Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Myers’ PSYCHOLOGY (7th Ed) Chapter 4 The Developing Person James A. McCubbin, PhD Clemson University Worth Publishers.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Myers’ PSYCHOLOGY (7th Ed) Chapter 4 The Developing Person James A. McCubbin, PhD Clemson University Worth Publishers."— Presentation transcript:

1 Myers’ PSYCHOLOGY (7th Ed) Chapter 4 The Developing Person James A. McCubbin, PhD Clemson University Worth Publishers

2 Psychology Weekly PlannerGeary Week of Nov HomeworkClasswork Turn In Text pages States of Consciousness Test tomorrow MON. Dream facts/common dream themes Dream work Sleep journals and dream diaries Text pages Developmental Psych TUE. States of Consciousness Test Text pages : Prenatal Development & Newborn thru Cognitive Development Bring in picture of YOU when you were a baby – be sure your name is on the back of the picture WED. Create lifeline Developmental psych – Introduction Text pages : Prenatal Development & Newborn thru Cognitive Development Baby Picture THU. Video: Life’s Greatest Miracle Text pages Cognitive Development thru Social Development Baby Picture FRI. Video: Life’s Greatest Miracle Infancy – Physical development Lifeline Video Worksheet

3 Developmental Psychology  A branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive and social change throughout the life span

4 Prenatal Development and the Newborn Life is sexually transmitted

5 Conception to Birth

6 The Developing Person zFold yesterday’s questionnaire length-wise  Orient the paper horizontally and on the back top half write down 2-3 adjectives that you think describe each decade of life  0-9 years  years  years  years  years  years  years  years  80- ?

7 The Developing Person zThen, again, only on the top half, write down what you think is the IDEAL age. Explain why. zWhat do you think is the WORST age? Explain. z One more set of responses for the top half, then we’ll do some work on the bottom half

8 The Developing Person zDevelopmental Hallmarks  Give your best estimate of the age at which 50% or more of children begin to: LaughPedal a tricycleStand on 1 foot for 10 seconds Sit up w/out supportWalk unassistedFeel ashamed CrawlRecognize and smileMake 2 word sentences Roll overKick a ball forwardThink about things that cannot be seen

9 The Developing Person zDevelopmental Hallmarks  Give your best estimate of the age at which 50% or more of children begin to: Laugh 2 months Pedal a tricycle 24 months Stand on 1 foot for 10 seconds 4.5 years Sit up w/out support 5-6 months Walk unassisted 12 months Feel ashamed 2 years Crawl 6-8 months Recognize and smile 4-5 months Make 2 word sentences months Roll over 4-6 months Kick a ball forward 3 years Think about things that cannot be seen 2 years

10 Lifeline Timeline zIdentify 10 past events that have had an impact on your life.  List them on the back of todays’sworksheet  Include your age and a brief description zTHEN hypothesize 10 future events that you believe will significantly affect your life  Place these 20 events on a lifeline…

11 Life’s Greatest Miracle PBS Worksheet

12 Prenatal Development and the Newborn  Zygote  the fertilized egg  enters a 2 week period of rapid cell division  develops into an embryo  Embryo  the developing human organism from 2 weeks through 2nd month  Fetus  the developing human organism from 9 weeks after conception to birth

13 Prenatal Development and the Newborn 40 days 45 days 2 months 4 months

14 Prenatal Development and the Newborn  Teratogens Teratogens  agents, such as chemicals and viruses, that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm  Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)  physical and cognitive abnormalities in children caused by a pregnant woman’s heavy drinking  symptoms include misproportioned head

15 Prenatal Development and the Newborn

16  Rooting Reflex  tendency to open mouth, and search for nipple when touched on the cheek  Preferences  human voices and faces  facelike images-->  smell and sound of mother preferred

17 Prenatal Development and the Newborn  Habituation  decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation

18 Prenatal Development and the Newborn Having habituated to the old stimulus, newborns preferred gazing at a new one

19 Infancy and Childhood: Physical Development  Maturation  biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior  relatively uninfluenced by experience At birth3 months15 months Cortical Neurons

20 Infancy and Childhood: Physical Development  Babies only 3 months old can learn that kicking moves a mobile--and can retain that learning for a month (Rovee- Collier, 1989, 1997).

21 Wednesday, May 07, 2014  We have a lot to get through today  Hard with computers SOOO CLOSE  All that you’re missing!  I’ll be going over:  Infancy/Childhood Cognitive Development  Piaget’s Stages  Infancy/Childhood Physical and Social Development

22 Wednesday, May 07, 2014  You are welcome to take a book and move to a desk to read and take notes  You’ll have to show me the notes at the end of the period so I know you actually made it through the material  Roughly from pg (7 th ed.)  (8 th ed.)  I’m particularly interested in your understanding of Piaget’s stages

23 Infancy and Childhood: Cognitive Development  Cognition  All the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating  Schema  a concept or framework that organizes and interprets information

24 Infancy and Childhood: Cognitive Development  Assimilation  interpreting one’s new experience in terms of one’s existing schemas  Accommodation  adapting one’s current understandings (schemas) to incorporate new information

25 Baby’s Cognitive DevelopmentCognitive Development

26 Baby’s Cognitive Development (explained)Cognitive Development

27 Typical Age Range Description of Stage Developmental Phenomena Birth to nearly 2 yearsSensorimotor Experiencing the world through senses and actions (looking, touching, mouthing) Object permanence Stranger anxiety About 2 to 6 years About 7 to 11 years About 12 through adulthood Preoperational Representing things with words and images but lacking logical reasoning Pretend play Egocentrism Language development Concrete operational Thinking logically about concrete events; grasping concrete analogies and performing arithmetical operations Conservation Mathematical transformations Formal operational Abstract reasoning Abstract logic Potential for moral reasoning Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development

28 Infancy and Childhood: Cognitive Development  Object Permanence  the awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived

29 Infancy and Childhood: Cognitive Development  Baby Mathematics  Shown a numerically impossible outcome, infants stare longer (Wynn, 1992)

30 Infancy and Childhood: Cognitive Development  Conservation  the principle that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects

31 Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development Series of Videos

32 SENSORIMOTOR STAGE zBIRTH TO 2 zLacks OBJECT PERMANENCE - experiences life through senses, motor skills - out of sight, out of mind - awareness that objects exist when not seen zhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ue8y-JVhjS0http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ue8y-JVhjS0

33 PREOPERATIONAL STAGE z2-6 years zEGOCENTRIC – cannot perceive things from someone else’s point of view zTHEORY OF MIND - recognizing that others have feelings, brains, and ideas (empathize, tease, persuade) zLacks CONSERVATION -The principal that quantity remains the same despite changes to shape

34 PREOPERATIONAL VIDEOS zLack of conservation C69EF71F C69EF71F zTheory of Mind zPROBLEM WITH THEORY OF MIND – AUTISM zEgocentricism

35 CONCRETE OPERATIONAL z6-12 years zUnderstand Conservation zCan comprehend mathematical transformations zhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gA04ew6Oi9M&list=PL8648B2E 5C69EF71Fhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gA04ew6Oi9M&list=PL8648B2E 5C69EF71F

36 FORMAL OPERATIONAL z12- onwards * zABSTRACT REASONING -Systematic reasoning -http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lw36PpYPPZM&list=PL8648B 2E5C69EF71Fhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lw36PpYPPZM&list=PL8648B 2E5C69EF71F

37 Critique of Piaget’s Theory zUnderestimates children’s abilities zOverestimates age differences in thinking zVagueness about the process of change zUnderestimates the role of the social environment zLack of evidence for qualitatively different stages

38 Infancy and Childhood Development: Physical – Cognitive - Social  Physical  The changes in the structure and physical properties of the brain  Cognitive  The operations of the mind; the various stages of cognition the child goes through  Social  The processes by which the child becomes aware of and interacts with the world around her

39 Infancy and Childhood Development: Physical  Brain Development  Nerve cells form before birth  Through maturation and experience interconnections multiply rapidly  Maturation and Memory  Conscious memories of experience in earliest years are lost  CAN retain learning over time…  Motor Development  Complex physical skills – sitting, standing, walking – develop in predictable sequence

40 Infancy and Childhood Development: Physical: Motor Development Give your best estimate of the age at which about 50% of children begin to:  Laugh  Pedal a tricycle  Sit without support  Feel ashamed  Walk unassisted  Stand on one foot for 10 seconds  Recognize and smile at mother or father  Kick a ball forward  Think about things that cannot be seen  Make two-word sentences

41 Infancy and Childhood Development: Physical: Motor Development Give your best estimate of the age at which about 50% of children begin to:  Laugh – 2 months  Pedal a tricycle – 24 months  Sit without support – 5-6 months  Feel ashamed – 24 months  Walk unassisted – 12 months

42 Infancy and Childhood Development: Physical: Motor Development Give your best estimate of the age at which about 50% of children begin to:  Stand on one foot for 10 seconds – 4 ½ years  Recognize / smile at mother / father – 4-5 months  Kick a ball forward – 20 months  Think about things not seen – 24 months  Make two-word sentences – months

43 Piaget’s Elements of Cognitive Development Infancy and Childhood Development: Cognitive  Cognition  All the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating  Schema  a concept or framework that organizes and interprets information  Assimilation  interpreting one’s new experience in terms of one’s existing schemas  Accommodation  adapting one’s current understandings (schemas) to incorporate new information

44 Typical Age Range Description of Stage Developmental Phenomena Birth to nearly 2 yearsSensorimotor Experiencing the world through senses and actions (looking, touching, mouthing) Object permanence Stranger anxiety “Baby Math” About 2 to 6 years About 7 to 11 years About 12 through adulthood Preoperational Representing things with words and images but lacking logical reasoning Lack of Conservation Pretend play Egocentrism Theory of Mind Concrete operational Thinking logically about concrete events; grasping concrete analogies and performing arithmetical operations Conservation Mathematical transformations Formal operational Abstract reasoning Abstract logic Potential for moral reasoning Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development Infancy and Childhood Development: Cognitive

45 Infancy and Childhood: Cognitive Development  Egocentrism  the inability of the preoperational child to take another’s point of view  Theory of Mind Theory of Mind  people’s ideas about their own and others’ mental states – about their feelings, perceptions, and thoughts and the behavior these might predict  Autism (Mind in the Eye Test) AutismMind in the Eye Test  a disorder that appears in childhood  Marked by deficient communication, social interaction and understanding of others’ states of mind

46  Stranger Anxiety  fear of strangers that infants commonly display  beginning by about 8 months of age   Attachment  an emotional tie with another person  shown in young children by their seeking closeness to the caregiver and displaying distress on separation  Infancy and Childhood: Social Development

47 Social Development  Harlow’s Surrogate Mother Experiments  Monkeys preferred contact with the comfortable cloth mother, even while feeding from the nourishing wire mother  atch?v=_O60TYAIgC4 atch?v=_O60TYAIgC4

48 Social Development Harlow's Studies on Dependency in Monkeys

49 Social Development  Critical Period  an optimal period shortly after birth when an organism’s exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces proper development  Imprinting  the process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period very early in life

50 Social Development  Monkeys raised by artificial mothers were terror-stricken when placed in strange situations without their surrogate mothers.

51 INSECURE/SECURE ATTACHMENT zParents who are sensitive and attend to children = SECURE ATTACHMENT zParents who are insensitive ignore children = INSECURE ATTACHMENT - terror, clinging, high anxiety, higher rate of abuse of their children - BUT THEY CAN RECOVER!

52 Social Development  Groups of infants left by their mothers in a unfamiliar room (from Kagan, 1976) Percentage of infants who cried when their mothers left Age in months Day care Home

53 Social Development  Basic Trust (Erik Erikson)  a sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy  said to be formed during infancy by appropriate experiences with responsive caregivers

54 SELF-CONCEPT zSelf-Concept -a sense of one’s identity and personal worth -- begins when we recognize ourselves in the mirror -Having a positive sense of self is important to growing confidence and a strong sense of identity later in life

55 Social Development: Child-Rearing Practices  Authoritarian  parents impose rules and expect obedience  “Don’t interrupt.” “Why? Because I said so.”  Permissive  submit to children’s desires, make few demands, use little punishment  Authoritative  both demanding and responsive  set rules, but explain reasons and encourage open discussion (5-9)

56 Authoritative vs. Authoritarian

57 Permissive Parenting

58 All Parenting Styles

59 Social Development: Child-Rearing Practices

60 zIn your group:  Come up with 3 tricky parenting scenarios for Infant and Adolescent stages of life  These can range from the “in-store tantrum” to the overnighter party  Write them on the paper I provide you  Come up with your group’s solution to the scenario  we’ll discuss as a class after (5-9)

61 Social Development: Child-Rearing Practices (5-10) Trait Lynds (1929) Alwin (1978) Bernt (1989) Bernt (1997) Frankness/honesty Desire to make a name for one's self5 134 Concentration Social mindedness Strict obedience Appreciation of art, music Economy in money matters Loyalty to the church Knowledge of sexual hygiene Tolerance of others Curiosity Patriotism Good manners Independence Academic achievement Willingness to work hard 4564

62 Adolescence  Adolescence  the transition period from childhood to adulthood  extending from puberty to independence  Puberty  the period of sexual maturation  when a person becomes capable of reproduction

63 Adolescence  Primary Sex Characteristics  body structures that make sexual reproduction possible  ovaries--female  testes--male  external genitalia  Secondary Sex Characteristics  nonreproductive sexual characteristics  female--breast and hips  male--voice quality and body hair  Menarche (meh-NAR-key)  first menstrual period

64 Adolescence  In the 1890’s the average interval between a woman’s menarche and marriage was about 7 years; now it is over 12 years Year Interval Year Interval Age 1890, Women 1995, Women

65 Adolescence  Throughout childhood, boys and girls are similar in height. At puberty, girls surge ahead briefly, but then boys overtake them at about age 14. Height in centimeters Age in years BoysGirls

66 Body Changes at Puberty

67 Kohlberg’s Moral Ladder  As moral development progresses, the focus of concern moves from the self to the wider social world.  Kohlberg Kohlberg Morality of abstract principles: to affirm agreed-upon rights and personal ethical principles Morality of law and social rules: to gain approval or avoid disapproval Morality of self-interest: to avoid punishment or gain concrete rewards Postconventional level Conventional level Preconventional level

68 Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development Approximate age StageDescription of Task Infancy (1 st year) Trust vs. mistrust If needs are dependably met, infants develop a sense of basic trust Toddler (2 nd year) Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt Toddlers learn to exercise will and do things for themselves, or they doubt their abilities Preschooler (3-5 years) Initiative vs. guilt Preschoolers learn to initiate tasks and carry out plans, or they feel guilty about efforts to be independent Elementary (6 years-puberty) Competence vs. inferiority Children learn the pleasure of applying themselves to tasks, or they feel inferior

69 Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development Approximate age StageDescription of Task Adolescence Identity vs. roleTeenagers work at refining a sense of self by (teens into confusiontesting roles and then integrating them to 20’s)form a single identity, or they become confused about who they are. Young Adult Intimacy vs.Young adults struggle to form close relation- (20’s to early isolation ships and to gain the capacity for intimate 40’s) love, or they feel socially isolated. Middle Adult Generativity vs. The middle-aged discover a sense of contri- (40’s to 60’s) stagnation buting to the world, usually through family and work, or they may feel a lack of purpose. Late Adult Integrity vs.When reflecting on his or her life, the older (late 60’s and despairadult may feel a sense of satisfaction or up) failure. Approximate age StageDescription of Task Infancy (1 st year) Trust vs. mistrust If needs are dependably met, infants develop a sense of basic trust Toddler (2 nd year) Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt Toddlers learn to exercise will and do things for themselves, or they doubt their abilities Preschooler (3-5 years) Initiative vs. guilt Preschoolers learn to initiate tasks and carry out plans, or they feel guilty about efforts to be independent Elementary (6 years-puberty) Competence vs. inferiority Children learn the pleasure of applying themselves to tasks, or they feel inferior

70 Adolescence: Social Development  Identity  one’s sense of self  the adolescent’s task is to solidify a sense of self by testing and integrating various roles  Intimacy  the ability to form close, loving relationships  a primary developmental task in late adolescence and early adulthood

71 Adolescence: Social Development  What role do your friends play in your life?  What makes a friend different from an acquaintance?  What happens when you and your friend have a fight?  Have you ever lost a friend because of a fight?  What was the fight about? (be as general as possible)

72 Adolescence: Social Development  Identify the name of the people in your group of friends with a letter  (helps maintain anonymity)  Who is the most popular?  What is that person like?  What is it that makes them popular?

73 Adolescence: Social Development  Do you depend more on your parents’ advice or your friends’ advice when it comes to questions of:  Dress  Schoolwork  Out-of-school activities  Moral questions / Values

74 Adolescence: Social Development  What is the best thing about being your age?  What is the most troubling aspect of being your age?

75 Adolescence: Social Development: Past Self zWhen you look back on your childhood and very early years how do you believe you felt most of the time? z Record one of the following and add your own descriptors: happy, sad, in conflict, at peace, secure, angry, confused, loved, successful, responsible, afraid

76 Adolescence: Social Development: Present Self zHow do you feel most of the time? (busy, overwhelmed, angry, peaceful, confused, happy, competent, tense, etc.)  List all that apply and write a brief explanation. zWhat is most important to you in your life right now? What do you value?

77 Adolescence: Social Development: Future Self zIn what ways would you like your life to be like your parents and/or grandparents' lives, and in what ways would you like your own life to be different from theirs? zHow will/do you handle each of Erikson's last two stages, namely generativity vs. stagnation, and integrity vs. despair?

78 Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development Approximate age StageDescription of Task Infancy (1 st year) Trust vs. Mistrust If needs are dependably met, infants develop a sense of basic trust Toddler (2 nd year) Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt Toddlers learn to exercise will and do things for themselves, or they doubt their abilities Preschooler (3-5 years) Initiative vs. Guilt Preschoolers learn to initiate tasks and carry out plans, or they feel guilty about efforts to be independent Elementary (6 years-puberty) Competence vs. Inferiority Children learn the pleasure of applying themselves to tasks, or they feel inferior

79 Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development Approximate age StageDescription of Task Adolescence ( teens into 20’s ) Identity vs. Role Confusion Teenagers work at refining a sense of self by testing roles and then integrating them to form a single identity, or they become confused about who they are. Young Adult (20’s to early 40’s) Intimacy vs. Isolation Young adults struggle to from close relationships and to gain the capacity for intimate love, or they feel socially isolated Middle Adult (40’s to 60’s) Generativity vs. Stagnation The middle-aged discover a sense of contributing to the world, usually through family and work, or they feel a lack of purpose. Late Adult (late 60’s and up) Integrity vs. Despair When reflecting on his or her life, the older adult may feel a sense of satisfaction or failure.

80 Adolescence: Social Development  The changing parent-child relationship 100% to 4 5 to 8 9 to 11 Ages of child in years Percent with positive, warm interaction with parents

81 Adulthood: Physical Development  Menopause  the time of natural cessation of menstruation  also refers to the biological changes a woman experiences as her ability to reproduce declines  Alzheimer’s Disease  a progressive and irreversible brain disorder  characterized by a gradual deterioration of memory, reasoning, language, and finally, physical functioning

82 Adulthood: Physical Development  The Aging Senses Proportion of normal (20/20) vision when identifying letters on an eye chart Age in years

83 Adulthood: Physical Development  The Aging Senses Percent correct when Identifying smells Age in years

84 Adulthood: Physical Development  The Aging Senses Percent correct when identifying spoken words Age in years

85 Adulthood: Physical Development  Slowing reactions contribute to increased accident risks among those 75 and older and over Fatal accident rate Age Fatal accidents per 10,000 drivers Fatal accidents per 100 million miles

86 Adulthood: Physical Development  Incidence of Dementia by Age Risk of dementia increases in later years Age Group 40% Percentage with dementia

87 Adulthood: Cognitive Development  Recalling new names introduced once, twice, or three times is easier for younger adults than for older ones (Crook & West, 1990) Age group Percent of names recalled After one introductions After two introductions Older age groups have poorer performance After three introductions

88 Adulthood: Cognitive Development  In a study by Schonfield & Robertson (1966), the ability to recall new information declined during early and middle adulthood, but the ability to recognize new information did not. Number Of words remembered Age in years Number of words recalled declines with age Number of words recognized is stable with age

89 Adulthood: Cognitive Development  Cross-Sectional Study  a study in which people of different ages are compared with one another  Longitudinal Study  a study in which the same people are restudied and retested over a long period Age in years Reasoning ability score Cross-sectional method Longitudinal method Cross-sectional method suggests decline Longitudinal method suggests more stability

90 Adulthood- Cognitive Development  Verbal intelligence scores hold steady with age, while nonverbal intelligence scores decline (adapted from Kaufman & others, 1989) Intelligence (IQ) score Age group Nonverbal scores decline with age Verbal scores are stable with age Verbal scores Nonverbal scores

91 Adulthood: Cognitive Development  Crystallized Intelligence  one’s accumulated knowledge and verbal skills  tends to increase with age  Fluid Intelligence  ones ability to reason speedily and abstractly  tends to decrease during late adulthood

92 Adulthood: Social Development  Early-forties midlife crisis? Females Males No early 40s emotional crisis Age in Years 24% Emotional instability

93 Adulthood: Social Changes  Social Clock  the culturally preferred timing of social events  marriage  parenthood  retirement

94 Adulthood: Social Changes  Multinational surveys show that age differences in life satisfaction are trivial (Inglehart, 1990) Percentage “satisfied” with life as a whole Age group

95 Adulthood: Social Changes


Download ppt "Myers’ PSYCHOLOGY (7th Ed) Chapter 4 The Developing Person James A. McCubbin, PhD Clemson University Worth Publishers."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google