Presentation on theme: "Forward to the Past Simone Jeronimo Prital Patel Jennifer Skorupa Kathleen Tower."— Presentation transcript:
Forward to the Past Simone Jeronimo Prital Patel Jennifer Skorupa Kathleen Tower
Measles ward, shattered door study, Island 3 Administration building, dark hallway, Island 3
Deterioration Due to Water If a material takes on water at one time, and then releases it at another, there will be expansion and contraction that will lead to the destruction of the material. Water causes more deterioration than temperature changes. Examples of deterioration due to water: –Corrosion –Decay –Blistering –Efflorescence –Leeching
Corrosion Corrosion is an electrolytic action. An electrical potential causes a current to flow, and an electrolyte is needed to complete the circuit. The electrical potential is provided by a metal. An electrolyte is provided by water. If oxygen is present, pure water corrosion can still take place. Without water, the material will not corrode.
Decay Rotting is caused by the growth of fungi in the wood tissue. Conditions to be satisfied: –Food, provided by the wood, for the fungus to feed on –Air –Temperature must be within a certain range – between 70 F and 90 F –Moisture must be available The only way to prevent decay is to keep the material completely dry or completely saturated. By using wood preservatives, the food source for fungi can be poisoned.
Caldwell Parsonage The original parsonage was home to Reverend James and Hannah Caldwell. It was first constructed in 1730, but was burned down in 1780 by the British and Hessians during the Revolutionary War, following the murder of Mrs. Caldwell. In 1782, the Caldwell Parsonage was constructed upon the original foundation. To this day, it remains a well- preserved example of a late 18th century farmhouse.
Caldwell Parsonage Today Today, the Caldwell Parsonage is used as a recreational and cultural museum. The restoration of the Caldwell Parsonage is centered around maintaining the story associated with this historic site. The restoration took the building back to its colonial interior rather than reconstruction its 19th century gothic one. There is even restoration continuing today such as to the chimney, instillation of new electrical services and fixtures, and instillation of exit lights.
The Staff House Current Building Supplies –Hardwood (Floor) –Brick (Fireplace) –Wood (Molding) –Terra Cotta (Insulation) –Plaster (Walls) –Mortar (Between Terra Cotta) –Metal (Piping) Reasons for Deterioration –Water from the Hudson –Elements from the Weather –Age
Terra Cotta Terra Cotta is made from a mixture of fine-grained clays containing silica, alumina, and some alkaline matter that vitrify when fired in a kiln. It is harder and more compact than brick. Mortar was placed between each terra cotta block. Mortar is made up of cement, lime, and sand.
Terra Cotta vs. Modern-Day Insulation The Terra Cotta that is currently in the Staff House seems to be in good condition. Complete Terra Cotta replacement is expensive and time-consuming. Modern fiberglass insulation should be added to any places that need additional insulation. In order to preserve wall design, fiberglass can be cut to fit. In contrast, stone or terra cotta would be more difficult to fit to shape.
Sheetrock Currently, plaster covers the terra cotta insulation in the walls. Plaster has a tendency to remain soft, even after drying, which makes it better for finishing, rather than being a load-bearing material. Today, sheetrock, also known as drywall, is commonly used in building. It is much stronger and easier to install. It is also good to note that sheetrock is fireproof.
Specific Heat Capacity Specific heat capacity, or c, is the amount of energy required to change the temperature of one gram of a substance by one degree C. The specific heat capacity for brick is 0.84 kJ/kgC. Because of brick’s specific heat, the outside of the building was able to sustain harsh climates.
Now what? These suggestions to restore the Staff House would allow Ellis Island to retain it’s past identity while existing in the present. By restoring the south side of Ellis Island, Americans interested in their lineage will be able to experience Ellis Island as their ancestors once did. Americans would benefit from the Staff House’s restoration into a museum.
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