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21 st December, 2009 NIRC of ICAI New Delhi CA SUDHIR VARMA FCA; CIA (USA)

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Presentation on theme: "21 st December, 2009 NIRC of ICAI New Delhi CA SUDHIR VARMA FCA; CIA (USA)"— Presentation transcript:

1 21 st December, 2009 NIRC of ICAI New Delhi CA SUDHIR VARMA FCA; CIA (USA)

2 Formation of NGO’s

3 Constituents 1. Trust - Registered document 2. Society - Registrar of Societies 3. Company - Sec. 25 of the Companies Act, 1956

4 Trust 1. No separate Act 2. Trust Deeds can be registered 3. Settler 4. Corpus 5. Trustees 6. Trust Deed

5 Trust Deed 1. On a stamp paper as per stamp duty payable on the corpus amount. 2. Must clearly and broadly define objects 3. Strength of Board of Trustees 4. Powers of the Trustees / remuneration / benefits 5. Broad guidelines for management of trust 6. On dissolution

6 Societies Status -Delhi / state -All India

7 Societies 1. In state level at least 7 promoters (not blood related) 2. In all India level at least 8 promoters from 8 different states of India

8 Societies 1. Memorandum of Association - name - objects - profits/benefits to promoters/board members - dissolution clause - subscribers

9 Societies 1. Rules & Regulations - define rules of membership - define rules for elections - define powers, duties and responsibilities of the board and each office bearer - define broad parameters of governance

10 Societies 1. Registration -covering letter in a file cover -power of attorney -affidavit from secretary / president -NOC for registered office -Memorandum of Association & Rules and Regulations signed by each promoter on each page -proofs of addresses for all promoters

11 Societies 1. Certificate of Registration 2. Certified copies from Registrar of - Memorandum of Association - Rules & Regulations

12 Societies 1. Registrations - PAN - TAN - u/s 12AA of Income Tax Act - u/s 80G of Income Tax Act - IEC code - VAT

13 Societies 1. Establish bank account 2. Deposit membership fee 3. Start members register

14 Companies 1. Registration process as usual -apply for name of approval -apply for license to operate as a company registered u/s 25 of the Companies Act after obtaining license submit papers for incorporation -certificate of incorporation issued to mention that the company is registered u/s 25 of the Companies Act 1956

15 SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS ACCRUAL SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS CASH SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS

16 SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOREIGN FUNDS LOCAL FUNDS - SPECIAL PROJECTS - GENERAL REVENUES

17 BALANCE SHEET Accounting of Fixed Assets Fully donated Partly donated/subsidised Bought from specific grants Depreciation

18 BALANCE SHEET Investments Approved List Corpus Investments Special Fund Investments Interest Accrued

19 BALANCE SHEET Current Assets Cash in hand Bank balances Inventories Receivables Reimbursables Advances

20 BALANCE SHEET Current Liabilities Payables Statutory dues - Provident Fund - TDS - Others

21 BALANCE SHEET Capital Fund General Fund Corpus Fund - interest accrued on corpus investments - transfer to corpus Specific Funds - building fund - others

22 BALANCE SHEET Project Funds (to the extent unutilised) Project balances Carry Forward for specific projects Board Resolutions with Form-10

23 BALANCE SHEET Reserves Facility fund Staff benefit fund Other specific funds SUDHIR VARMA FCA;CIA(USA)

24 INCOME & EXPENDITURE A/C Incomes Donor wise accounting Incomes from revenue Surplus from projects closed R & D receipts

25 INCOME & EXPENDITURE A/C Expenditure Project by exp. Program exp. Administration/overhead exp. R & D exp.

26 Audit of NGO’s

27 Types of Audit 1.Transaction based audit 2.System / Risk based audit 3.Project based audit 4.Donor based audit 5.Efficiency audit 6.Compliance / Statutory audit -Income Tax -FCRA -Registering authority

28 Engagement 1. Appointment by appropriate authority 2. Engagement letter 3. Scope of audit 4. Reporting requirements 5. Fee

29 Audit approach 1. “Knowledge of business” objects ; activities 2. Audit objectives 3. Audit plan 4. Audit process 5. Resources

30 Transaction based audit System / Risk based audit Compliance / Statutory audit (as usual)

31 Project based audit 1. Understand activity under the project 2. Budget for the project 3. Separate bank account / books of accounts 4. Direct revenues from the project -grants -donations -revenue incomes 5. Direct project expenses – nature 6. Allocation of expenses to projects 7. Projects utilization certificates

32 Donor based audit 1. Donor sanction letter 2. Terms & Conditions 3. Budget 4. Reporting requirements

33 1. Corpus / Endowment fund 2. Unutilized Grants 3. Separate books of accounts for -foreign grants -local grants -revenue 4. Accrual vs cash system of accounts 5. Receipts and payments accounts

34 Efficiency audit 1. Donors / Governing body / Trustees 2. Verification of expenses beyond accounting 3. External help of specialists 4. Common sense / matured judgment 5. Team leaders

35 Computerized Environment 1. Size of NGO / No. of transactions 2. Familiarity with software in use 3. Asses software controls 4. Use auditing softwares 5. Remain abreast with technology

36 Statutory Compliances 1. Income Tax Act 2. FCRA / FEMA / RBI 3. Registration laws 4. Labour laws 5. VAT / Service Tax 6. Commercial laws 7. Protection laws 8.General laws

37 Auditing and assurance standards AAS1Basic Principles Governing an Audit AAS2Objectives and scope of the Audit of Financial Statements AAS3Documentation AAS4The Auditor’s Responsibility to consider Fraud and Error is an Audit of Financial Statements AAS5Audit Evidence AAS6Risk Assessments and Internal Control AAS7Relying Upon the work of an Internal Auditor AAS8Audit Planning AAS9Using the Work of another Auditor

38 Auditing and assurance standards AAS10Using the Work of an Expert AAS11Representations by Management AAS12Responsibility of Joint Auditors AAS13Audit Materiality AAS14Analytical Procedures AAS15Audit Sampling AAS16Going Concern AAS17Quality Control for Audit Work AAS18Auditing of Accounting Estimates AAS19Subsequent Events AAS20Knowledge of the Business

39 Auditing and assurance standards AAS21Consideration of Laws and Regulations in an Audit of Financial Statements AAS22Initial Engagements – Opening Balances AAS23Related Parties AAS24Audit Considerations Relating to Entities Using Service Organizations AAS25Comparatives AAS26Terms of Audit Engagements AAS27Communication of Audit Matters with Those Charged with Governance AAS28The Auditor’s report on Financial Statements

40 Auditing and assurance standards AAS29Audit in a Computer information Systems Environment AAS30External Confirmations AAS31Engagements to Compile Financial Information AAS32Engagements to Perform Agreed – Upon Procedures Regarding Financial Statements AAS33Engagements to Review Financial Statements AAS34Audit Evidence – Additional Consideration for Specific Items AAS35The Examination of Prospective Financial Information

41 Q & A Thank you


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