Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Myers’ PSYCHOLOGY (7th Ed)

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Myers’ PSYCHOLOGY (7th Ed)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Myers’ PSYCHOLOGY (7th Ed)
Chapter 4 The Developing Person James A. McCubbin, PhD Clemson University Worth Publishers

2 Text pages 135-191 Developmental Psych
Psychology Weekly Planner Geary Week of Nov Homework Classwork Turn In Text pages States of Consciousness Test tomorrow MON. Dream facts/common dream themes Dream work Sleep journals and dream diaries Text pages Developmental Psych TUE. States of Consciousness Test Text pages : Prenatal Development & Newborn thru Cognitive Development Bring in picture of YOU when you were a baby – be sure your name is on the back of the picture WED. Create lifeline Developmental psych – Introduction Baby Picture THU. Video: Life’s Greatest Miracle Text pages thru Social Development FRI. Infancy – Physical development Lifeline Video Worksheet

3 Developmental Psychology
A branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive and social change throughout the life span

4 Prenatal Development and the Newborn
Life is sexually transmitted

5 Conception to Birth

6 The Developing Person Fold yesterday’s questionnaire length-wise
Orient the paper horizontally and on the back top half write down 2-3 adjectives that you think describe each decade of life 0-9 years 10-19 years 20-29 years 30-39 years 40-49 years 50-59 years 60-69 years 70-79 years 80- ?

7 The Developing Person Then, again, only on the top half, write down what you think is the IDEAL age. Explain why. What do you think is the WORST age? Explain. One more set of responses for the top half, then we’ll do some work on the bottom half

8 The Developing Person Developmental Hallmarks
Give your best estimate of the age at which 50% or more of children begin to: Laugh Pedal a tricycle Stand on 1 foot for 10 seconds Sit up w/out support Walk unassisted Feel ashamed Crawl Recognize and smile Make 2 word sentences Roll over Kick a ball forward Think about things that cannot be seen

9 The Developing Person Developmental Hallmarks
Give your best estimate of the age at which 50% or more of children begin to: Laugh 2 months Pedal a tricycle 24 months Stand on 1 foot for 10 seconds 4.5 years Sit up w/out support 5-6 months Walk unassisted 12 months Feel ashamed 2 years Crawl 6-8 months Recognize and smile 4-5 months Make 2 word sentences 20-22 months Roll over 4-6 months Kick a ball forward 3 years Think about things that cannot be seen

10 Lifeline Timeline Identify 10 past events that have had an impact on your life. List them on the back of todays’sworksheet Include your age and a brief description THEN hypothesize 10 future events that you believe will significantly affect your life Place these 20 events on a lifeline…

11 Life’s Greatest Miracle
PBS Worksheet

12 Prenatal Development and the Newborn
Zygote the fertilized egg enters a 2 week period of rapid cell division develops into an embryo Embryo the developing human organism from 2 weeks through 2nd month Fetus the developing human organism from 9 weeks after conception to birth

13 Prenatal Development and the Newborn
40 days days months 4 months

14 Prenatal Development and the Newborn
Teratogens agents, such as chemicals and viruses, that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) physical and cognitive abnormalities in children caused by a pregnant woman’s heavy drinking symptoms include misproportioned head

15 Prenatal Development and the Newborn

16 Prenatal Development and the Newborn
Rooting Reflex tendency to open mouth, and search for nipple when touched on the cheek Preferences human voices and faces facelike images--> smell and sound of mother preferred

17 Prenatal Development and the Newborn
Habituation decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation

18 Prenatal Development and the Newborn
Having habituated to the old stimulus, newborns preferred gazing at a new one

19 Infancy and Childhood: Physical Development
Maturation biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior relatively uninfluenced by experience At birth 3 months 15 months Cortical Neurons

20 Infancy and Childhood: Physical Development
Babies only 3 months old can learn that kicking moves a mobile--and can retain that learning for a month (Rovee-Collier, 1989, 1997).

21 We have a lot to get through today
Wednesday, May 07, 2014 We have a lot to get through today Hard with computers SOOO CLOSE All that you’re missing! I’ll be going over: Infancy/Childhood Cognitive Development Piaget’s Stages Infancy/Childhood Physical and Social Development

22 Wednesday, May 07, 2014 You are welcome to take a book and move to a desk to read and take notes You’ll have to show me the notes at the end of the period so I know you actually made it through the material Roughly from pg (7th ed.) (8th ed.) I’m particularly interested in your understanding of Piaget’s stages

23 Infancy and Childhood: Cognitive Development
Cognition All the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating Schema a concept or framework that organizes and interprets information

24 Infancy and Childhood: Cognitive Development
Assimilation interpreting one’s new experience in terms of one’s existing schemas Accommodation adapting one’s current understandings (schemas) to incorporate new information

25 Baby’s Cognitive Development

26 Baby’s Cognitive Development (explained)

27 Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development
Typical Age Range Description of Stage Developmental Phenomena Birth to nearly 2 years Sensorimotor Experiencing the world through senses and actions (looking, touching, mouthing) Object permanence Stranger anxiety About 2 to 6 years About 7 to 11 years About 12 through adulthood Preoperational Representing things with words and images but lacking logical reasoning Pretend play Egocentrism Language development Concrete operational Thinking logically about concrete events; grasping concrete analogies and performing arithmetical operations Conservation Mathematical transformations Formal operational Abstract reasoning Abstract logic Potential for moral reasoning

28 Infancy and Childhood: Cognitive Development
Object Permanence the awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived

29 Infancy and Childhood: Cognitive Development
Baby Mathematics Shown a numerically impossible outcome, infants stare longer (Wynn, 1992)

30 Infancy and Childhood: Cognitive Development
Conservation the principle that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects

31 Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development
Series of Videos

32 SENSORIMOTOR STAGE BIRTH TO 2
Lacks OBJECT PERMANENCE - experiences life through senses, motor skills - out of sight, out of mind - awareness that objects exist when not seen

33 PREOPERATIONAL STAGE 2-6 years
EGOCENTRIC – cannot perceive things from someone else’s point of view THEORY OF MIND - recognizing that others have feelings, brains, and ideas (empathize, tease, persuade) Lacks CONSERVATION The principal that quantity remains the same despite changes to shape THEORY OF MIND: - They understand that Little Red Riding Hood’s grandmother is really a wolf and can run away They seek to understand why playmate is angry, when a sibling will share, what they can do to get a parent to buy them a toy - manipulation at this point…emphasize, tease and persaude comes from the idea of seeing things from someone else’s perspective - BAND AID: They predict bandaids will be there – nope, it’s something else, but they can imagine that theier friend will anticipate bandaids and understand that they will be amazed AUTISM: When you can’t infer what others feel or an impaired theory of mind Difficulty inferring others thoughts and feelings…they fail to understand the signals of others – pouting = saddness; twinkling eyes = happiness; (p147 to show how autistic kids would not understand where to look) Lack of CONSERVATION: Two slices of pizza is equal to one slice cut in half Two cups of equal size poured into a tall glass – tall glass more A model of a room with a toy couch and stuffed dog hidden behind it – cannot translate that into a real room with a real couch and stuffed dog hidden behind it - Problem when asking about sexual abuse when they can’t see the doll as a representative of something real. Egocentricism – I have a brother, my brother does not have a sibling. Moon goes away when I sleep How do you make yourself invisible to others – hold your hands in front of your own eyes

34 PREOPERATIONAL VIDEOS
Lack of conservation Theory of Mind PROBLEM WITH THEORY OF MIND – AUTISM Egocentricism

35 CONCRETE OPERATIONAL 6-12 years Understand Conservation
Can comprehend mathematical transformations They will laugh at the joke: Mr. Jones went into a restaurant and ordered a whole pizza for his dinner. When the waiter asked if he wanted it cut into 6 or 8 pieces, Mr. Jones said, Oh, youd better make it 6 – I could never eat 8”

36 FORMAL OPERATIONAL 12- onwards * ABSTRACT REASONING
Systematic reasoning

37 Critique of Piaget’s Theory
Underestimates children’s abilities Overestimates age differences in thinking Vagueness about the process of change Underestimates the role of the social environment Lack of evidence for qualitatively different stages

38 Infancy and Childhood Development: Physical – Cognitive - Social
The changes in the structure and physical properties of the brain Cognitive The operations of the mind; the various stages of cognition the child goes through Social The processes by which the child becomes aware of and interacts with the world around her

39 Infancy and Childhood Development: Physical
Brain Development Nerve cells form before birth Through maturation and experience interconnections multiply rapidly Maturation and Memory Conscious memories of experience in earliest years are lost CAN retain learning over time… Motor Development Complex physical skills – sitting, standing, walking – develop in predictable sequence

40 Infancy and Childhood Development: Physical: Motor Development
Give your best estimate of the age at which about 50% of children begin to: Laugh Pedal a tricycle Sit without support Feel ashamed Walk unassisted Stand on one foot for 10 seconds Recognize and smile at mother or father Kick a ball forward Think about things that cannot be seen Make two-word sentences

41 Infancy and Childhood Development: Physical: Motor Development
Give your best estimate of the age at which about 50% of children begin to: Laugh – 2 months Pedal a tricycle – 24 months Sit without support – 5-6 months Feel ashamed – 24 months Walk unassisted – 12 months

42 Infancy and Childhood Development: Physical: Motor Development
Give your best estimate of the age at which about 50% of children begin to: Stand on one foot for 10 seconds – 4 ½ years Recognize / smile at mother / father – 4-5 months Kick a ball forward – 20 months Think about things not seen – 24 months Make two-word sentences – months

43 Piaget’s Elements of Cognitive Development
Infancy and Childhood Development: Cognitive Piaget’s Elements of Cognitive Development Cognition All the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating Schema a concept or framework that organizes and interprets information Assimilation interpreting one’s new experience in terms of one’s existing schemas Accommodation adapting one’s current understandings (schemas) to incorporate new information

44 Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development
Infancy and Childhood Development: Cognitive Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development Typical Age Range Description of Stage Developmental Phenomena Birth to nearly 2 years Sensorimotor Experiencing the world through senses and actions (looking, touching, mouthing) Object permanence Stranger anxiety “Baby Math” About 2 to 6 years About 7 to 11 years About 12 through adulthood Preoperational Representing things with words and images but lacking logical reasoning Lack of Conservation Pretend play Egocentrism Theory of Mind Concrete operational Thinking logically about concrete events; grasping concrete analogies and performing arithmetical operations Conservation Mathematical transformations Formal operational Abstract reasoning Abstract logic Potential for moral reasoning

45 Infancy and Childhood: Cognitive Development
Egocentrism the inability of the preoperational child to take another’s point of view Theory of Mind people’s ideas about their own and others’ mental states – about their feelings, perceptions, and thoughts and the behavior these might predict Autism (Mind in the Eye Test) a disorder that appears in childhood Marked by deficient communication, social interaction and understanding of others’ states of mind

46 Infancy and Childhood: Social Development
Stranger Anxiety fear of strangers that infants commonly display beginning by about 8 months of age Attachment an emotional tie with another person shown in young children by their seeking closeness to the caregiver and displaying distress on separation

47 Social Development Harlow’s Surrogate Mother Experiments
Monkeys preferred contact with the comfortable cloth mother, even while feeding from the nourishing wire mother

48 Social Development Harlow's Studies on Dependency in Monkeys

49 Social Development Critical Period Imprinting
an optimal period shortly after birth when an organism’s exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces proper development Imprinting the process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period very early in life

50 Social Development Monkeys raised by artificial mothers were terror-stricken when placed in strange situations without their surrogate mothers.

51 INSECURE/SECURE ATTACHMENT
Parents who are sensitive and attend to children = SECURE ATTACHMENT Parents who are insensitive ignore children = INSECURE ATTACHMENT - terror, clinging, high anxiety, higher rate of abuse of their children - BUT THEY CAN RECOVER!

52 Social Development 20 40 60 80 100 3.5 5.5 7.5 9.5 11.5 13.5 29 Percentage of infants who cried when their mothers left Age in months Day care Home Groups of infants left by their mothers in a unfamiliar room (from Kagan, 1976).

53 Social Development Basic Trust (Erik Erikson)
a sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy said to be formed during infancy by appropriate experiences with responsive caregivers

54 SELF-CONCEPT Self-Concept a sense of one’s identity and personal worth
- begins when we recognize ourselves in the mirror Having a positive sense of self is important to growing confidence and a strong sense of identity later in life

55 Social Development: Child-Rearing Practices
Authoritarian parents impose rules and expect obedience “Don’t interrupt.” “Why? Because I said so.” Permissive submit to children’s desires, make few demands, use little punishment Authoritative both demanding and responsive set rules, but explain reasons and encourage open discussion (5-9)

56 Authoritative vs. Authoritarian

57 Permissive Parenting

58 All Parenting Styles

59 Social Development: Child-Rearing Practices

60 Social Development: Child-Rearing Practices
In your group: Come up with 3 tricky parenting scenarios for Infant and Adolescent stages of life These can range from the “in-store tantrum” to the overnighter party Write them on the paper I provide you Come up with your group’s solution to the scenario we’ll discuss as a class after (5-9)

61 Social Development: Child-Rearing Practices (5-10)
 Trait Lynds (1929) Alwin (1978) Bernt (1989) (1997) Frankness/honesty 27 26 56 38 Desire to make a name for one's self 5 1 3 4 Concentration 9 7 Social mindedness 13 48 30 Strict obedience 45 17 8 Appreciation of art, music 12 Economy in money matters 25 11 Loyalty to the church 50 22 Knowledge of sexual hygiene 15 Tolerance of others 6 47 Curiosity 10 Patriotism 21 Good manners 23 Independence 76 40 34 Academic achievement 19 Willingness to work hard 64

62 Adolescence Adolescence Puberty
the transition period from childhood to adulthood extending from puberty to independence Puberty the period of sexual maturation when a person becomes capable of reproduction

63 Adolescence Primary Sex Characteristics Secondary Sex Characteristics
body structures that make sexual reproduction possible ovaries--female testes--male external genitalia Secondary Sex Characteristics nonreproductive sexual characteristics female--breast and hips male--voice quality and body hair Menarche (meh-NAR-key) first menstrual period

64 Adolescence In the 1890’s the average interval between a woman’s menarche and marriage was about 7 years; now it is over 12 years 10 20 7.2 Year Interval 12.5 Year Interval Age 1890, Women 1995, Women

65 Adolescence Height in centimeters 190 170 150 130 110 90 70 50 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 Age in years Boys Girls Throughout childhood, boys and girls are similar in height. At puberty, girls surge ahead briefly, but then boys overtake them at about age 14.

66 Body Changes at Puberty

67 Kohlberg’s Moral Ladder
Morality of abstract principles: to affirm agreed-upon rights and personal ethical principles As moral development progresses, the focus of concern moves from the self to the wider social world. Kohlberg Postconventional level Conventional level Morality of law and social rules: to gain approval or avoid disapproval Preconventional level Morality of self-interest: to avoid punishment or gain concrete rewards

68 Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development
Approximate age Stage Description of Task Infancy (1st year) Trust vs. mistrust If needs are dependably met, infants develop a sense of basic trust Toddler (2nd year) Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt Toddlers learn to exercise will and do things for themselves, or they doubt their abilities Preschooler (3-5 years) Initiative vs. guilt Preschoolers learn to initiate tasks and carry out plans, or they feel guilty about efforts to be independent Elementary (6 years-puberty) Competence vs. inferiority Children learn the pleasure of applying themselves to tasks, or they feel inferior

69 Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development
Approximate age Stage Description of Task Infancy (1st year) Trust vs. mistrust If needs are dependably met, infants develop a sense of basic trust Toddler (2nd year) Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt Toddlers learn to exercise will and do things for themselves, or they doubt their abilities Preschooler (3-5 years) Initiative vs. guilt Preschoolers learn to initiate tasks and carry out plans, or they feel guilty about efforts to be independent Elementary (6 years-puberty) Competence vs. inferiority Children learn the pleasure of applying themselves to tasks, or they feel inferior Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development Approximate age Stage Description of Task Adolescence Identity vs. role Teenagers work at refining a sense of self by (teens into confusion testing roles and then integrating them to 20’s) form a single identity, or they become confused about who they are. Young Adult Intimacy vs. Young adults struggle to form close relation- (20’s to early isolation ships and to gain the capacity for intimate 40’s) love, or they feel socially isolated. Middle Adult Generativity vs. The middle-aged discover a sense of contri- (40’s to 60’s) stagnation buting to the world, usually through family and work, or they may feel a lack of purpose. Late Adult Integrity vs. When reflecting on his or her life, the older (late 60’s and despair adult may feel a sense of satisfaction or up) failure.

70 Adolescence: Social Development
Identity one’s sense of self the adolescent’s task is to solidify a sense of self by testing and integrating various roles Intimacy the ability to form close, loving relationships a primary developmental task in late adolescence and early adulthood

71 Adolescence: Social Development
What role do your friends play in your life? What makes a friend different from an acquaintance? What happens when you and your friend have a fight? Have you ever lost a friend because of a fight? What was the fight about? (be as general as possible)

72 Adolescence: Social Development
Identify the name of the people in your group of friends with a letter (helps maintain anonymity) Who is the most popular? What is that person like? What is it that makes them popular?

73 Adolescence: Social Development
Do you depend more on your parents’ advice or your friends’ advice when it comes to questions of: Dress Schoolwork Out-of-school activities Moral questions / Values

74 Adolescence: Social Development
What is the best thing about being your age? What is the most troubling aspect of being your age?

75 Adolescence: Social Development: Past Self
When you look back on your childhood and very early years how do you believe you felt most of the time? Record one of the following and add your own descriptors: happy, sad, in conflict, at peace, secure, angry, confused, loved, successful, responsible, afraid

76 Adolescence: Social Development: Present Self
How do you feel most of the time? (busy, overwhelmed, angry, peaceful, confused, happy, competent, tense, etc.) List all that apply and write a brief explanation. What is most important to you in your life right now? What do you value?

77 Adolescence: Social Development: Future Self
In what ways would you like your life to be like your parents and/or grandparents' lives, and in what ways would you like your own life to be different from theirs? How will/do you handle each of Erikson's last two stages, namely generativity vs. stagnation, and integrity vs. despair?

78 Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development
Approximate age Stage Description of Task Infancy (1st year) Trust vs. Mistrust If needs are dependably met, infants develop a sense of basic trust Toddler (2nd year) Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt Toddlers learn to exercise will and do things for themselves, or they doubt their abilities Preschooler (3-5 years) Initiative vs. Guilt Preschoolers learn to initiate tasks and carry out plans, or they feel guilty about efforts to be independent Elementary (6 years-puberty) Competence vs. Inferiority Children learn the pleasure of applying themselves to tasks, or they feel inferior

79 Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development
Approximate age Stage Description of Task Adolescence (teens into 20’s) Identity vs. Role Confusion Teenagers work at refining a sense of self by testing roles and then integrating them to form a single identity, or they become confused about who they are. Young Adult (20’s to early 40’s) Intimacy vs. Isolation Young adults struggle to from close relationships and to gain the capacity for intimate love, or they feel socially isolated Middle Adult (40’s to 60’s) Generativity vs. Stagnation The middle-aged discover a sense of contributing to the world, usually through family and work, or they feel a lack of purpose. Late Adult (late 60’s and up) Integrity vs. Despair When reflecting on his or her life, the older adult may feel a sense of satisfaction or failure.

80 Adolescence: Social Development
The changing parent-child relationship 100% 80 60 40 20 2 to to to 11 Ages of child in years Percent with positive, warm interaction with parents

81 Adulthood: Physical Development
Menopause the time of natural cessation of menstruation also refers to the biological changes a woman experiences as her ability to reproduce declines Alzheimer’s Disease a progressive and irreversible brain disorder characterized by a gradual deterioration of memory, reasoning, language, and finally, physical functioning

82 Adulthood: Physical Development
The Aging Senses 1.00 0.75 Proportion of normal (20/20) vision when identifying letters on an eye chart 0.50 0.25 10 30 50 70 90 Age in years

83 Adulthood: Physical Development
The Aging Senses 90 Percent correct when Identifying smells 70 50 10 30 50 70 90 Age in years

84 Adulthood: Physical Development
The Aging Senses 90 Percent correct when identifying spoken words 70 50 10 30 50 70 90 Age in years

85 Adulthood: Physical Development
Fatal accident rate Slowing reactions contribute to increased accident risks among those 75 and older. 12 10 Fatal accidents per 100 million miles 8 Fatal accidents per 10,000 drivers 6 4 2 16 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 and over Age

86 Adulthood: Physical Development
Incidence of Dementia by Age Risk of dementia increases in later years Age Group 40% 30 20 10 Percentage with dementia

87 Adulthood: Cognitive Development
100 Older age groups have poorer performance Recalling new names introduced once, twice, or three times is easier for younger adults than for older ones (Crook & West, 1990). Percent of names recalled 90 80 After three introductions 70 60 50 After two introductions 40 30 20 After one introductions 10 18 40 50 60 70 Age group

88 Adulthood: Cognitive Development
Number Of words remembered In a study by Schonfield & Robertson (1966), the ability to recall new information declined during early and middle adulthood, but the ability to recognize new information did not. 24 20 Number of words recognized is stable with age 16 12 8 Number of words recalled declines with age 4 20 30 40 50 60 70 Age in years

89 Adulthood: Cognitive Development
Reasoning ability score Cross-sectional method suggests decline Cross-Sectional Study a study in which people of different ages are compared with one another Longitudinal Study a study in which the same people are restudied and retested over a long period 60 55 50 Longitudinal method suggests more stability 45 40 35 25 32 39 46 53 60 67 74 81 Age in years Cross-sectional method Longitudinal method

90 Adulthood- Cognitive Development
Intelligence (IQ) score Verbal intelligence scores hold steady with age, while nonverbal intelligence scores decline (adapted from Kaufman & others, 1989). Verbal scores are stable with age 105 100 95 90 Nonverbal scores decline with age 85 80 75 20 25 35 45 55 65 70 Verbal scores Nonverbal scores Age group

91 Adulthood: Cognitive Development
Crystallized Intelligence one’s accumulated knowledge and verbal skills tends to increase with age Fluid Intelligence ones ability to reason speedily and abstractly tends to decrease during late adulthood

92 Adulthood: Social Development
Early-forties midlife crisis? Females Males No early 40s emotional crisis Age in Years 24% 16 8 Emotional instability

93 Adulthood: Social Changes
Social Clock the culturally preferred timing of social events marriage parenthood retirement

94 Adulthood: Social Changes
Multinational surveys show that age differences in life satisfaction are trivial (Inglehart, 1990). Percentage “satisfied” with life as a whole 80 60 40 20 15 25 35 45 55 65+ Age group

95 Adulthood: Social Changes


Download ppt "Myers’ PSYCHOLOGY (7th Ed)"

Similar presentations


Ads by Google