2Text pages 135-191 Developmental Psych Psychology Weekly Planner Geary Week of NovHomework Classwork Turn InText pagesStates of Consciousness Test tomorrowMON.Dream facts/common dream themesDream workSleep journals and dream diariesText pages Developmental PsychTUE.States of Consciousness TestText pages :Prenatal Development & Newborn thruCognitive DevelopmentBring in picture of YOU when you were a baby – be sure your name is on the back of the pictureWED.Create lifelineDevelopmental psych – IntroductionBaby PictureTHU.Video: Life’s Greatest MiracleText pagesthruSocial DevelopmentFRI.Infancy – Physical developmentLifelineVideo Worksheet
3Developmental Psychology A branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive and social change throughout the life span
4Prenatal Development and the Newborn Life is sexually transmitted
6The Developing Person Fold yesterday’s questionnaire length-wise Orient the paper horizontally and on the back top half write down 2-3 adjectives that you think describe each decade of life0-9 years10-19 years20-29 years30-39 years40-49 years50-59 years60-69 years70-79 years80- ?
7The Developing PersonThen, again, only on the top half, write down what you think is the IDEAL age. Explain why.What do you think is the WORST age? Explain.One more set of responses for the top half, then we’ll do some work on the bottom half
8The Developing Person Developmental Hallmarks Give your best estimate of the age at which 50% or more of children begin to:LaughPedal a tricycleStand on 1 foot for 10 secondsSit up w/out supportWalk unassistedFeel ashamedCrawlRecognize and smileMake 2 word sentencesRoll overKick a ball forwardThink about things that cannot be seen
9The Developing Person Developmental Hallmarks Give your best estimate of the age at which 50% or more of children begin to:Laugh2 monthsPedal a tricycle24 monthsStand on 1 foot for 10 seconds4.5 yearsSit up w/out support5-6 monthsWalk unassisted12 monthsFeel ashamed2 yearsCrawl6-8 monthsRecognize and smile4-5 monthsMake 2 word sentences20-22 monthsRoll over4-6 monthsKick a ball forward3 yearsThink about things that cannot be seen
10Lifeline TimelineIdentify 10 past events that have had an impact on your life.List them on the back of todays’sworksheetInclude your age and a brief descriptionTHEN hypothesize 10 future events that you believe will significantly affect your lifePlace these 20 events on a lifeline…
12Prenatal Development and the Newborn Zygotethe fertilized eggenters a 2 week period of rapid cell divisiondevelops into an embryoEmbryothe developing human organism from 2 weeks through 2nd monthFetusthe developing human organism from 9 weeks after conception to birth
13Prenatal Development and the Newborn 40 days days months 4 months
14Prenatal Development and the Newborn Teratogensagents, such as chemicals and viruses, that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harmFetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)physical and cognitive abnormalities in children caused by a pregnant woman’s heavy drinkingsymptoms include misproportioned head
16Prenatal Development and the Newborn Rooting Reflextendency to open mouth, and search for nipple when touched on the cheekPreferenceshuman voices and facesfacelike images-->smell and sound of mother preferred
17Prenatal Development and the Newborn Habituationdecreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation
18Prenatal Development and the Newborn Having habituated to the old stimulus, newborns preferred gazing at a new one
19Infancy and Childhood: Physical Development Maturationbiological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behaviorrelatively uninfluenced by experienceAt birth3 months15 monthsCortical Neurons
20Infancy and Childhood: Physical Development Babies only 3 months old can learn that kicking moves a mobile--and can retain that learning for a month (Rovee-Collier, 1989, 1997).
21We have a lot to get through today Wednesday, May 07, 2014We have a lot to get through todayHard with computers SOOO CLOSEAll that you’re missing!I’ll be going over:Infancy/Childhood Cognitive DevelopmentPiaget’s StagesInfancy/Childhood Physical and Social Development
22Wednesday, May 07, 2014You are welcome to take a book and move to a desk to read and take notesYou’ll have to show me the notes at the end of the period so I know you actually made it through the materialRoughly from pg (7th ed.)(8th ed.)I’m particularly interested in your understanding of Piaget’s stages
23Infancy and Childhood: Cognitive Development CognitionAll the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicatingSchemaa concept or framework that organizes and interprets information
24Infancy and Childhood: Cognitive Development Assimilationinterpreting one’s new experience in terms of one’s existing schemasAccommodationadapting one’s current understandings (schemas) to incorporate new information
27Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development Typical AgeRangeDescriptionof StageDevelopmentalPhenomenaBirth to nearly 2 yearsSensorimotorExperiencing the world throughsenses and actions (looking,touching, mouthing)Object permanenceStranger anxietyAbout 2 to 6 yearsAbout 7 to 11 yearsAbout 12 throughadulthoodPreoperationalRepresenting thingswith words and imagesbut lacking logical reasoningPretend playEgocentrismLanguage developmentConcrete operationalThinking logically about concreteevents; grasping concrete analogiesand performing arithmetical operationsConservationMathematical transformationsFormal operationalAbstract reasoningAbstract logicPotential for moral reasoning
28Infancy and Childhood: Cognitive Development Object Permanencethe awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived
29Infancy and Childhood: Cognitive Development Baby MathematicsShown a numerically impossible outcome, infants stare longer (Wynn, 1992)
30Infancy and Childhood: Cognitive Development Conservationthe principle that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects
31Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development Series of Videos
32SENSORIMOTOR STAGE BIRTH TO 2 Lacks OBJECT PERMANENCE - experiences life through senses, motor skills - out of sight, out of mind - awareness that objects exist when not seen
33PREOPERATIONAL STAGE 2-6 years EGOCENTRIC – cannot perceive things from someone else’s point of viewTHEORY OF MIND - recognizing that others have feelings, brains, and ideas (empathize, tease, persuade)Lacks CONSERVATIONThe principal that quantity remains the same despite changes to shapeTHEORY OF MIND: - They understand that Little Red Riding Hood’s grandmother is really a wolf and can run awayThey seek to understand why playmate is angry, when a sibling will share, what they can do to get a parent to buy them a toy- manipulation at this point…emphasize, tease and persaude comes from the idea of seeing things from someone else’s perspective- BAND AID: They predict bandaids will be there – nope, it’s something else, but they can imagine that theier friend will anticipate bandaids and understand that they will be amazedAUTISM: When you can’t infer what others feel or an impaired theory of mindDifficulty inferring others thoughts and feelings…they fail to understand the signals of others – pouting = saddness; twinkling eyes = happiness; (p147 to show how autistic kids would not understand where to look)Lack of CONSERVATION: Two slices of pizza is equal to one slice cut in half Two cups of equal size poured into a tall glass – tall glass more A model of a room with a toy couch and stuffed dog hidden behind it – cannot translate that into a real room with a real couch and stuffed dog hidden behind it - Problem when asking about sexual abuse when they can’t see the doll as a representative of something real. Egocentricism – I have a brother, my brother does not have a sibling. Moon goes away when I sleep How do you make yourself invisible to others – hold your hands in front of your own eyes
34PREOPERATIONAL VIDEOS Lack of conservationTheory of MindPROBLEM WITH THEORY OF MIND – AUTISMEgocentricism
35CONCRETE OPERATIONAL 6-12 years Understand Conservation Can comprehend mathematical transformationsThey will laugh at the joke: Mr. Jones went into a restaurant and ordered a whole pizza for his dinner. When the waiter asked if he wanted it cut into 6 or 8 pieces, Mr. Jones said, Oh, youd better make it 6 – I could never eat 8”
37Critique of Piaget’s Theory Underestimates children’s abilitiesOverestimates age differences in thinkingVagueness about the process of changeUnderestimates the role of the social environmentLack of evidence for qualitatively different stages
38Infancy and Childhood Development: Physical – Cognitive - Social The changes in the structure and physical properties of the brainCognitiveThe operations of the mind; the various stages of cognition the child goes throughSocialThe processes by which the child becomes aware of and interacts with the world around her
39Infancy and Childhood Development: Physical Brain DevelopmentNerve cells form before birthThrough maturation and experience interconnections multiply rapidlyMaturation and MemoryConscious memories of experience in earliest years are lostCAN retain learning over time…Motor DevelopmentComplex physical skills – sitting, standing, walking – develop in predictable sequence
40Infancy and Childhood Development: Physical: Motor Development Give your best estimate of the age at which about 50% of children begin to:LaughPedal a tricycleSit without supportFeel ashamedWalk unassistedStand on one foot for 10 secondsRecognize and smile at mother or fatherKick a ball forwardThink about things that cannot be seenMake two-word sentences
41Infancy and Childhood Development: Physical: Motor Development Give your best estimate of the age at which about 50% of children begin to:Laugh – 2 monthsPedal a tricycle – 24 monthsSit without support – 5-6 monthsFeel ashamed – 24 monthsWalk unassisted – 12 months
42Infancy and Childhood Development: Physical: Motor Development Give your best estimate of the age at which about 50% of children begin to:Stand on one foot for 10 seconds – 4 ½ yearsRecognize / smile at mother / father – 4-5 monthsKick a ball forward – 20 monthsThink about things not seen – 24 monthsMake two-word sentences – months
43Piaget’s Elements of Cognitive Development Infancy and Childhood Development: CognitivePiaget’s Elements of Cognitive DevelopmentCognitionAll the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicatingSchemaa concept or framework that organizes and interprets informationAssimilationinterpreting one’s new experience in terms of one’s existing schemasAccommodationadapting one’s current understandings (schemas) to incorporate new information
44Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development Infancy and Childhood Development: CognitivePiaget’s Stages of Cognitive DevelopmentTypical AgeRangeDescriptionof StageDevelopmentalPhenomenaBirth to nearly 2 yearsSensorimotorExperiencing the world throughsenses and actions (looking,touching, mouthing)Object permanenceStranger anxiety“Baby Math”About 2 to 6 yearsAbout 7 to 11 yearsAbout 12 throughadulthoodPreoperationalRepresenting thingswith words and imagesbut lacking logical reasoningLack of ConservationPretend playEgocentrismTheory of MindConcrete operationalThinking logically about concreteevents; grasping concrete analogiesand performing arithmetical operationsConservationMathematical transformationsFormal operationalAbstract reasoningAbstract logicPotential for moral reasoning
45Infancy and Childhood: Cognitive Development Egocentrismthe inability of the preoperational child to take another’s point of viewTheory of Mindpeople’s ideas about their own and others’ mental states – about their feelings, perceptions, and thoughts and the behavior these might predictAutism (Mind in the Eye Test)a disorder that appears in childhoodMarked by deficient communication, social interaction and understanding of others’ states of mind
46Infancy and Childhood: Social Development Stranger Anxietyfear of strangers that infants commonly displaybeginning by about 8 months of ageAttachmentan emotional tie with another personshown in young children by their seeking closeness to the caregiver and displaying distress on separation
47Social Development Harlow’s Surrogate Mother Experiments Monkeys preferred contact with the comfortable cloth mother, even while feeding from the nourishing wire mother
48Social DevelopmentHarlow's Studies on Dependency in Monkeys
49Social Development Critical Period Imprinting an optimal period shortly after birth when an organism’s exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces proper developmentImprintingthe process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period very early in life
50Social DevelopmentMonkeys raised by artificial mothers were terror-stricken when placed in strange situations without their surrogate mothers.
51INSECURE/SECURE ATTACHMENT Parents who are sensitive and attend to children = SECURE ATTACHMENTParents who are insensitive ignore children = INSECURE ATTACHMENT - terror, clinging, high anxiety, higher rate of abuse of their children - BUT THEY CAN RECOVER!
52Social Development204060801003.55.57.59.511.513.529Percentageof infantswho criedwhen theirmothers leftAge in monthsDay careHomeGroups of infants left by their mothers in a unfamiliar room (from Kagan, 1976).
53Social Development Basic Trust (Erik Erikson) a sense that the world is predictable and trustworthysaid to be formed during infancy by appropriate experiences with responsive caregivers
54SELF-CONCEPT Self-Concept a sense of one’s identity and personal worth - begins when we recognize ourselves in the mirrorHaving a positive sense of self is important to growing confidence and a strong sense of identity later in life
55Social Development: Child-Rearing Practices Authoritarianparents impose rules and expect obedience“Don’t interrupt.” “Why? Because I said so.”Permissivesubmit to children’s desires, make few demands, use little punishmentAuthoritativeboth demanding and responsiveset rules, but explain reasons and encourage open discussion(5-9)
60Social Development: Child-Rearing Practices In your group:Come up with 3 tricky parenting scenarios for Infant and Adolescent stages of lifeThese can range from the “in-store tantrum” to the overnighter partyWrite them on the paper I provide youCome up with your group’s solution to the scenariowe’ll discuss as a class after(5-9)
61Social Development: Child-Rearing Practices (5-10) TraitLynds(1929)Alwin(1978)Bernt(1989)(1997)Frankness/honesty27265638Desire to make a name for one's self5134Concentration97Social mindedness134830Strict obedience45178Appreciation of art, music12Economy in money matters2511Loyalty to the church5022Knowledge of sexual hygiene15Tolerance of others647Curiosity10Patriotism21Good manners23Independence764034Academic achievement19Willingness to work hard64
62Adolescence Adolescence Puberty the transition period from childhood to adulthoodextending from puberty to independencePubertythe period of sexual maturationwhen a person becomes capable of reproduction
63Adolescence Primary Sex Characteristics Secondary Sex Characteristics body structures that make sexual reproduction possibleovaries--femaletestes--maleexternal genitaliaSecondary Sex Characteristicsnonreproductive sexual characteristicsfemale--breast and hipsmale--voice quality and body hairMenarche (meh-NAR-key)first menstrual period
64AdolescenceIn the 1890’s the average interval between a woman’s menarche and marriage was about 7 years; now it is over 12 years10207.2 Year Interval12.5 Year IntervalAge1890, Women1995, Women
65AdolescenceHeight incentimeters19017015013011090705024681012141618Age in yearsBoysGirlsThroughout childhood, boys and girls are similar in height. At puberty, girls surge ahead briefly, but then boys overtake them at about age 14.
67Kohlberg’s Moral Ladder Morality of abstractprinciples: to affirmagreed-upon rights andpersonal ethical principlesAs moral development progresses, the focus of concern moves from the self to the wider social world.KohlbergPostconventionallevelConventionallevelMorality of law andsocial rules: to gainapproval or avoiddisapprovalPreconventionallevelMorality of self-interest:to avoid punishmentor gain concrete rewards
68Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development Approximate ageStageDescription of TaskInfancy(1st year)Trust vs. mistrustIf needs are dependably met, infants develop a sense of basic trustToddler(2nd year)Autonomy vs.Shame and DoubtToddlers learn to exercise will and do things for themselves, or they doubt their abilitiesPreschooler(3-5 years)Initiative vs. guiltPreschoolers learn to initiate tasks and carry out plans, or they feelguilty about efforts to be independentElementary(6 years-puberty)Competence vs. inferiorityChildren learn the pleasure of applying themselves to tasks, or they feel inferior
69Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development Approximate ageStageDescription of TaskInfancy(1st year)Trust vs. mistrustIf needs are dependably met, infants develop a sense of basic trustToddler(2nd year)Autonomy vs.Shame and DoubtToddlers learn to exercise will and do things for themselves, or they doubt their abilitiesPreschooler(3-5 years)Initiative vs. guiltPreschoolers learn to initiate tasks and carry out plans, or they feelguilty about efforts to be independentElementary(6 years-puberty)Competence vs. inferiorityChildren learn the pleasure of applying themselves to tasks, or they feel inferiorErikson’s Stages of Psychosocial DevelopmentApproximateage Stage Description of TaskAdolescence Identity vs. role Teenagers work at refining a sense of self by(teens into confusion testing roles and then integrating them to20’s) form a single identity, or they becomeconfused about who they are.Young Adult Intimacy vs. Young adults struggle to form close relation-(20’s to early isolation ships and to gain the capacity for intimate40’s) love, or they feel socially isolated.Middle Adult Generativity vs. The middle-aged discover a sense of contri-(40’s to 60’s) stagnation buting to the world, usually through familyand work, or they may feel a lack of purpose.Late Adult Integrity vs. When reflecting on his or her life, the older(late 60’s and despair adult may feel a sense of satisfaction orup) failure.
70Adolescence: Social Development Identityone’s sense of selfthe adolescent’s task is to solidify a sense of self by testing and integrating various rolesIntimacythe ability to form close, loving relationshipsa primary developmental task in late adolescence and early adulthood
71Adolescence: Social Development What role do your friends play in your life?What makes a friend different from an acquaintance?What happens when you and your friend have a fight?Have you ever lost a friend because of a fight?What was the fight about? (be as general as possible)
72Adolescence: Social Development Identify the name of the people in your group of friends with a letter(helps maintain anonymity)Who is the most popular?What is that person like?What is it that makes them popular?
73Adolescence: Social Development Do you depend more on your parents’ advice or your friends’ advice when it comes to questions of:DressSchoolworkOut-of-school activitiesMoral questions / Values
74Adolescence: Social Development What is the best thing about being your age?What is the most troubling aspect of being your age?
75Adolescence: Social Development: Past Self When you look back on your childhood and very early years how do you believe you felt most of the time?Record one of the following and add your own descriptors: happy, sad, in conflict, at peace, secure, angry, confused, loved, successful, responsible, afraid
76Adolescence: Social Development: Present Self How do you feel most of the time? (busy, overwhelmed, angry, peaceful, confused, happy, competent, tense, etc.)List all that apply and write a brief explanation.What is most important to you in your life right now? What do you value?
77Adolescence: Social Development: Future Self In what ways would you like your life to be like your parents and/or grandparents' lives, and in what ways would you like your own life to be different from theirs?How will/do you handle each of Erikson's last two stages, namely generativity vs. stagnation, and integrity vs. despair?
78Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development Approximate ageStageDescription of TaskInfancy(1st year)Trust vs. MistrustIf needs are dependably met, infants develop a sense of basic trustToddler(2nd year)Autonomy vs.Shame and DoubtToddlers learn to exercise will and do things for themselves, or they doubt their abilitiesPreschooler(3-5 years)Initiative vs. GuiltPreschoolers learn to initiate tasks and carry out plans, or they feelguilty about efforts to be independentElementary(6 years-puberty)Competence vs. InferiorityChildren learn the pleasure of applying themselves to tasks, or they feel inferior
79Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development Approximate ageStageDescription of TaskAdolescence(teens into 20’s)Identity vs.Role ConfusionTeenagers work at refining a sense of self by testing roles and then integrating them to form a single identity, or they become confused about who they are.Young Adult (20’s to early 40’s)Intimacy vs. IsolationYoung adults struggle to from close relationships and to gain the capacity for intimate love, or they feel socially isolatedMiddle Adult(40’s to 60’s)Generativity vs. StagnationThe middle-aged discover a sense of contributing to the world, usually through family and work, or they feel a lack of purpose.Late Adult(late 60’s and up)Integrity vs.DespairWhen reflecting on his or her life, the older adult may feel a sense of satisfaction or failure.
80Adolescence: Social Development The changing parent-child relationship100%806040202 to to to 11Ages of child in yearsPercent withpositive, warminteractionwith parents
81Adulthood: Physical Development Menopausethe time of natural cessation of menstruationalso refers to the biological changes a woman experiences as her ability to reproduce declinesAlzheimer’s Diseasea progressive and irreversible brain disordercharacterized by a gradual deterioration of memory, reasoning, language, and finally, physical functioning
82Adulthood: Physical Development The Aging Senses1.000.75Proportion of normal(20/20) vision whenidentifying letters onan eye chart0.500.251030507090Age in years
83Adulthood: Physical Development The Aging Senses90Percent correct whenIdentifying smells70501030507090Age in years
84Adulthood: Physical Development The Aging Senses90Percent correct whenidentifying spokenwords70501030507090Age in years
85Adulthood: Physical Development FatalaccidentrateSlowing reactions contribute to increased accident risks among those 75 and older.1210Fatal accidentsper 100 million miles8Fatal accidentsper 10,000 drivers64216202530354045505560657075 andoverAge
86Adulthood: Physical Development Incidence of Dementia by AgeRisk of dementiaincreases in lateryearsAge Group40%302010Percentagewith dementia
87Adulthood: Cognitive Development 100Older age groups havepoorer performanceRecalling new names introduced once, twice, or three times is easier for younger adults than for older ones (Crook & West, 1990).Percentof namesrecalled9080After threeintroductions706050After twointroductions403020After oneintroductions101840506070Age group
88Adulthood: Cognitive Development NumberOf wordsrememberedIn a study by Schonfield & Robertson (1966), the ability to recall new information declined during early and middle adulthood, but the ability to recognize new information did not.2420Number of wordsrecognized isstable with age16128Number of wordsrecalled declineswith age4203040506070Age in years
89Adulthood: Cognitive Development ReasoningabilityscoreCross-sectional methodsuggests declineCross-Sectional Studya study in which people of different ages are compared with one anotherLongitudinal Studya study in which the same people are restudied and retested over a long period605550Longitudinal methodsuggests more stability454035253239465360677481Age in yearsCross-sectional methodLongitudinal method
90Adulthood- Cognitive Development Intelligence(IQ) scoreVerbal intelligence scores hold steady with age, while nonverbal intelligence scores decline (adapted from Kaufman & others, 1989).Verbal scores arestable with age1051009590Nonverbal scoresdecline with age85807520253545556570Verbal scoresNonverbal scoresAge group
91Adulthood: Cognitive Development Crystallized Intelligenceone’s accumulated knowledge and verbal skillstends to increase with ageFluid Intelligenceones ability to reason speedily and abstractlytends to decrease during late adulthood
92Adulthood: Social Development Early-forties midlife crisis?FemalesMalesNo early 40semotional crisisAge in Years24%168Emotionalinstability
93Adulthood: Social Changes Social Clockthe culturally preferred timing of social eventsmarriageparenthoodretirement
94Adulthood: Social Changes Multinational surveys show that age differences in life satisfaction are trivial (Inglehart, 1990).Percentage“satisfied”with lifeas a whole80604020152535455565+Age group