Presentation on theme: "The Common Core State Standards for Mathematics"— Presentation transcript:
1The Common Core State Standards for Mathematics Grades 6-8
2The Development of the CCSS Sponsored by the Council of Chief State School Officers (CCSS) and the National Governors Association (NGA)Written by a small group of authors from Sept 2009 – June 2010NCTM among the groups that provided feedback and review as part of public review process
3Potential Benefits for States and Districts Creates potential for collaborative groups to get more mileage from:Curriculum development, assessment, and professional developmentEncourages collaborative professional development to be based on best practicesAllows for the development of cross-state formative and summative assessment tools
4Common Core Development Initially 48 states and three territories signed on.As of November 29, 2010, 42 states have officially adopted.Final Standards released June 2, 2010 can be downloaded atAdoption is required for Race to the Top funds.
6Common Core Implementation Each state adopting the Common Core either directly or by fully aligning its state standards may do so in accordance with current state timelines for standards adoption, not to exceed three (3) years.States that choose to align their standards with the Common Core Standards accept 100% of the core in English language arts and mathematics. States may add additional standards.
7Characteristics Claimed by CCSS (compared to most State Standards) Fewer and more rigorous. The goal was increased clarity.Aligned with college and career expectations – prepare all students for success on graduating from high school.Internationally benchmarked, to prepare all students for succeeding in our global economy and society.Includes rigorous content and application of higher-order skills.Builds on strengths and lessons of current state standards and on NCTM’s documents: Curriculum Focal Points, PSSM, and Focus on Reasoning and Sense MakingResearch based
8Stated Intentions of the Common Core CoherenceFocusClarity and specificityThe same goals for all students
9Coherence According to CCSS Articulated progressions of topics and performances that are developmental and connected to other progressionsConceptual understanding and procedural skills stressed equallyNCTM states that coherence means that instruction, assessment, and curriculum are aligned.
10Focus According to CCSS Key ideas, understandings, and skills are identified.Deep learning of concepts is emphasized.That is, adequate time is devoted to a topic to counter the “mile wide, inch deep” criticism leveled at most current U.S. standards.
11CCSS Standards for Mathematical Practice The Common Core proposes a set of Standards for Mathematical Practice that all teachers should develop in their students.The Mathematical Practice Standards in the CCSS resonate well with the NCTM Process Standards in Principles and Standards for School Mathematics.
12CCSS Standards for Mathematical Practice Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them.Reason abstractly and quantitatively.Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others.Model with mathematics.Use appropriate tools strategically.Attend to precision.Look for and make use of structure.Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning.
13NCTM Process Standards Problem Solving is an integral part of mathematics learning.Reasoning and Proof are ways of expressing justification.Communication is an essential part of mathematics education.Connections are critical in mathematics, both across mathematical topics and to contexts outside mathematics.Representations of mathematical ideas are fundamental to enhancing mathematical understanding.
14NCTM Process Standards and the CCSS Mathematical Practice Standards Problem SolvingMake sense of problems and persevere in solving them.Use appropriate tools strategicallyReasoning and ProofReason abstractly and quantitatively.Critique the reasoning of others.Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoningCommunicationConstruct viable argumentsConnectionsAttend to precision.Look for and make use of structureRepresentationsModel with mathematics.
15Clarity and Specificity for CCSS Skills and concepts are clearly defined.An ability to apply concepts and skills to new situations is expected.
16Common Core Format K-8 High School Grade Domain Cluster Standards (No pre-K Common Core Standards)High SchoolConceptual CategoryDomainClusterStandards
17Common Core - DomainOverarching “big ideas” that connect topics across the gradesDescriptions of the mathematical content to be learned, elaborated through clusters and standards
18Common Core - ClustersMay appear in multiple grade levels with increasing developmental standards as the grade levels progressIndicate WHAT students should know and be able to do at each grade levelReflect both mathematical understandings and skills, which are equally important
19Common Core - Standards Content statementsProgressions of increasing complexity from grade to grade
20CCSSM and NCTM Focal Points: Differences in Format Three focal points per grade levelConnections to other strandsFive DomainsClusters of standards
21CCSSM Domains CCSSM-Grade 6 CCSSM-Grade 8 CCSSM-Grade 7 Functions The Number SystemExpressions and EquationsGeometryStatistics and ProbabilityRatio and proportional RelationshipsThe Number SystemExpressions& EquationsGeometryStatistics and ProbabilityRatio and proportional RelationshipsThe Number SystemExpressions & EquationsGeometryStatistics and Probability
22Domain 1: Ratios and Proportional Relationships CCSS- Grade 6NCTM Focal Points – Grade 6Understand ratio concepts and use ratio reasoning to solve problems.Develop an understanding of and fluency with multiplication and division of fractions and decimals.Connect ratio and rate to multiplication and division.Additional MA StandardMA.3e. – Solve problems that relate the mass of an object to its volume.
23Domain 1: Ratio and Proportional Relationships CCSS- Grade 7NCTM Focal Points – Grade 7Analyze proportional relationships and use them to solve real-world and mathematical problems.Develop an understanding of and apply proportionality, including similarity.Develop an understanding of operations on all rational numbers and solve linear equations.
24Domain 1: Functions CCSS- Grade 8 NCTM Focal Points – Grade 8 Define, evaluate, and compare functions.Use functions to model relationships between quantities.Analyze and represent linear functions and solve linear equations and systems of linear equations
25Domain 2: The Number System CCSS- Grade 6NCTM Focal Points –Grade 6Apply and extend previous understandings of multiplication and division to divide fractions by fractions.Compute fluently with multi-digit numbers and find common factors and multiplesApply and extend previous understandings of numbers to the system of rational numbers.Develop an understanding of and fluency with multiplication and division of fractions and decimals. (page 18)Negative integers in grade 7 (page 19)Additional MA StandardMA.4a: Apply number theory concepts, including prime factorization and relatively prime numbers to the solution of problems.
26Domain 2: The Number System CCSS- Grade 7NCTM Focal Points –Grade 7Apply and extend previous understandings of operations with fractions to add, subtract, multiply, and divide rational numbers.Develop an understanding of and apply proportionality, including similarity.
27Domain 2: The Number System CCSS- Grade 8NCTM Focal Points –Grade 8Know that there are numbers that are not rational, and approximate them by rational numbers.Students now use division to express any fraction as a decimal, including fractions that they must represent with infinite decimals.Students connect their work with dividing fractions to solving equations of the form ax = b, where a and b are fractions.Students continue to develop their understanding of the structure of numbers by determining if a counting number greater than 1 is a prime.
28Domain 3: Expressions and Equations NCTM Focal Points – Grade 6CCSS- Grade 6Apply and extend previous understanding of arithmetic to algebraic expressionsReason about and solve on-variable equations and inequalitiesRepresent and analyze quantitative relationships between dependent and independent variablesWrite, interpret, and use mathematical expressions and equations
29Domain 3: Expressions and Equations CCSS- Grade 7NCTM Focal Points – Grade 7Use properties of operations to generate equivalent expressionsSolve real-life and mathematical problems using numerical and algebraic expressions and equationsDevelop an understanding of operations on all rational numbers and solve linear equationsAdditional MA StandardMA.4c: Extend analysis of patterns to include analyzing, extending, and determining an expression for simple arithmetic and geometric sequences (e.g., compounding, increasing area) using tables, graphs, words, and expressions.
30Domain 3: Expressions and Equations CCSS- Grade 8NCTM Focal Points – Grade 8Work with radicals and integer exponents.Understand the connections between proportional relationships, lines, and linear equations.Analyze and solve linear equations and pairs of simultaneous linear equations.Analyze and represent linear functions and solve linear equations and systems of linear equations
31Domain 4: Geometry CCSS- Grade 6 NCTM Focal Points – Grade 6 Solve real-world and mathematical problems involving area, surface area, and volume.Solve problems that involve areas and volumes, calling on students to find areas or volumes from lengths or to find lengths from volumes or areas and lengths, are especially appropriate.Additional MA StandardsMA.1.a: Use the relationship between radius, diameter, and center of a circle to find the circumference and area.MA.1.b: Solve real-world and mathematical problems involving the measurements of circles.
32Domain 4: Geometry NCTM Focal Points – Grade 7 CCSS- Grade 7 Draw, construct, and describe geometrical figures and describe the relationships between them.Solve real-life and mathematical problems involving angle measure, area, surface area, and volume.Understand and use formulas to determine surface areas and volumes of three-dimensional shapes.Additional MA Standard:Please note: MA.7: Solve real-world and mathematical problems involving the surface area of shapes.
33Domain 4: Geometry NCTM Focal Points – Grade 8 CCSS - Grade 8 Understand congruence and similarity using physical models, transparencies, or geometry software.Understand and apply the Pythagorean Theorem.Solve real-world and mathematical problems involving volume of cylinders, cones, and spheres.Analyze two- and three-dimensional space and figures by using distance and angle.
34Domain 5: Statistics and Probability CCSS- Grade 6NCTM Focal Points – Grade 6Develop understanding of statistical variability.Summarize and describe distributions.None ListedMA.4.a – Read and interpret circle graphs
35Domain 5: Statistics and Probability CCSS- Grade 7NCTM Focal Points – Grade 7Use random sampling to draw inferences about a population.Draw informal comparative inferences about two populations.Investigate chance processes and develop, use, and evaluate probability models.Students understand that when all outcomes of an experiment are equally likely, the theoretical probability of an event is the fraction of outcomes in which the event occurs. Students use theoretical probability and proportions to make approximate predictions.
36Implementation Support for Teachers from NCTM Making It Happen:A Guide to Interpreting and Implementingthe Common Core State Standardsfor Mathematics
37Making It Happen Will Include: How the content of CCSSM fits with NCTM’s Standards documents—including a road map to NCTM’s resourcesA deep analysis of the connections between NCTM’s Process Standards and the CCSS Standards for Mathematical PracticeExamples of using NCTM resources to interpret and implement CCSS
38Implementation Support for Teachers from NCTM Possible actions under current discussionDevelopment of resource toolkit linked to a mobile or e-conference packageA focus on Professional Development with respect to both content and mathematical processesGrade band specific PowerPoints available on the NCTM Web site
39NCTM Standards and CCSS The pre-eminent message from both these sets of standards is, and for NCTM always has been, the importance of nurturing the mathematical thinking and reasoning processes as set forth in the NCTM Process Standards, and in the CCSS Standards for Mathematical Practice.No collection of specific standards bullets will hold together without interweaving mathematical processes for our students.