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**Using the Metric System**

A. Why do scientists use the metric system? The metric system was developed in France in used in all scientific work because it has been recognized as the world wide system of measurement since 1960. SI system is from the French for Le Systeme International d’Unites. The metric system is used in all scientific work because it is easy to use. The metric system is based upon multiples of ten. Conversions are made by simply moving the decimal point.

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**What is the basic unit of length?**

The meter – a little longer than a yard

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**A millimeter – There are 1,000 millimeters in a meter**

What do scientists use to measure the length of an object smaller than a yard? A centimeter – one hundredth of a meter, so there are 100 centimeters in a meter A millimeter – There are 1,000 millimeters in a meter

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**How do scientists measure long distances?**

The kilometer – There are 1,000 meters in a kilometer

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**Which measurement to USE?**

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**Base Units (Fundamental Units)**

QUANTITY NAME SYMBOL _______________________________________________ Length meter m Mass gram g Time second s Temperature Kelvin k Volume(liquid)__________liter_____________L________________

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**SI Prefixes Prefix Symbol Multiplication Factor Term**

Micro u ( ) one millionth Milli m (0.001) one thousandth Centi c (0.01) one hundredth Deci d (0.1) one tenth One Unit one Deka dk ten Hecto h one hundred Kilo k one thousand Mega M one million

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**Metric Units Used In This Class**

QUANTITY NAME SYMBOL Length meter m centimeter cm millimeter mm kilometer km Mass gram g kilogram kg centigram cg milligram mg Volume liter (liquid) L (l) milliliter (liquid) mL (ml) cubic centimeter (solid) cm3

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**Derived Units Base Units – independent of other units-measure**

Derived Units – combination of base units-calculated Examples density g/L mass / volume (grams per liter) volume m x m x m = meters cubed Velocity m/s (meters per second

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SCIENTIFIC NOTATION Scientific Notation: Easy way to express very large or small numbers A.0 x 10x A – number with one non-zero digit before decimal x -exponent- whole number that expresses the number decimal places if x is (-) then it is a smaller -left if x is (+) than it is larger-right

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**PRACTICE Convert to Normal Convert to SN 2.3 x 1023 m 3,400,000,**

3.4 x cm

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**Multiplying Calculating in Scientific notation**

Multiple the numbers Add the exponents (2.0 x 104) (4.0 x 103) = 8.0 x 107

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**Dividing 9.0 x 107 3.0 x 102 3.0 x 105 divide the numbers**

subtract the denominator exponent from the numerator exponent 9.0 x x 102 3.0 x 105

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Add Add or subtract get the exponents of all # to be the same calculate as stated make sure the final answer is in correct scientific notation form 7.0 x x = 7. 0 x x = 7.3 x 104 70, ,000 = = 7.3 x104

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subtract 7.0 x x = 7.0x 104 – .30 x 104 = 6.7 x 104 70, =67,000

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**PRACTICE Add: 2.3 x 103 cm + 3.4 x 105 cm Subtract:**

Multiply: : x 103 cm X x cm Divide: : x 103 cm / x cm

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**Making Unit Conversions**

Make conversions by moving the decimal point to the left or the right using: “ king henry died unit drinking chocolate milk” Examples 10.0 cm = __________m 34.5 mL = __________L 28.7 mg = __________kg

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**Factor label method / Dimensional analysis**

Use equalities to problem solve converting units. quantity desired = quantity given x conversion factor (equality) A-given unit B-desired unit C-given unit A x B C B C must equal 1 use equality sheet

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**Equalities You Need To Know**

1 km = 1000 m 1 m = 100 cm 1 m = 1000 mm 1L = 1000 mL 1kg = 1000g 1 g = 100cg 1 g = 1000 mg

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**ENGLISH TO METRIC 1 inch=2.5 centimeters 1 gal=3.8 liters**

1lb= 4.4 Newtons 1qt = .94 Liters 1 ft = .30 meters 12 in = .30 meters 1 mi = 1.6 Km

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**Four-step approach When using the Factor-Label Method**

it is helpful to follow a four-step approach in solving problems: 1.What is question – How many sec in 56 min 2. What are the equalities- 1 min = 60 sec 3. Set up problem (bridges) 56 min sec 1 min 4. Solve the math problem -multiple everything on top and bottom then divide 56 x 60 / 1

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