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Mr. Perry Biochemistry Chapter 3 Mr. Perry Carbon Compounds Chapter 3 Section 1.

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Presentation on theme: "Mr. Perry Biochemistry Chapter 3 Mr. Perry Carbon Compounds Chapter 3 Section 1."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Mr. Perry Biochemistry Chapter 3

3 Mr. Perry Carbon Compounds Chapter 3 Section 1

4 Mr. Perry Acd Bio Chpt 3 Do Now WWhy do carbon molecules form the chemical backbone for all living things, such as the organisms shown in this forest floor (page 50). CCarbon exists everywhere, so it must have something to do with its chemical structure.  The same carbon in the pizza that you eat ends up forming the carbon in your tissues.

5 Mr. Perry Acd Bio Chpt 3 Note taking for PowerPoint AA ny text you see that is any shade of green in color should be written down in your notebook. OO bjectives should be written in your note section of your notebook. MM ake sure you define all vocabulary words in your “ HW ” section of your notebook

6 Mr. Perry Acd Bio Chpt 3 Carbon Bonding  Organic compounds contain carbon atoms and are found in living things.  Most inorganic compounds do not contain carbon atoms.  Most not associated with life

7 Mr. Perry Acd Bio Chpt 3 Carbon Compounds  Carbon:  4 electrons in outer shell  Forms 4 covalent bonds  Readily bonds with other C molecules forming straight chains, branching chains and rings

8 Mr. Perry Structural Isomers SSame formula, different structure Acd Bio Chpt 3

9 Mr. Perry Types of Isomers Acd Bio Chpt 3

10 Mr. Perry Acd Bio Chpt 3 Isomers

11 Mr. Perry Acd Bio Chpt 3 Functional Groups  Clusters of atoms that attach to organic compounds and influence their properties  We will be looking at 4 of these

12 Mr. Perry Acd Bio Chpt 3 Functional Groups OH - Hydroxide / Alcohol NH 4 + Amino group / Amine COOH - Carboxyl group PO 3 + Phosphate group

13 Mr. Perry Acd Bio Chpt 3 Did you know Esters  An ester is derived when the OH of a carboxyl group is replaced by another functional group.  Esters may be colorless, volatile and have pleasant odors.  For example, the scents of wintergreen, pineapples, and bananas are attributable to esters.  Because of their characteristic odors, esters are used to make perfumes, flavorings, and cosmetics.

14 Mr. Perry Macromolecule  Like a train  Made up of boxcars  All linked together  Many different types of trains  Each has their own set of boxcars

15 Mr. Perry Macromolecule  Made of building blocks.  Monomers are the boxcars of our train

16 Mr. Perry Acd Bio Chpt 3 Carbon Molecules  Monomer  Simple unit used to build large molecules  Small simple molecules  Think of them like building blocks

17 Mr. Perry Macromolecule  Polymer  All of the monomers / boxcars chemically bonded together

18 Mr. Perry Acd Bio Chpt 3 Carbon Molecules  Polymer  2 or more monomers/ building blocks chemically combined  Macromolecule  Large polymer

19 Mr. Perry How to make a Macromolecule  Link the boxcars together  Condensation reaction  Remove Water

20 Mr. Perry Acd Bio Chpt 3 Condensation / Dehydration Reaction  Joins 2 Monomers  Water is removed as a by- product  Polymer is created  Synthesis reaction  Building a bigger molecule

21 Mr. Perry enzyme action at functional groups Condensation

22 Mr. Perry Acd Bio Chpt 3 H2OH2O

23 Mr. Perry Acd Bio Chpt 3 Hydrolysis Reaction  Water is added back to a Polymer  Breaking it down back to it’s monomers  Polymer + H 2 O  Monomer+ Monomer

24 Mr. Perry enzyme action at functional groups Hydrolysis / Catabolic

25 Mr. Perry Acd Bio Chpt 3 Condensation/Hydrolysis Reactions  Both involved water  In living cells  Enzymes are required

26 Mr. Perry Acd Bio Chpt 3 Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)  Energy currency of living things  Stores and releases energy during cell processes, enabling organisms to function  Energy is released through a hydrolysis reaction in which ATP → ADP + PO4 -

27 Mr. Perry Acd Bio Chpt 3 ATP

28 Mr. Perry Acd Bio Chpt 3 Comparing ADP & ATP 

29 Mr. Perry Acd Bio Chpt 3 Question True or False  Organic compounds contain carbon, but inorganic compounds never do.  False, CO 2 is inorganic

30 Mr. Perry Acd Bio Chpt 3 Question 8. W hat is the name of the functional group circled in the structural formula? aamino  hydroxyl pphosphate ccarboxyl The figure below represents the structural formula of a molecule. Use the figure to answer the question that follows.

31 Mr. Perry Acd Bio Chpt 3 Question True or False  Functional groups influence chemical reactions and chemical properties.  True

32 Mr. Perry Acd Bio Chpt 3 Question True or False  Polymers bond to form monomers.  False  Monomers join to form polymers

33 Mr. Perry Acd Bio Chpt 3 KWL  Write short a lists of all the things you K now or think you do about carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, & nucleic acids.  Write short a lists W ant to know about these compounds.  Save your lists for use at the end of the chapter.

34 Mr. Perry Acd Bio Chpt 3 KWL part 2  Pull your KWL list out of things they waned to know more about carbohydrates, proteins, lipids & nucleic acids  Place check marks next to questions that you are now able to answer.  Making a list of what you have L earned.  Identify any unanswered questions.

35 Mr. Perry Molecules of Life Chapter 3 Section 2

36 Mr. Perry Acd Bio Chpt 3 Do Now  What do these structures have in common & what is different? Hint: count the number of CHO.  Ans:1 Glucose & galactose are six-sided rings, & fructose is a five-sided ring.  All have the molecular formulas (C 6 H 12 O 6 )

37 Mr. Perry Acd Bio Chpt 3 Molecules of Life 44 types of macromolecules CCarbohydrates PProteins FFats NNucleic Acids

38 Mr. Perry Macromolecule

39 Mr. Perry CARBOHYDRATES Acd Bio Chpt 3

40 Mr. Perry Acd Bio Chpt 3 Carbohydrates MMade up of C, H, and O (CH 2 O) n CCarbohydrates main function is giving energy to living things. UUsed as structural materials in organisms

41 Mr. Perry Acd Bio Chpt 3 Carbohydrates

42 Mr. Perry Acd Bio Chpt 3 Carbohydrates  Monosaccharide  Monomer  Simple sugar  Ex. glucose, fructose, galactose  Made by condensation reaction

43 Mr. Perry Acd Bio Chpt 3 Monosaccharide

44 Mr. Perry How much sugar is there in coke? Acd Bio Chpt 3

45 Mr. Perry Acd Bio Chpt 3 Carbohydrates DDisaccharide TTwo monosacchrides combined in a condensation reaction EEx. Sucrose = Fructose + Glucose

46 Mr. Perry Acd Bio Chpt 3 Disaccharides

47 Mr. Perry Acd Bio Chpt 3 Carbohydrates PPolysaccharide 33 or more monosacchrides combined together EEx. Glycogen AAnimals store glucose in this form

48 Mr. Perry Acd Bio Chpt 3 Carbohydrates SStarch pplants store glucose CCellulose FFound in Plants FFound in cell walls, GGiving strength and rigidity

49 Mr. Perry Carbohydrates Acd Bio Chpt 3

50 Mr. Perry PROTEINS Acd Bio Chpt 3

51 Mr. Perry Acd Bio Chpt 3 Proteins OOrganic compounds composed mainly of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen MMain function is growth and repair of the body MMonomers/ Building block AAmino acids

52 Mr. Perry Acd Bio Chpt 3 Amino Acid

53 Mr. Perry Acd Bio Chpt 3 Amino Acid CContain an amine group, a carboxyl group and an R group – makes each amino acid different 220 different types of amino acids

54 Mr. Perry Acd Bio Chpt 3 Amino Acid  Linked by peptide bonds  The sequence of amino acids determines a protein’s shape and function

55 Mr. Perry Acd Bio Chpt 3 Proteins  Dipeptide  2 amino acids bonded together  Polypeptide  3 or more amino acids bonded together

56 Mr. Perry Acd Bio Chpt 3 H2OH2O

57 Mr. Perry Some uses for proteins Type of proteinExamples EnzymesAmylase StructuralHair, wool, tendons, cartilage ContractileMovement StorageSpleen TransportRBC ImmunityAntibodies ToxinsSnake venom Chemical messengers (Hormones) Insulin

58 Mr. Perry Acd Bio Chpt 3 Structure of Proteins

59 Mr. Perry Acd Bio Chpt 3 Enzymes  Biological catalysts  Speed up chemical reactions  By lowering activation energy

60 Mr. Perry Acd Bio Chpt 3 Enzymes  In the lock and key model of enzyme action, the enzyme can attach only to a reactant (substrate) with a specific shape  The enzyme then flexes to conform to the reactants shape

61 Mr. Perry Acd Bio Chpt 3 Enzymes  The enzyme is unchanged by the reaction it participates in and is released to be used again  Enzymes only work with one specific substrate

62 Mr. Perry Acd Bio Chpt 3 Enzyme Activity

63 Mr. Perry LIPIDS Acd Bio Chpt 3

64 Mr. Perry Acd Bio Chpt 3 Lipids  Long chain molecules  Nonpolar  Not dissolve in H2O  C,H, and O  Store energy in H-Carbon bonds  An important part of cell membranes

65 Mr. Perry Acd Bio Chpt 3 Fats

66 Mr. Perry Acd Bio Chpt 3 Lipids  Building blocks  Fatty acids (up to 3)  Long chain carbon molecules  Glycerol (Backbone)

67 Mr. Perry Lipids Acd Bio Chpt 3

68 Mr. Perry Acd Bio Chpt 3 Lipids

69 Mr. Perry Acd Bio Chpt 3 Fatty Acids  Most lipids contain fatty acids  Unbranched carbon molecules.  Separate ends:  COOH end is hydrophilic  H 2 O loving  Hydrocarbon end is hydrophobic  H 2 O hating

70 Mr. Perry Acd Bio Chpt 3 Fatty Acids

71 Mr. Perry Acd Bio Chpt 3 Saturated fatty acids  All carbons are single bonded to 4 separate atoms  no double bonds  Ex. Palmitic acid

72 Mr. Perry Acd Bio Chpt 3 Unsaturated fatty acids  There are some double bonds  At least one double bond  Example  Plant oils - Sunflower oil  Linoleic acid

73 Mr. Perry Acd Bio Chpt 3 Unsaturated fatty acids

74 Mr. Perry Acd Bio Chpt 3 Lipids  Saturated Lipids  Solids at room temperature  Animal Fat  Unsaturated Lipids  Liquids at room temperature  Oils

75 Mr. Perry Acd Bio Chpt 3 4 types of Complex Lipids  1.Triglyceride  Glycerol + 3 fatty acids  Fatty acids bonded to the OH’s of glycerol

76 Mr. Perry Acd Bio Chpt 3 2. Phospholipids  Contains:  2 fatty acids  Phosphate  Glycerol  Make up cell membrane  Bilayer  Stable & effective barrier for a cell

77 Mr. Perry Acd Bio Chpt 3 Phospholipids Tail Fatty Acid hydrophobic Head/ Phosphate hydrophilic

78 Mr. Perry Acd Bio Chpt 3 3. Waxes  Long fatty acid + long alcohol  Highly waterproof  Plants  Coat leaves and prevents H2O loss  Animals –  Earwax  prevents microorganisms from entering your inner ear

79 Mr. Perry Acd Bio Chpt 3 4. Steroids  4 fused carbon rings  Most animal hormones  Cholesterol → nerve cell function

80 Mr. Perry NUCLEIC ACIDS Acd Bio Chpt 3

81 Mr. Perry Acd Bio Chpt 3 Nucleic Acids  Store hereditary information  2 types:  Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)  Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)  Both are made of monomers called nucleotides

82 Mr. Perry Acd Bio Chpt 3 Structure of Nucleic Acids

83 Mr. Perry Acd Bio Chpt 3 Nucleic Acids

84 Mr. Perry Acd Bio Chpt 3 Nucleic Acids continued  Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)  Stores genetic/hereditary information  Passes it’s information on from one generation to the next  Carries information for all cell activities  4 types nucleotides  Adenine, Thymidine, Cytosine, Guanine

85 Mr. Perry Acd Bio Chpt 3 DNA Overview 

86 Mr. Perry Acd Bio Chpt 3 Nucleic Acids continued  Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)  Stores and transfers information for the manufacturing of proteins  Draw and label Fig pg. 60

87 Mr. Perry Acd Bio Chpt 3 Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) 

88 Mr. Perry Acd Bio Chpt 3 Question 1. Which of the following is not a function of polysaccharides? A. Energy source B. Energy storage C. Structural support D. Storage of genetic information

89 Mr. Perry Acd Bio Chpt 3 Question 2. Which of the following statements is false? A.Wax is a lipid. B.Starch is a lipid. C.Saturated fats are solid at room temperature. D.Unsaturated fats are liquid at room temperature.

90 Mr. Perry Acd Bio Chpt 3 Question 3. Which of the following molecules stores hereditary information? A. ATP B. DNA C. protein D. carbohydrates

91 Mr. Perry Acd Bio Chpt 3 Question 4. What is the name of the molecule in plants that stores sugars? A.Starch B.Protein C.Cellulose D.Glycogen

92 Mr. Perry Acd Bio Chpt 3 Question 5. Which of the following molecules make up the basic structure of a cell membrane? waxes steroids fatty acids phospholipids The figure below illustrates the basic structure of a cell membrane. Use the figure to answer the questions that follow.

93 Mr. Perry Acd Bio Chpt 3 Question 6. The “tails” of the molecules in the figure orient away from water. Which of the following describes the tail’s movement away from water? polar adhesive hydrophilic hydrophobic The figure below illustrates the basic structure of a cell membrane. Use the figure to answer the questions that follow.


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