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Radiogenic isotopic evolution of the mantle and crust Matt Jackson and Bill McDonot

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Sr-Nd isotope plot Global OIB (ocean island basalts, hotspots) and MORB (mid- ocean ridge basalt) We will model Sr-Nd isotopic evolution by crust-mantle differentiation. Hofmann (1997)

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How to evolve radiogenic isotopic differences? Step #1. Fractionate the radioactive parent ( 87 Rb) from the radiogenic daughter ( 87 Sr). Step #2. Wait.

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Step 1: How to fractionate parent from daughter? Answer: Melt the mantle and extract the melt.

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Batch melting C l /C o = (Concentration in liquid)/(Concentration original unmelted solid) Where F is the amount of melting. – Values range from 0 (no melting) to 1 (100% melting). Partition coefficient (D): When D < 1, incompatible When D > 1, compatible

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Batch Melting A plot of C L /C O vs. F for various values of D Figure 9.2. Variation in the relative concentration of a trace element in a liquid vs. source rock as a fiunction of D and the fraction melted, using equation (9-5) for equilibrium batch melting. From Winter (2001) An Introduction to Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology. Prentice Hall. C C 1 D(1F)F L O Rb Sr Batch Melting

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Rb-Sr fractionation during mantle melting Rb Sr

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Sr ≈ Nd < Sm

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Sm-Nd fractionation during mantle melting D Sm >D Nd

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Step #2: Now that we have fractionated parent (Rb) from daughter (Sr), how do we generate isotopic differences? Answer: Wait, and give the 87 Rb time to decay to 87 Sr.

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87 Rb 87 Sr (t 1/2 =48.8 billion years) λ=ln(2)/t 1/2 (define decay constant) 87 Sr meas = 87 Sr initial + 87 Rb(e λt -1) How to evolve radiogenic isotopic differences? We measure this Parent-daughter ratio Time in years Decay constant Questions: 1.When 87 Rb/ 86 Sr is high, what happens to 87 Sr/ 86 Sr over time? 2.When 87 Rb/ 86 Sr is low, what happens to 87 Sr/ 86 Sr over time? initial ( ) y = b + x * m

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87 Sr/ 86 Sr t = 0 yrs t = 5 x 10 8 yrs t = 1 x 10 9 yrs y = b + ( x )( m ) b = y-intercept = initial 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio m = slope (proportional to age) t = ln(m+1)/ λ liquid Original source Mantle Residue 87 Rb/ 86 Sr

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147 Sm 143 Nd + 4 He (t 1/2 =106 billion years) 143 Nd meas = 143 Nd initial + 147 Sm(e λt -1) We measure this Parent-daughter ratio Time in years Decay constant Questions: 1.When 147 Sm/ 144 Nd is high, what happens to 143 Nd/ 144 Nd over time? 2.When 147 Sm/ 144 Nd is low, what happens to 143 Nd/ 144 Nd over time? initial ( y = b + x * m ) How to evolve radiogenic isotopic differences?

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143 Nd/ 144 Nd t = 0 yrs t = 5 x 10 8 yrs t = 1 x 10 9 yrs y = b + ( x )( m ) b = y-intercept = initial 143 Nd/ 144 Nd ratio m = slope (proportional to age) t = ln(m+1)/ λ 147 Sm/ 144 Nd liquid Original mantle Mantle Residue

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Radiogenic isotopes: The role of parent- daughter fractionation AND time

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The 87 Sr/ 86 Sr – 143 Nd/ 144 Nd mantle array

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Sr and Nd isotopic evolution of the crust-mantle Assume an initial uniform silicate Earth underwent melting at some time in the past to form continental crust (melt) and mantle (melting residue): 1.Calculate the present-day Sr and Nd isotopic composition of 1%, 2%, and 5% partial melts and respective melting residues, assuming the bulk partition coefficients given in the spreadsheet. 1.Now assume melting occurred at different times (e.g., 1 Ga, 2 Ga, 3 Ga, etc). What happens to 143 Nd/ 144 Nd and 87 Sr/ 86 Sr in the melt and the residue. 2.Now vary the starting composition of the silicate Earth.

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Things to think about Think about the role of time (bigger spread in Sr and Nd isotopes if fractionated earlier). Consider the role of melt fraction (F). What role does variability in the starting composition play? Can you match the global OIB-MORB array with this simple model?

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