or swears at you. This is NOT the time to demand respect
44 Hot Buttons: Rationale Detachment Staying in control of your emotions during a crisis situation 3 steps
45 1. Develop a Plan Decisions made ahead of time are more likely to be rationale Identify your hot buttons Strategic visualization – practice what you would do Helps you gain confidence
46 2. Use Positive Self-Talk You are not the target of the outburst Never take anything personally Remember that most of us have been irrational and said inappropriate things when we are under extreme stress
47 3. Recognize Your Limits Let someone else take over if necessary Set a limit with the person; use an “I” statement; “I really want to help you but I find it difficult because of your name-calling; could you help me and stop the cursing so that I can work on helping you. Thanks, I would appreciate it if you try.”
48 The Logic of De-Escalation If you take a LESS authoritative, LESS controlling, LESS confrontational approach, you actually will have MORE control. You are trying to give the consumer a sense that he or she is in control. Why? Because he or she is in a crisis, which by definition means the consumer is feeling out of control. The consumer’s normal coping measures are not working at this time.
49 Introduce Yourself An introduction promotes communication Hi, my name is Doug (or Deputy Smith). I am a CIT officer with the Sheriff’s Department. Can you tell me your name? State what you see/know (“I can see you’re upset.”) State or convey that you are there to help. Be prepared to explain the reason you are there (e.g., a neighbor called to say someone is upset)
50 Introduce Yourself How many of you can have someone tell you her name, and within a few seconds you have already forgotten it Make a point of immediately starting to use the consumer’s name; that will help you remember it Use the consumer’s name often
51 Introduce Yourself “Get out of here you damn cop!” Don’t take the bait and turn confrontational
52 Role-playing Scenarios Role-playing is a learning tool Allows us to try out new approaches Expect mistakes; they are an opportunity to learn You can rewind and try again
53 Role-playing Scenarios Everyone feels uncomfortable in role play Feedback will be constructive Scenarios are derived from real-life experiences We will be working as a team to assist one another in skill development Small groups: 3 roles—Law enforcement, consumer, observer
54 Thursday AM Listen Empathize Affirm Partner What Ifs 5 special strategies
55 L = Listen Silent and listen are spelled with the same letters Listen twice as much as you talk; that’s why you have 2 ears and 1 mouth What is the difference between listening and hearing?
56 The Chinese symbol for listen: eyes, ear, heart
57 Listen Listen for the total meaning Focus on what the consumer is telling you Block out distractions
58 Listen It is important understand and remember that what the consumer is saying or believing may be real or imagined. Since mental illness is a brain disease, thinking is what is most affected by mental illness. Sometimes their thoughts are disconnected and you’ll hear this in their speech, which can be difficult to follow and make sense of.
59 Techniques that Show You Are Listening 1. Minimal encouragers 2. Reflecting 3. Ask open-ended questions (“Can you tell me more about that.”
60 Minimal Encouragers Minimal encouragers are brief statements that can be either nonverbal, such as a positive nod of the head, or simple verbal responses such as Okay, Uh-huh, I see, I am listening. Minimal encouragers demonstrate to the consumer that you are listening and paying attention, without stalling the dialogue or creating an undue interruption. Especially early in the encounter, consumers need these types of encouragers to feel that the officer is really attending to them and listening to what they are saying.
61 Reflecting Whereas minimal encouragers provide initial confirmation that you are listening, reflecting adds another dimension to the communication. Here, you provide the consumer with evidence that you are listening by actually repeating what he or she has said. Often the reflecting response will simply consist of the last few words the consumer says. These statements should be brief and used in such a way as not to interrupt the consumer.
62 Reflecting Repeat the last few words that the consumer said Example: “I am tired of everyone not listening to me and it make me angry.” “Jim, it makes you angry.”
63 Open-Ended Questions Open ended questions allow you to get more information Open ended questions enable us to assess the consumer’s level of dangerousness Open ended questions allow you to assess whether the consumer is in touch with reality
64 Specific Questions That You May Want You Ask, When Appropriate Does the consumer need something (e.g., hungry, thirsty) Is the consumer receiving services Where is the consumer receiving services Does the consumer have a case manager Is the consumer taking medication When did the consumer last take his or her medication
65 Medication Mentioning “medication” must be given careful thought. In some cases, the topic is best left to mental healthcare providers after the consumer has calmed down. In other situations, the consumer may want to talk about his or her medication. Also, many consumers have had negative experiences with therapists and don’t want to talk about it their counselor.
66 E = Empathy 1. Emotion labeling 2. Paraphrasing
67 Empathy What is the difference between empathy and sympathy? Feeling sorry versus trying to understand what it is like to be in their shoes. Being sincere and real will convey understanding “To my mind, empathy is in itself a healing agent... because it releases, it confirms, it brings even the most frightened person into the human race. If a person is understood, he or she belongs.” (Carl Rogers) It’s hard to stay angry and aroused when someone empathizes
68 Emotional Labeling In emotional labeling, you again take listening to a higher level by trying to help the consumer identify feelings. This is different from “telling” the consumer what he or she is feeling because your statement is based on what the consumer has been communicating through his or her words and behavior. If you have used your listening skills well, it will often be rather easy to provide an emotional label to assist the consumer.
69 Emotional Labeling Examples You seem to be.... It seems to me like you feel.... If I were in your situation, I think I’d feel...
70 Paraphrasing Paraphrasing is similar to reflecting except that now you begin to communicate that you are trying to understand the consumer’s entire message by putting what the consumer has said into your own words.
71 Paraphrasing Builds rapport between officer and consumer Helps the officer refine the assessment of the crisis Provides information that lays the groundwork for an eventual resolution of the crisis Communicates that you are listening and understanding
72 Paraphrasing Examples Consumer: I don’t know what I am going to do. My family doesn’t want me here. CIT Officer: You’re not sure where you can stay for awhile, but home doesn’t seem like the best place right now.
73 Paraphrasing Examples What I hear you saying is.... If I am hearing you right.... Let me see if I understand what you are saying... These types of statements also summarize what has been said in the communication.
74 A = Affirm You need to know what the consumer is upset about You may have a tendency to go to the solution step without really identifying what the issue is with the consumer. You should not assume that you know why the consumer is upset. You should ask and let the consumer tell you what the problem is before looking at possible solutions. After getting the information that you need, steer the conversation toward a resolution by affirming the consumer’s situation
75 Affirm Example “Okay, let me make sure I understand you, You’ve told me that people are bothering you and that your case manager is not helping you. That your meds are hurting you because they make you feel sick. Did I understand you correctly.”
76 P = Partner Also “plan,” “problem-solve” Goal is to find a resolution and return to pre-crisis state. You are looking to find the combination that will unlock the crisis.
77 Partner You can ask the consumer what she thinks will resolve the problem Look for alternatives with the consumer Try to have 2 or more options Empower the consumer to choose If one approach doesn’t work, “throw another lure”
78 Partner Putting yourself in the consumer’s shoes will help you find a solution Don’t force particular points of discussion Try to get agreement on a course of action. Repeat what the plan is and what is expected. Meet reasonable demands when possible Reach for small concrete goals It’s never too late to reassess and change a plan
79 Partner If repeated attempts fail, set firm limits and tell the consumer that you are worried about his safely and you want to help him. Ask if there is a family member you could talk to. State your expectations by linking to safety issue: I need to make sure that everyone stays safe.
80 Partner In your attempts to resolve an escalating situation you may be tempted to use bargaining, deal-making, or saying/promising anything to gain compliance. They are not recommended as they ultimately violate trust—which is important in your repeated encounters with people.
81 Resolution Can it be informally resolved? Is an evaluation needed? Are commitment criteria met? Was a crime committed?
82 What Ifs What if the consumer asks you a long- term question? Say that you don’t know the answer but that you and the consumer can handle the immediate situation
83 What If The consumer says that there’s nothing you can do to help? Say that you’re not sure what you can do, but that you want to work with the consumer to figure out something
84 What If The consumer will not engage problem- solving and is distracted? Say “Stay with me, Frank. Let’s work on this together. I’d like for you to stop for a minute and take a deep breath with me. Like this. That’s good. Thank you, Frank.”
85 What If The consumers moves too close you? Say “I need some space, Jim, so I am going to back up.”
86 What If The consumer is talking so loudly it is disruptive? Drop the volume in your own voice and say, “Jim, I am having a hard time understanding you because of how loud your voice is.”
87 What If You think the consumer might become aggressive? If possible, bring in another trained person. There is less chance of aggression if two people are talking to one person.
88 What If The consumer will only respond non- verbally, like with a head nod Respond positively
89 What If The consumer remains unresponsive? Simply validate the consumer by stating what you observe about their situation “You look really sad; you must be really hurting right now.”
90 Five Special Strategies 1. Assertive Intervention 2. Corrective Action 3. Reducing Stimuli 4. Reducing Arousal 5. Pro-active (as opposed to reactive) engagement of consumers
91 1. Assertive Intervention Can be used when: The consumer is uncooperative or unresponsive to directives that they are expected to follow. The consumer is violating rules which serve to maintain security
92 Three Step Assertive Intervention 1. Empathy statement: A statement that lets the consumer know that you understand where he or she is coming from and how he or she likely feels. 2. Conflict statement: A statement that describes to the consumer that you have a conflict that needs to be addressed. 3. Action statement: A statement that lets the consumer know what you want him or her to do. This statement can be in the form of a request.
93 Examples “Jack, I understand that you are upset and that you feel like no one is listening to you or doing enough to help you. But you and I need to let these people get back to work here, so we are going to have to get out of this waiting room. I’d like you to walk with me down the hallway to an empty room so you and I can talk.” “It looks to me like you are pretty upset, and I’m here to help you. But I am afraid someone is going to get hurt by those stones. So I’d like you to stop tossing them and step up here on the curb so I can talk to you and try to understand what is going on with you today.”
94 Choice If possible, offer a choice: Joe, I want you to stop throwing the stones or, if you prefer, step over here with me on the grass and throw them in the grass while we talk. What is best for you? This helps the consumer “save face.” Everyone reacts better to a choice versus being told what to do.
95 2. Corrective Action: AAA If you make a mistake (and you will) and the consumer escalates: 1. Acknowledge: “Jim, I can see that mentioning your medication is a real sore point.” 2. Apologize: “I’m sorry to have upset you. I didn’t mean to.” 3. Try Again: “I want to help, not upset you, so let’s try something else.”
96 3. Reducing Stimuli Remove the audience or move the consumer to a private space Turn off flashing lights
97 4. Reducing Arousal Encourage the consumer to take 3 deep breaths; you can do this with the consumer. “Let’s take 3 deep breaths like this”; then demonstrate and do it with the consumer.
98 5. Pro-active Engagement of Consumers Many of you will interact with the same consumer on repeated occasions so you will get to know him or her. If you talk to a repeat consumer on a good day, you will have much better information to base an assessment come the bad day. That information will provide greater options for resolving conflicts.
99 Pro-active Engagement of Consumers Drop by the consumer’s residence. Ask if there is anything you can do to help. (e.g. call the case manager to try to access a resource for the consumer.) If you see the consumer in the community, acknowledge him or her. Stop to say hello if it would not embarrass the consumer. Get to know some of the providers (e.g., case managers) who serve your consumers.
100 Thursday PM Verbal Intervention Strategies for People who are Suicidal, Homeless, Delusional, Hallucinating, Confused, Agitated, Intoxicated, Having Flashbacks, Manic
101 Review of Terms Thought Disorder = usually a reference to a psychotic disorder Psychotic = out of touch with reality; often experiencing delusions or hallucinations Delusion = false belief Hallucination = false sensory perception (most common is auditory) Mania = A manifestation of bipolar disorder (manic depression), characterized by profuse and rapidly changing ideas, exaggerated sexuality, gaiety, or irritability, and decreased sleep
102 Suicide Asking about suicide: “Sometimes when people have been feeling down for a long time, they begin having thoughts that they would rather be dead, are you having any feelings like that?” “Have you ever tried to hurt yourself before?” “When and what did you do?” “Do you have a plan now?” “Do you have any weapons that you could use to hurt yourself?” Show support and interest Be non-judgmental and accepting Offer help that is available Assess availability of supports
103 Suicide: Threatening Harm Focus on the anger or fear that is causing the threats Repeat that you are here to help and keep everybody safe Get the names of significant others (even pets), as a way to make a personal connection and keep the consumer grounded
104 Suicide Attempt Verbal communications should focus on providing hope for the consumer during a time when he is feeling hopeless. Generally, helpful comments to make during questioning include: These feelings will not last forever, even though it may seem like it now. There is help available. Many other people have felt this way and have gotten better.
105 Suicide Attempt Unhelpful comments include clichés such as, There’s a silver lining in every cloud, or comments about all that they have, You have a nice home, family who loves you, who will take care of your kids. And finally comments about yourself, I felt the same way once or a friend of mine felt this way once. These types of unhelpful comments only elicit more profound feelings
106 Homelessness 40% of homeless persons have a mental illness The ways in which homeless people dress may seen bizarre to other people Mental health professionals may refer to a homeless person’s choice not to take medications as noncompliance, but to a homeless person the decision not to take sedating psychiatric medications may make good sense.
107 Thought Disorder The 3 possible responses to a person who loses contact with reality, and are either hallucinating or delusional, are: A. Agree with them B. Dispute them, or C. Defer the issue Which is the appropriate response: A, B or C?
108 Thought Disorder The engagement goal is to validate the consumer’s situation and how frightened and anxious he must feel without agreeing with their hallucinatory/delusional experience. It is OK to indicate that you do not hear or see what he is seeing/hearing but that you believe he does. Persons who are psychotic develop an altered sense of personal space and require more space than usual to feel safe. Remember to maintain a safe “reactionary” distance of from the consumer. Use friends and family members to get information if they are available and their presence is not escalating the consumer.
109 Delusions Paranoid delusions can lead to dangerous behavior because they cause a great amount of fear. This is especially true if the delusion includes a belief that one’s thoughts are controlled by external forces. Convey your acceptance—but let the consumer know that you are not experiencing it and reinforce reality. “I can see that you are scared that someone is out to get you, but I don’t know of anyone who is trying to hurt you... I’m here to keep you safe.” Don’t argue about the delusion—no one will win this argument
110 Hallucinations Ask if they are hearing voices: “When people are stressed or scared, they may hear or see things, is that happening to you.” Ask, “are the voices telling you to do something, what?” People who are abusing substances or are in withdrawal may see things or feel things crawling on them
111 Hallucinations Indicate that you understand that those experiences are real and frightening for the consumer. You can attempt to calm the person by letting them know that voices may “quiet” if you can help the consumer lessen their stress and get help. You may have to repeat a reassuring message many times before the consumer can respond to it. Repeat: I’m here to help; I am not going to hurt you.
112 Hallucinations Hallucinations/voices that are command oriented involving religion, good versus evil, or are declaring self-harm are higher- risk than non-religious, non-confrontational hallucinations. This can lead to dangerous behavior because many persons will obey the command.
113 Confused/Disorganized Speech People with a variety of mental illnesses may experience confusion: schizophrenia, bipolar, neurological disorders, traumatic brain injury, people who are actively using or withdrawing from substances Keep interactions brief and to the point
114 Confused/Disorganized Speech When it is difficult to understand the consumer, say so and ask for clarification. If the consumer is rambling nonsensically, comment periodically that you realize that he must be frightened and that you are there to help. Drop the volume in your speech and say, “I am having a hard time understanding you because of how loud your voice is.”
115 Agitation, Anxiety, Fears Encourage 3 slow deep breaths If this is difficult for the consumer, ask him to look at you and do it with you Reassure and converse calmly
116 People Who Are Intoxicated Remember, substance use, especially alcohol is a significant risk factor associated with violence. Do not let your guard down (“She is only drunk.”) Keep statements brief and to the point Avoid engaging in arguments Point out that it is difficult to understand what is being said
117 PTSD Flashbacks Some people with post traumatic stress disorder experience flashbacks. During a flashback, the person is experiencing the traumatic event. So all the senses and thoughts are in the moment. It is really important to maintain personal space and avoid touch during a flashback. Orient and ground: My name is... today is... you are (describe where), it’s our job to keep you safe Provide simple directives and reassurance softly and slowly
118 Rapid Speech / Mania Some people talk rapidly when they are stressed or scared. People who are manic often talk very rapidly Encourage the person to slow down, take deep breathes. “I want to understand what you are saying, but you are talking really fast. Let’s take some deep breaths together.”
119 Acknowledgements This material was adapted from numerous sources, including: Memphis CIT Curriculum Sam Cochran Randy Dupont Georgia CIT Curriculum Responding to Individuals with Mental Illness by Michael Compton and Raymond Kotwicki Connecticut State Department of Mental Health and Addiction Services Findlay/Hancock County CIT
120 Thank you for going the extra mile to help people with mental illness!