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Biochemistry Chapter 3.

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Presentation on theme: "Biochemistry Chapter 3."— Presentation transcript:

1 Biochemistry Chapter 3

2 Carbon Compounds Chapter 3 Section 1

3 Do Now Why do carbon molecules form the chemical backbone for all living things, such as the organisms shown in this forest floor (page 50). Carbon exists everywhere, so it must have something to do with its chemical structure. The same carbon in the pizza that you eat ends up forming the carbon in your tissues. Acd Bio Chpt 3

4 Note taking for PowerPoint
Any text you see that is any shade of green in color should be written down in your notebook. Objectives should be written in your note section of your notebook. Make sure you define all vocabulary words in your “HW” section of your notebook Acd Bio Chpt 3

5 Carbon Bonding Organic compounds contain carbon atoms and are found in living things. Most inorganic compounds do not contain carbon atoms. Most not associated with life Acd Bio Chpt 3

6 Carbon Compounds Carbon: 4 electrons in outer shell
Forms 4 covalent bonds Readily bonds with other C molecules forming straight chains, branching chains and rings Acd Bio Chpt 3

7 Structural Isomers Same formula, different structure Acd Bio Chpt 3

8 Types of Isomers Acd Bio Chpt 3

9 Isomers Acd Bio Chpt 3

10 Functional Groups Clusters of atoms that attach to organic compounds and influence their properties We will be looking at 4 of these Acd Bio Chpt 3

11 OH- Hydroxide / Alcohol NH4+ Amino group / Amine COOH- Carboxyl group
Functional Groups OH Hydroxide / Alcohol NH Amino group / Amine COOH- Carboxyl group PO Phosphate group Acd Bio Chpt 3

12 Did you know Esters An ester is derived when the OH of a carboxyl group is replaced by another functional group. Esters may be colorless, volatile and have pleasant odors. For example, the scents of wintergreen, pineapples, and bananas are attributable to esters. Because of their characteristic odors, esters are used to make perfumes, flavorings, and cosmetics. Acd Bio Chpt 3

13 Macromolecule Like a train Made up of boxcars All linked together
Many different types of trains Each has their own set of boxcars

14 Macromolecule Made of building blocks.
Monomers are the boxcars of our train

15 Carbon Molecules Monomer Simple unit used to build large molecules
Small simple molecules Think of them like building blocks Acd Bio Chpt 3

16 Macromolecule Polymer
All of the monomers / boxcars chemically bonded together

17 Carbon Molecules Polymer
2 or more monomers/ building blocks chemically combined Macromolecule Large polymer Acd Bio Chpt 3

18 How to make a Macromolecule
Link the boxcars together Condensation reaction Remove Water

19 Condensation / Dehydration Reaction
Joins 2 Monomers Water is removed as a by-product Polymer is created Synthesis reaction Building a bigger molecule Acd Bio Chpt 3

20 enzyme action at functional groups
Condensation enzyme action at functional groups

21 H2O Acd Bio Chpt 3

22 Water is added back to a Polymer
Hydrolysis Reaction Water is added back to a Polymer Breaking it down back to it’s monomers Polymer + H2O  Monomer+ Monomer Acd Bio Chpt 3

23 Hydrolysis / Catabolic
enzyme action at functional groups

24 Condensation/Hydrolysis Reactions
Both involved water In living cells Enzymes are required Acd Bio Chpt 3

25 Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
Energy currency of living things Stores and releases energy during cell processes, enabling organisms to function Energy is released through a hydrolysis reaction in which ATP → ADP + PO4- Acd Bio Chpt 3

26 ATP Acd Bio Chpt 3

27 Comparing ADP & ATP Acd Bio Chpt 3

28 Question True or False Organic compounds contain carbon, but inorganic compounds never do. False, CO2 is inorganic Acd Bio Chpt 3

29 Question The figure below represents the structural formula of a molecule. Use the figure to answer the question that follows. 8. What is the name of the functional group circled in the structural formula? amino hydroxyl phosphate carboxyl Acd Bio Chpt 3

30 Question True or False Functional groups influence chemical reactions and chemical properties. True Acd Bio Chpt 3

31 Polymers bond to form monomers. False Monomers join to form polymers
Question True or False Polymers bond to form monomers. False Monomers join to form polymers Acd Bio Chpt 3

32 KWL Write short a lists of all the things you Know or think you do about carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, & nucleic acids. Write short a lists Want to know about these compounds. Save your lists for use at the end of the chapter. Acd Bio Chpt 3

33 KWL part 2 Pull your KWL list out of things they waned to know more about carbohydrates, proteins, lipids & nucleic acids Place check marks next to questions that you are now able to answer. Making a list of what you have Learned. Identify any unanswered questions. Acd Bio Chpt 3

34 Molecules of Life Chapter 3 Section 2

35 Do Now What do these structures have in common & what is different? Hint: count the number of CHO. Ans:1 Glucose & galactose are six-sided rings, & fructose is a five-sided ring. All have the molecular formulas (C6H12O6) Acd Bio Chpt 3

36 Molecules of Life 4 types of macromolecules Carbohydrates Proteins
Fats Nucleic Acids Acd Bio Chpt 3

37 Macromolecule Polymer Monomer Carbohydrate Sugars Lipid Fatty Acids
Protein Amino Acids Nucleic Acids Nucleotides

38 Carbohydrates Acd Bio Chpt 3

39 Made up of C, H, and O (CH2O)n
Carbohydrates Made up of C, H, and O (CH2O)n Carbohydrates main function is giving energy to living things. Used as structural materials in organisms Acd Bio Chpt 3

40 Carbohydrates Acd Bio Chpt 3

41 Carbohydrates Monosaccharide Monomer Simple sugar Page 53 Table 3-4
Ex. glucose, fructose, galactose Made by condensation reaction Page 53 Table 3-4 Acd Bio Chpt 3

42 Monosaccharide Acd Bio Chpt 3

43 How much sugar is there in coke?
Acd Bio Chpt 3

44 Two monosacchrides combined in a condensation reaction
Carbohydrates Disaccharide Two monosacchrides combined in a condensation reaction Ex. Sucrose = Fructose + Glucose Acd Bio Chpt 3

45 Disaccharides Acd Bio Chpt 3

46 3 or more monosacchrides combined together Ex. Glycogen
Carbohydrates Polysaccharide 3 or more monosacchrides combined together Ex. Glycogen Animals store glucose in this form Acd Bio Chpt 3

47 Carbohydrates Starch plants store glucose Cellulose Found in Plants
Found in cell walls, Giving strength and rigidity Acd Bio Chpt 3

48 Carbohydrates Acd Bio Chpt 3

49 Proteins Acd Bio Chpt 3

50 Proteins Organic compounds composed mainly of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen Main function is growth and repair of the body Monomers/ Building block Amino acids Acd Bio Chpt 3

51 Amino Acid Acd Bio Chpt 3

52 20 different types of amino acids
Contain an amine group, a carboxyl group and an R group – makes each amino acid different 20 different types of amino acids Acd Bio Chpt 3

53 Linked by peptide bonds
Amino Acid Linked by peptide bonds The sequence of amino acids determines a protein’s shape and function Acd Bio Chpt 3

54 2 amino acids bonded together Polypeptide
Proteins Dipeptide 2 amino acids bonded together Polypeptide 3 or more amino acids bonded together Acd Bio Chpt 3

55 H2O Acd Bio Chpt 3

56 Place this into your notes
Some uses for proteins Type of protein Examples Enzymes Amylase Structural Hair, wool, tendons, cartilage Contractile Movement Storage Spleen Transport RBC Immunity Antibodies Toxins Snake venom Chemical messengers (Hormones) Insulin Place this into your notes

57 Structure of Proteins Acd Bio Chpt 3

58 Enzymes Biological catalysts Speed up chemical reactions
By lowering activation energy Acd Bio Chpt 3

59 Enzymes In the lock and key model of enzyme action, the enzyme can attach only to a reactant (substrate) with a specific shape The enzyme then flexes to conform to the reactants shape Acd Bio Chpt 3

60 Enzymes only work with one specific substrate
The enzyme is unchanged by the reaction it participates in and is released to be used again Enzymes only work with one specific substrate Acd Bio Chpt 3

61 Enzyme Activity Acd Bio Chpt 3

62 Lipids Acd Bio Chpt 3

63 Lipids Long chain molecules Nonpolar Not dissolve in H2O C,H, and O
Store energy in H-Carbon bonds An important part of cell membranes Acd Bio Chpt 3

64 Fats Acd Bio Chpt 3

65 Long chain carbon molecules Glycerol (Backbone)
Lipids Building blocks Fatty acids (up to 3) Long chain carbon molecules Glycerol (Backbone) Acd Bio Chpt 3

66 Lipids Acd Bio Chpt 3

67 Lipids Acd Bio Chpt 3

68 Fatty Acids Most lipids contain fatty acids
Unbranched carbon molecules. Separate ends: COOH end is hydrophilic H2O loving Hydrocarbon end is hydrophobic H2O hating Acd Bio Chpt 3

69 Fatty Acids Acd Bio Chpt 3

70 All carbons are single bonded to 4 separate atoms
Saturated fatty acids All carbons are single bonded to 4 separate atoms no double bonds Ex. Palmitic acid Acd Bio Chpt 3

71 Unsaturated fatty acids
There are some double bonds At least one double bond Example Plant oils - Sunflower oil Linoleic acid Acd Bio Chpt 3

72 Unsaturated fatty acids
Acd Bio Chpt 3

73 Solids at room temperature Animal Fat Unsaturated Lipids
Liquids at room temperature Oils Acd Bio Chpt 3

74 4 types of Complex Lipids
1.Triglyceride Glycerol + 3 fatty acids Fatty acids bonded to the OH’s of glycerol Acd Bio Chpt 3

75 2. Phospholipids Contains: 2 fatty acids Phosphate Glycerol
Make up cell membrane Bilayer Stable & effective barrier for a cell Acd Bio Chpt 3

76 Phospholipids Head/ Phosphate hydrophilic Tail Fatty Acid hydrophobic
Acd Bio Chpt 3

77 3. Waxes Long fatty acid + long alcohol Highly waterproof Plants
Coat leaves and prevents H2O loss Animals – Earwax prevents microorganisms from entering your inner ear Acd Bio Chpt 3

78 Cholesterol → nerve cell function
4. Steroids 4 fused carbon rings Most animal hormones Cholesterol → nerve cell function Acd Bio Chpt 3

79 Nucleic Acids Acd Bio Chpt 3

80 Nucleic Acids Store hereditary information 2 types:
Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) Both are made of monomers called nucleotides Acd Bio Chpt 3

81 Structure of Nucleic Acids
Acd Bio Chpt 3

82 Nucleic Acids Acd Bio Chpt 3

83 Nucleic Acids continued
Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) Stores genetic/hereditary information Passes it’s information on from one generation to the next Carries information for all cell activities 4 types nucleotides Adenine, Thymidine, Cytosine, Guanine Acd Bio Chpt 3

84 DNA Overview Acd Bio Chpt 3

85 Nucleic Acids continued
Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) Stores and transfers information for the manufacturing of proteins Draw and label Fig pg. 60 Acd Bio Chpt 3

86 Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)
Acd Bio Chpt 3

87 Question 1. Which of the following is not a function of polysaccharides? A. Energy source B. Energy storage C. Structural support D. Storage of genetic information Acd Bio Chpt 3

88 Question 2. Which of the following statements is false?
Wax is a lipid. Starch is a lipid. Saturated fats are solid at room temperature. Unsaturated fats are liquid at room temperature. Acd Bio Chpt 3

89 Question 3. Which of the following molecules stores hereditary information? A. ATP B. DNA C. protein D. carbohydrates Acd Bio Chpt 3

90 Question 4. What is the name of the molecule in plants that stores sugars? Starch Protein Cellulose Glycogen Acd Bio Chpt 3

91 Question The figure below illustrates the basic structure of a cell membrane. Use the figure to answer the questions that follow. 5. Which of the following molecules make up the basic structure of a cell membrane? waxes steroids fatty acids phospholipids Acd Bio Chpt 3

92 Question 6. The “tails” of the molecules in the figure orient away from water. Which of the following describes the tail’s movement away from water? polar adhesive hydrophilic hydrophobic The figure below illustrates the basic structure of a cell membrane. Use the figure to answer the questions that follow. Acd Bio Chpt 3


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