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Click to edit Master title style Shenggen Fan, January 2012 Food Security in Asia within a Global context Shenggen Fan Director General | International.

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Presentation on theme: "Click to edit Master title style Shenggen Fan, January 2012 Food Security in Asia within a Global context Shenggen Fan Director General | International."— Presentation transcript:

1 Click to edit Master title style Shenggen Fan, January 2012 Food Security in Asia within a Global context Shenggen Fan Director General | International Food Policy Research Institute Asia Food Security Situation Roundtable Washington, DC | January

2 Click to edit Master title style Shenggen Fan, January 2012 Key messages  Asian food security is interconnected with global food security  Emerging trends threaten Asian and global food security  Policies and investments must integrate Asia to the global food system  Green economy must not be achieved at the cost of hunger, poverty, and malnutrition reduction

3 Click to edit Master title style Shenggen Fan, January 2012 Asia accounts for largest share of world’s hungry people Source: FAO 2010 Number of hungry by region, %

4 Click to edit Master title style Shenggen Fan, January 2012 GHI components: Proportion of undernourished Prevalence of underweight in children Under-five mortality rate Source: von Grebmer et al serious/alarming 15 countries in Asia have serious/alarming levels of hunger (2011 GHI)

5 Click to edit Master title style Shenggen Fan, January 2012 Micronutrient deficiencies remain pervasive, esp. in Asia  Iron deficiency anemia Africa and South Asia have the highest prevalence In some parts of India, 90% of girls suffer from this deficiency  Vitamin A deficiency 163 mil. are vitamin A deficient in developing countries 44.4% of children in South Asia suffer from this deficiency  Iodine deficiency 1.7 bil. people worldwide are affected by iodine deficiency, and 1.3 bil. of them are in Asia Source: UNSCN 6 th Report and Bharati et al. 2009

6 Click to edit Master title style Shenggen Fan, January 2012 South Asia is a hotspot of child undernutrition Prevalence of stunting in children under-5, Prevalence of underweight in children under-5, Source: UNICEF 2009

7 Click to edit Master title style Shenggen Fan, January 2012 Asia plays an important role in global food markets Source: FAO 2011 Export fromAfricaAsiaEuropeN. AmericaM. East Billon $ Europe Asia C. & S. America N. America CIS Source: Choi 2010

8 Click to edit Master title style Shenggen Fan, January 2012 Asian countries: increasing role in foreign direct investment FDI flows to and from emerging countries, US$ billions Source: UNCTAD 2009  “South-South” FDI: 1/3 of all FDI to developing countries (est.)  Asian countries provide cushion for developing countries during recent crisis  Often promote technologies and business practices more suitable for developing country markets

9 Click to edit Master title style Shenggen Fan, January 2012 Emerging trends affecting Asian and global food security  Changing population and demographic trends  Rising energy prices  Land and water constraints  Climate change  Rising rural labor shortage / costs  Large gender inequality

10 Click to edit Master title style Shenggen Fan, January 2012 Changing population and demographic trends Developing South and East Asia’s rural and urban population Larger and more urban population = increased demand for more and better food Source: World Bank 2011

11 Click to edit Master title style Shenggen Fan, January 2012 High land and water constraints Source: Bai et al (LADA, FAO/ISRIC) Land degradation, Areas of physical and economic water scarcity, 2007 Source: IWMI 2007

12 Click to edit Master title style Shenggen Fan, January 2012 Climate change impacts on agriculture ASIA CropChange in Production (%) Rice Irrigated Rainfed0.66 Maize Irrigated-5.54 Rainfed1.71 Wheat Irrigated Rainfed-1.91 Soybeans Irrigated-6.73 Rainfed8.58 Source: IFPRI 2011 With 1 meter rise (‘000 ha) With 3 meter rise (‘000 ha) Myanmar2951,214 Thailand Cambodia35118 Vietnam2,5134,281 30% of Vietnam’s rice area Source: Nelson 2010

13 Click to edit Master title style Shenggen Fan, January 2012 Rising rural labor shortage / costs  Wages are rising rapidly in emerging economies  Rural labor is scarce due to rural-urban shifts  Rising rural labor costs e.g. in China and India = higher cost of production = less production Rising nominal minimum wage across China

14 Click to edit Master title style Shenggen Fan, January 2012 Large gender inequality in agriculture  Women make up large share of ag. workforce e.g. 51% in Bangladesh and 49% in Vietnam  But have less access to resources and services  Closing gender gap in agriculture (FAO 2011): Increases ag. production by 2.5–4% Reduces number of undernourished people by 12–17%

15 Click to edit Master title style Shenggen Fan, January 2012  Increase investment in agric. R&D, rural infrastructure, and productive social safety nets  Leverage smallholder agriculture for broad development outcomes hunger and poverty reduction nutrition and health gender equity low carbon economy  Support transparent, fair, and open trade  Promote regional strategic food reserves Towards an integrated food security agenda

16 Click to edit Master title style Shenggen Fan, January 2012 Green economy is a must, but food security should not be undermined Agriculture can play a key role in green economy through natural resources, food production, and economic linkages Green economy Environmentally sustainable growth Food security Poverty reduction Equitable distribution = Rio +20: UN Conference on Sustainable Development 2012

17 Click to edit Master title style Shenggen Fan, January 2012  Support region- and country-led strategies through capacity strengthening and collaborative research  Facilitate regional dialogues, and knowledge, information and data sharing  Support mutual learning of development experiences among Asian countries and countries in other regions IFPRI’s agenda in the region


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