In conjunction with general ed instruction, specialized interventions are provided: Size of instructional group (2 – 6) Mastery requirements of content Frequency of progress monitoring (at least 1x per week) Duration of the intervention (8 – 10 weeks, can be repeated as needed) Frequency with which the intervention is delivered (3 – 4x per week, 30+ minutes per day) Instructors qualifications (trained or supervised personnel)
Interventions Focus on Skill Development Student learns skills which eliminate the problem Student learns skills which, while they may not remove underlying problem, reduce or eliminate the negative effects Removes or reduces the need for additional supports Allows for student independence in school and in society
Accommodations & Modifications Accommodations typically address changes in the process of providing education to a child type of adaptation which includes changes made to help student reach the expected outcome for all students Modifications typically address substantive changes in the end result of the educational process type of adaptation which includes changes made to help student reach a different outcome
Tier 1 Interventions Best Practice Can be used for many content areas Evidence-based Always measure progress frequently to inform your instruction
MORE Intervention is MORE: -Explicit -Systematic -Intensive -Supportive Features of Scientifically Based Reading Interventions How does an intervention differ from core reading instruction?
Explicit Nothing is left to chance; all skills are taught directly. Always involves: Direct explanations Modeling of correct responses Opportunities for student responses with corrective feedback
Systematic Instruction is purposeful and sequential. A scope and sequence of instruction that is well organized and hierarchical Always involves: Students being well prepared for each new task they are asked to do
Intensive The most direct way to increase learning rate is by increasing the number of positive, or successful, instructional interactions (pii) per school day. Intensity can be accomplished in two ways decreasing group size (3-5) Increasing the amount of time in instruction In general, small group instruction can be just as effective as 1:1 instruction for prevention
Supportive At-risk/struggling readers benefit from a supportive environment, both emotionally and cognitively. Responsive Scaffolding Students need encouragement, feedback and positive reinforcement.
First Intervention = TIME More time – 67% of kids when given more time and narrowed focus will be successful. (rather than more specialized instructional strategies) Interventions: Increase AET (90-120-180) e.g., K-3 Academic Support Plan Narrow focus to fewer, barrier skills District Supplemental Curriculum Batsche presentation 4/08
85% are for the same 5 to 7 reasons – ask yourself – do we need SP for these 5 to 7 reasons. Do we need PD around these? Teachers refer kids for PS when they believe the needs of the kids exceed their resources. So, your referrals define what teachers are saying they don’t know how to do. So, design your PD around these referral questions. Batsche presentation 4/08
Characteristics of Tier 2 Interventions Available in general education settings Opportunity to increase exposure (academic engaged time) to curriculum Opportunity to narrow focus of the curriculum Sufficient time for interventions to have an effect (10-30 weeks) Often are “standardized” supplemental curriculum protocols Batsche presentation 4/08
Interventions: Tier 2 First resource is TIME (AET) HOW much more time is needed? Second resource is curriculum WHAT does the student need? Third resource is personnel WHO or WHERE will it be provided? Batsche presentation 4/08
Explicit Teaching Cycle Curriculum-Based Measurement Planning Advanced Organizer Demonstration Guided Practice Independent Practice Maintenance Explicit Teaching Cycle
Explicit Systematic Instruction All skills are taught directly Sequential presentation of skills Easy to difficult Breaks task into components or steps Fades prompts or cues Direct explanations Modeling of correct responses Frequent opportunities for student responses Drill & practice Corrective feedback “Direct Instruction”
Modeling Teacher demonstrates correct process or steps Explains how to do the task Makes use of ‘think aloud’ strategies Attention is given to variations that may be needed or seen Physical model (exemplar) may be provided Extensive practice allowed for complex skills
Flexible Grouping Students move in and out of groups based upon specific needs, strengths activities, and goals Group size decreases with increased intensity Great for short-term targeted skill instruction as well as for longer term instruction
Increased Time Increase the active time the student is engaged in the learning task Increase student response opportunities Increase opportunity for feedback
Targeted Instruction Combined use of benchmark and summative data with formative data (progress monitoring, district assessments, common assessments) to aim instruction directly at the skill to be developed Very focused instruction
Use of Exemplars Teachers provide examples of work done correctly for students to use as a model Often the model is worked through as a group to demonstrate the skill
Scaffolding Provision of sequenced instruction and temporary support of varying degrees until student no longer needs the support Prompts & cues Models Teacher monitoring Task difficulty Provide first part of the work, allowing student to complete it; fade amount of work completed by teacher to allow student to do more of the work independently Support is generally removed gradually
Guided Practice Form of scaffolding Assistance is provided at first to support accuracy; then gradually reduced to allow more independence Student success is monitored by teacher and immediate corrective feedback is given as needed
Cognitive Strategy Instruction DI and SI report -- How to Turn Instruction into Intervention Main features of this model Control of task difficulty Small group instruction Directed questioning and response – asking process or content questions of students Sequencing – breaking down the task and step-by step prompts Drill-repetition-practice – daily testing, repeated practice, sequenced review Segmentation – breaking down skills into parts and then synthesizing the parts into a whole Use of technology – computers, presentation media Teacher-modeled problem solving Strategy cues – reminders to use strategies, think-aloud models (Swanson, 1999, www.ncld.org)www.ncld.org
Curriculum Compacting Curriculum compacting is a procedure used to streamline the grade level curriculum for high-potential students to provide time for more challenging and interesting work.
Challenge/Enrichment Provide regular-classroom enrichment opportunities to challenge and engage students who have the potential to be high functioning.
Honors Classes Students voluntarily choose to earn honors credit in a regular classroom by enhancing their learning through the completion of specific and multiple learning opportunities at a designated performance level. This is similar, but not limited to clustering gifted students in a specific classroom.
Subject Acceleration Allowing high-ability students to progress through school curriculums at a rate faster than the average. Students are able to cover the same amount of material, with the same degree of understanding as students in a regular classroom setting, but in a shorter time frame.
Clustering A group of five to eight identified gifted students, usually those in the top 5% of ability in the grade level population, are clustered in the classroom of one teacher who has training in how to teach exceptionally capable students. The other students in the class are of mixed ability. * Collaborate with Administration
Grade-Level Acceleration Grade-level acceleration occurs when a student advances into a new grade that is at least one grade beyond the next in sequence, also known as double promotion or grade skipping; for example, a third grader who begins fifth grade without entering the fourth. Collaborate with Administration
Dual Enrollment Students are enrolled in elementary school and middle school, or middle school and high school, or high school and college simultaneously. Collaborate with Administration
Additional Factors to Consider Student has deficits in reading & other area How would this impact your selection of interventions for this student? Are there any interventions that would NOT be your first choice for this student? How might you accommodate for this student’s reading difficulty within your intervention?
Collaborative Inquiry Collaborative inquiry is when teams work together, not in isolation, when data becomes a catalyst for constructive dialogue, and when school communities develop shared understanding and ownership of the problems and solutions being pursued. Data Teams: commit to student learning visions and standards. (What to students need to know and be able to do?) collect and analyze student learning and other data. (How will we know if students are learning/growing?) formulate a learner-centered problem. (How will we react when we discover students are not learning/growing or have already learned?) set measurable student-learning goals. develop a learner-centered systemic action plan. take action. monitor results.
Collaborative Inquiry Activity The superintendents of the 9 districts of the SJ BOCES are collectively concerned about the lack of proficiency in writing. You and your team have been assigned the task of using Collaborative Inquiry to construct a plan that will be used to increase the level of proficiency for all students in the SJ BOCES. Available Data: (1) 10 th Grade Item Map (2) Growth Results (3) Team Judgment Use the Collaborative Inquiry Template to complete this task.
October 20 th Assignments In your building, participate in a collaborative inquiry in a PLC meeting. Without using student or staff names and using the Collaborative Inquiry Template, make notes about the meeting. If any area on the template was not addressed, describe on the template what should have occurred. If no meeting is scheduled, you will need to arrange a meeting with you and at least one other staff member. Send the document to your reviewer by October 20th. Using the body of evidence report for your class or student group, create a plan using Tier 1 interventions to address the needs and strengths of your students. Submit a one page or less summary of the plan to your reviewer by October 20 th.