Presentation on theme: "Biotechnology and Medicine Prof. S.K.Panda Department of Pathology All India Institute of Medical Sciences."— Presentation transcript:
Biotechnology and Medicine Prof. S.K.Panda Department of Pathology All India Institute of Medical Sciences
Translational Medicine has Varying Meanings The most explicit understanding is possibly “ Research where in a basic laboratory discovery becomes applicable to the diagnosis, treatment or prevention of a specific disease ” Bench Bedside
The Kind of Man Power Required 1.Physician – Scientists. (with or without formal MD-PhD). 2.Collaborative groups consisting of Investigators interested in basic understanding in physical, Chemical and Biological sciences with Physicians interested in solving specific problems.
Areas There are unlimited possibilities. However, the common areas a)Molecular-Cell Biology Clinical Practice b)Computational Intelligence Interface with Physiology c)Physical & Chemical Research Application in Biology
–Basic research leads to clinical application –Inter disciplinary research collaboration –Educational programmes (MD/Ph.D. – physician scientist, DM-infectious disease including training etc.) –Basic research leads to clinical application –Inter disciplinary research collaboration –Educational programmes (MD/Ph.D. – physician scientist, DM-infectious disease including training etc.)
Cells in similar environment Infected Cells Micro Array 2D + Maldi TOFF Infected Cells Un-infected Cells Replicon Transfection Virus Infection Replicon Transfection Mass Micro Array 2D + Maldi TOFF Mass Used in Molecules being modified DiagnosisTherapeutic Dev. Clinical Epidemiological Comparison Identification of molecules of interest Other Studies
Micro Fludic Peltier Microarray Electromotive Nucleic acid movement and Hybridization Solid state portable laser scanner built to cell phone Central data server. Rural diagnostic Lab-ON-a Chip
Biotechnology and therapeutics Hereditary diseases Infectious diseases Neoplastic diseases Degenerative diseases Inflammatory Diseases Endocrine Diseases Most diseases can be divided etiologically in to the following categories
Biotechnology can be used to treat several of them By replacing altered genes. By knocking out up-regulated genes. By delivering deficient enzymes or other biological products. By altering extraneously,response modifiers. By making replacement cells in – vivo/ ex-vivo By making transgenic organs for transplantation. By producing antimicrobials, Ribozymes and gene silencing RNA.
RNA interference (RNAi) is a cellular mechanism to regulate the expression of genes and the replication of viruses. Mediated by double-stranded small interfering RNA molecules (siRNA). RNAi technology is a comparatively recent discovery believed by scientists to constitute an important aspect of a cell ’ s natural defence mechanism against parasitic viruses. Critically, the cell responds to a foreign (double stranded) form of siRNA introduced into the cell by destroying all internal mRNA with the same sequence as the siRNA. RNA interference
Cell Therapy Cell-based therapies to treat disease, which is often referred to as regenerative or reparative medicine. Two kinds of stem cells from animals and humans: Embryonic stem cells (In the developing fetus, stem cells in developing tissues give rise to the multiple specialized cell types that make up the heart, lung, skin, and other tissues). Examples- Parkinson's disease, diabetes, and heart disease. Adult stem cells (bone marrow, muscle, and brain, discrete populations of adult stem cells generate replacements for cells that are lost through normal wear and tear, injury, or disease)
Regenerative Medicine Potential Using Adult Stem Cells
Synthetic Biology Engineering of new biological components and organisms and redesign of existing ones.