3 SD as an inter-generational equity concept Sustainable Development isdevelopment that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs (1987, Brundtland Commission).is about enabling people to satisfy their basic needs and enjoy a better quality of life, without compromising the quality of life of future generations.It combines social, environmental and economic goals …Economic growthEnvironmental ProtectionSocial IntegrationNew issues : Good Governance, Climate Change, etc.Intuitive but hardly measurable…
4 There was a worry about an irreversible expansion of E… Nature EnvironmentHuman CivilizationEconomyMarket / PlanM
5 We need an operational definition of SD. Economy, Humanity and NatureHumanity (society) is part of Nature (environment) and Economy works on the Nature to support HumanityEconomy develops what was enveloped by Nature and Humanity in the form of natural resources and human heritagesResources: Land, Air, Water, Animals & Plants, Soil, Minerals, Oil…Heritages: Population, Culture, History, Knowledge, Laws, Institutions, Infrastructures…Resources and heritages, identified as given amount of stock, provide material and non-material bases for the sustainability of Humanity.
6 Sustainability in operational definition Sustainability depends onAvailable stock of resources and heritages: Sr(t), Sh(t)Exploitation speed: fe(t)Renewal and Accumulation feedback speed: fr(t), fa(t)A non-negative time derivative of per capita net stock (d(Sr+Sh+fe+fr+fa)/dt≥0) confirms development is sustainable.fr(t)Sr(t)Natural ResourcesSh(t)Human Heritagefa(t)fe(t)Production- Consumption
7 Socio-economic and environmental context of “de-velopment” Sh(t)fa(t)fe(t)fr(t)Sr(t)OECD, Towards Green Growth, 2011, p.115
9 In measuring progress, the Agenda 21 recommended… Chapter 40 of Agenda 21 was on “Information for Decision Making” and identified two programme areas :Bridging the data gap;Improving information availability.Six areas of activities were proposed :development of (a)* indicators of sustainable development;promotion of global use of indicators of sustainable development;improvement of data collection and use;improvement of methods of data assessment and analysis;establishment of a (b)* comprehensive information framework;strengthening of the capacity for traditional information.There is currently no single universally accepted measurement metric for sustainable development indicators. The United Nations, European Union as well as OECD have all made their own work in the development of sustainable development indicators.UNDESA (2012), National Institutions for Sustainable Development
10 (a)* SD Indicators in practice 1) United NationsThe United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD) finalized the third, revised set of CSD indicators in 2007, based on the previous two (1996 and 2001) editions, which have been developed, improved and extensively tested as part of the implementation of the Work Programme on Indicators of Sustainable Development adopted by the CSD at its third session in 1995 and presented to the CSD in 2001.This third set of indicators consists of 50 core indicators, alongside 46 additional indicators intended to allow a “more comprehensive and differentiated assessment of sustainable development” where data are available.The indicators are grouped into a series of themes and sub-themes, and are designed to allow countries to track progress towards nationally-defined goals.UN DESA (2007), Indicators of Sustainable Development: Guidelines and Methodologies, Third Edition, available at
11 SD Indicators in practice (continued) 2) European UnionThe European Union worked alongside the UN Work Programme on Indicators ofSustainable Development and published its own indicator sets in 1997 and 2001.An EU-oriented indicator set was proposed following the adoption of the EU Sustainable Development Strategy in 2001, and was endorsed by the European Commission in 2005.Since then, a series of minor revisions have resulted in the existing indicator set, comprising 11 headline indicators across 10 themes, and over 100 indicators in total.The existing set also describes indicators either in development or as yet undeveloped, and the suitability of the indicator set in the context of emerging environmental concerns is constantly reviewed.Eurostat (2009), Sustainable Development in the European Union, 2009 monitoring report of the EU sustainable development strategy, available at ITY_OFFPUB/KS /EN/KS EN.PDF
12 SD Indicators in practice (continued) 3) OECDThe OECD has cooperated with UNCSD, the EU and other international organizations to develop its own environmental indicators.Notably, the OECD has focused on developing multiple sets of indicators, each appropriate to specific context.The Core Environmental Indicators, designed to track ‘environmental progress and performance’, comprise of about 50 individual indicators; separate indicator sets adapted in part from the core set aim at informing the public, promoting integration and monitoring progress towards sustainable development.OECD (2008), OECD Key Environmental Indicators, available at
13 (b)* Comprehensive Information Framework Measuring sustainability with multi-dimensional SD indicator sets lead to the concept of integrating indicators into a system of accounts.Therefore, it’s not to take up the approach of one-dimensional environmentally adjusted macro-economic aggregates such as ‘Green GDP’, but rather to follow the principal idea of describing the sustainability gap with the multi-dimensional indicator approach.In the simple individual indicator approach described above, it is unlikely that the individual indicators are to be systematically linked with integrated physical and monetary economic, social and environmental accounting data.
14 Comprehensive Information Framework means integration of... Karl Schoer, “Note on a Proposed Structure of the Revised SEEA”, 2007, LG/11/4, p.711th Meeting of the London Group on Environmental Accounting Johannesburg, March
15 German case of indicators-accounts integration Karl Schoer, “Note on a Proposed Structure of the Revised SEEA”, 2007, LG/11/4, p.1211th London Group Meeting on Environmental Accounting Johannesburg, March
16 A sustainable development in 3 dimensions SocialEnvironmentalEconomic
17 More details in the system of environmental economic accounting Environmental Policy InterventionMaterial Flowend-of-pipe pollutioncontrol· Water·Air·SoilcleanerproductionpromotionLabor, CapitalEnvironmental PollutionCon.Inv.I-O TableEPEAPIOTOutflowEAANatural & Environmental ResourcesExportImportedInt’l TradeEnvironment as InputEnvironmental Management
18 SEEA* System of Environmental and Economic Accounting (SEEA) developed by UN Statistical Commission in collaboration with the IMF, the World Bank, the European Commission and OECD, as a guideline in 2003.known as the most significant attempt to integrate national accounting and environmental accounting as satellite accounts in both monetary and physical terms.following work is under way to transform SEEA into an international accounting standard equivalent to the System of National Accounts (SNA).SD indicators could be linked to the SEEA through the uniform classifications and definitions, and the inclusion of sectoral breakdowns appropriate to the SEEA’s composition.
19 Some details on the socio-economic interface of SD Social Value SystemSocio-Cultural ResourcesJob and Income Distribution, Public servicesSocial Security, Health careCon.Inv.I-O TableExportImportedInt’l TradeLabor, CapitalPopulation, Social Capital
20 SESAME*System of Economic and Social Accounting Matrices and Extensions (SESAME)developed as an information system integrating economic, social and environmental statistics (Keuning, 2000, Accounting for Welfare with SESAME, UN.)Very recently recognized as equal part of SD, due to the lack of commonly accepted definition and consensus of the social dimension.Two popular ways of addressing the social dimension of sustainability: the capability approach (HDI) and the social capital (Stock/Flow) approach.In practice, social dimension is represented as part of SD subjects (Denmark)1) Economic development and employment2) Poverty3) Elderly society4) Health5) Change in climate and energy6) Sustainable production and consumption patterns7) Protection of natural resources8) Traffic and use of areaIsmir Mularic, Statistics Denmark, London Group Meeting September, 2004
22 SD in environmental-economic interface asks… Quality of Development?- Environmentally Sound and Sustainable Development -Green Economy in micro-economics: market prices, investment- Quality of economy in short-term and mid-termGreen Growth in macro-economics: investment, technology, R&D,- Quality of growth, mid-term and long-termGlobal, Regional, National and Local Program for aPlanet Responsibility22
23 SD in socio-economic interface asks… Objective of Development?- Inclusive Human Civilization -National agenda – jobs, (re)distributional, social policiesGlobal agenda - gap closing initiatives between South and NorthGlobal, Regional, National and Local Program for aHumanity Responsibility23
24 Past concept of development shows… an economic growth supposedly increasing quality of life may result in degradation and depletion of natural resources and human heritages, which brings negative impact on the quality of life.Economic GrowthHuman HeritagesQuality of LifeNatural Resources24
25 Enabling conditions for Sustainability for Development In order to overcome the challenges posed by the growth in the globalized world economy, it is imperativeto develop green technologies and to introduce them into major industrial sectors leading economic growthto change life-style based on environmentally sound and sustainable production and consumption patternand to share the experiences with partners to build a planet responsible for sustainable humanity…
26 Humanity responsible civilization needs… to minimize degradation and depletion of natural resources and human heritage with a paradigm shift based on innovations and life style change.Economic GrowthHuman HeritagesHappinessNatural ResourcesR&D and Technological InnovationLife Style Change26
28 Environmental Welfare What rest untouched…Wellbeing, HappinessEnvironmental Welfare
29 What we need to do …Establish an evidence based decision making framework for SDClear understanding of the Post 2015 development framework and its implications to national development strategiesRestructuring Post 2015 development agenda including SDGs to be tailored to national/local implementation framework: Technology Facilitation, Financing SD, etc…Peer review with indicators on the development challenges within a Matrix of Geo-Ecological and Socio-Economic Criteria: Geographical location, Climate zone, … ; Population, Labor, Production & Consumption, Planning (public) and Markets (private), …Development of monitoring, assessment and reporting procedure for the progress on SD
30 Strategy, Planning, Programme and Project Vision based on baseline analysisGoal/Target to accomplish as a milestone with reference timeframeStrategy to implement the goal/target based on gap analysisPlan in long-term framework / mid-term (or annual) implementationProgramme composed of projectsProject for individual goal/targetTask/Job identified as action component of a projectInter-governmental ProcessNational / Local ProcessManagement of Implementation with IndicatorsinputprocessoutputBaseline t0 (state)Outcome t1 (state)Target t1 (state)Impact = outcome t1 – baseline t0 .Effectiveness = outcome t1 / baseline t It’s a project (task or job) that could be effective or not.Efficiency = output / input It’s a process that could be efficient or not.Performance = outcome t1 / target t It represents a degree of ‘accomplishment’.
31 Work plan 2014_UNOSD on Measuring Progress Study on Measuring Progress in Post 2015 Development Framework: HLPF, Ministerial Meetings and SDGsOverview on the current status and perspectives of Post 2015 Development Framework discussed at UN Intergovernmental Processes (GA, HLPF, OWG, EGM, etc.)Implication of Post 2015 DF for Member States in achieving SD: What is expected to be done by the member states for coming years?- Integration of SDGs into National Development Strategy and Planning- Preparation of Implementation Plan of SDGs- Establishment of Monitoring & Reporting System on the achievement of SDGs (HLPF, The Ministerial)Implication of Post 2015 DF for UN (DESA/DSD as well as OSD) in supporting Member States: What is expected to be done by DSD and OSD in relation to the works to be done by the member states?Area 1: Research and Policy Analysis (EGM, Consultative Workshop, …)Area 2: Joint Capacity Development in Measuring, Analysis and Reporting (Joint research, Conference, …)Then, development of a sub-work plan (covering joint researches, capacity development, regional/national advisory services, networking) after the December consultative workshop...Thematic issues proposed in priority in relation to Post 2015 DF, which include ‘Eco-tourism Development’, ‘Technology Facilitation’ and ‘Financing’..
34 Major challenges in measuring progress with indicators Based on the presentations made during the consultative workshop, what kind of challenges can we identify at the national level implementation…Bridging gaps between SD agenda negotiated and SD agenda operationalized at the level of national implementationInstitutionalization of monitoring, evaluation and reporting processTechnical expertise in collecting, compiling and keeping updated primary data setAnalytical capacity in implementing evidence based decision making for SDWhat type of capacity development demand exists at national implementation level?- Inter-ministerial meeting, Expert group consultation, Stake-holder participatory forumWhat are the major themes in priority for Capacity Building?- Water, Energy, Food & Agriculture, Greening Industrialization, Eco-tourism, Health
35 Interests in policy research & CD on measuring progress… Urban Sustainability Management (Mega Urban, Green City, …)-Interested Country Listing :Pilot study on the exploration toward Environmental Welfare (Concept & Indicators, Socio-economic & Geo-spatial analysis …)Sustainability Assessment on Eco-tourism sites (with indicators)Type and Theme of Capacity Development Most Interested (in order)Type :Themes :
37 “Environmental Welfare” in SD Minimum Env. standard for allEquitable access to environmental amenity…SocialSocial WelfareMinimum wagePublic health careUnemployment insurancePublic educationEnvironmentalResource EfficiencyEnv. performance3RsEconomic
38 Sustainability Assessment on Eco-tourism 19 sustainability indicators in 5 domains in Eco-tourism5 domains were selected from the key words in the various definitions of Ecotourism.Source : Lee Jae-Hyuck & Lee Hee Yeon (2012)38
40 Interactive discussion in small group 60 minutes (09:30~10:30) Country Group Latin America : Chile, Dominican Republic, Jamaica, Nicaragua, Peru + MI, UN/StatisticsCountry Group Africa : Ethiopia, Gabon, Jordan, Tunisia, South Soudan + UN/DSD, UNEPCountry Group Asia and the Pacific : Bhutan, Fiji, Indonesia, Samoa, Tajikistan, Vietnam + ASEF, UNOSDPlenary Wrap-up (10:30~11:30)
41 Orientation (09:00~09:10) and “+1 Presentation” (09:10~09:30) Additional introduction on Sustainability Assessment of Eco-Tourism sites (Case Study)
42 Sustainability Evaluation with Indicators on Ecotourism Case study*:Sustainability Evaluation with Indicators on Ecotourism10 Ecotourism Sites in Korea* Lee Jae-Hyuck & Lee Hee Yeon, “A Study on the Development of the Indicator Sets for Evaluating the Sustainable Ecotourism and It’s Application” Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Seoul National University, Korea, 2012.
43 OVERVIEW 10 Ecotourism sites in Korea (2010) 34567891043
44 OVERVIEW 10 Ecotourism sites in Korea (2010) 44
51 Data Sources and Standardization DB: 5 domains, 19 indicators and 36 variables for 10 SitesSource: Ministry of Environment, Ministry of Culture, Sports and TourismNational Survey Report on Environmental GISEnvironmental Statistical Information System, etc.Tourism Information System, etc.Source: NSO, Local Government, Survey Data, etc.Annual StatisticsBudget SurveyStandardizationMaximum Score Linear Scale Transformation [0~1]Source : Lee Jae-Hyuck & Lee Hee Yeon (2012)51
52 Evaluation Result for the Site 9 “Hwacheon” Source : Lee Jae-Hyuck & Lee Hee Yeon (2012)52
54 Sustainability Diagram of the Site 9 “Hwacheon” Hwacheon SiteWeakness in Economic DomainNear the DMZStrong regulation on development projectProtest from Local Residentslack of local economic benefit from the sitelow profitabilitySource : Lee Jae-Hyuck & Lee Hee Yeon (2012)54
55 Evaluated Composite Scores of the 10 Sites Source : Lee Jae-Hyuck & Lee Hee Yeon (2012)* A rank sensitivity test based on AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) have shown that the rankings of the sites are quite stable.55
56 Highly Sustainable Sites: 10, 4, 3, 2 0.860.630.640.540.45Source : Lee Jae-Hyuck & Lee Hee Yeon (2012)Coastal sites show higher sustainability.
60 Medium Sustainability Sites: 9, 5 0.500.49Source : Lee Jae-Hyuck & Lee Hee Yeon (2012)Most ecotourism sites suffer from low economic viability of the project.Ecological consideration, Governance and Cultural dimensions are more prominent factors of sustainability.Average of Domains: 0.68(Ecological) > 0.60(Governance) > 0.55(Cultural) > 0.50(Learning) > 0.32(Economic)
61 Benefit of Sustainability Evaluation System Source : Lee Jae-Hyuck & Lee Hee Yeon (2012)Institutionalization of SES is essential for greening tourism development and increasing sustainability of ecotourism, as it helps evidence based policy decision making by providing integrated comparative analysis on different impacts of tourism.