Presentation on theme: "TACTICS OF RULE The New Imperialism"— Presentation transcript:
1TACTICS OF RULE The New Imperialism 1870-1914 SUPERQUIZSection III - 13 questions (32.5%)Part 2
2On to Asia! Africa Asia Ottoman Empire Suez Canal gateway Not quite Africa_____________ served as the main realm for imperial expansion during the late 19th centuryBeginning in the early 20th century, however, ___________became the site for aggressive ExpansionismThe Middle EastThe British began to withdraw support for the ________________________in the late 19th centuryThis bankrupt political power suffered fromcommercial declineinternal dissentIn 1869, the opening of the __________________caused the Ottoman Empire to lose its strategic role to BritainPreviously, the Ottoman Empire had served as the British __________________to AsiaAfricaAsiaOttoman EmpireSuez Canalgateway
3India was a major supplier of raw materials Indians must buy finished goods from BritainIndians must produce raw materials for BritainJewel in the CrownTea, indigo, coffee, cotton, and jute, opium
4South and Central AsiaIndia retained its status as the jewel of the British EmpireThe British monarchy ruled India directly after 1857Indian trade and capital investment remained a crucial part of BritainLondon financiers provided upwards of £________________ to India from 1875 to 1900Most of this money went to the construction of railroadsIndia emerged as Britain’s chief market for export goods by World War I2,500,000
5British politicians often worried about the security of India Russia and other expansionist powers threatened India’s bordersThe ________________WarThe allied forcesBritish,French, andOttoman Turksfought the Russianslasted from ______ to _______Crimean
8The Great Game Russia Britain 1907 Persia The Great Game was the formal and informal diplomacy between ______and ______ at the timeThe Anglo-Russian Entente of _______brought the Great Game to a closesettled British and Russian differences overTibet,Afghanistan, andPersia____________ was separated into Russian and British spheres of influenceRussia consolidated its hold on Central AsiaRussia Britain1907Persia
9Southeast Asia and the South Pacific The Dutch strengthened their hold on the Dutch East Indies in the era of new imperialismThe Dutch East India consisted of the Indonesian islands ofSumatra,Java,Borneo, andthe western half of New GuineaRubber and coffee sustained the colonial plantation economyThe British expanded through Southeast AsiaBurma was annexed in ______The British also appropriated part of Malaya in ______18861896
10French Expansion Tonkin Annam 1883 1893 French Indochina late 19th century: French expanded holdings in Southeast AsianFrench commercial interests existed in Indochina from the early 19th century________ & ________in Vietnam became part of the French Empire in __________The Black Flags resisted French encroachmentThis well-organized militant group appealed for help from the ChineseThe Chinese had formerly ruled over VietnamThe French seized Cambodia and Laos in ________France formed the __________________Union in 1894Tonkin Annam18831893French Indochina
11Mid-19th Century Competition in the South Pacific Europeans saw South Pacific Islanders as “primitives” needing European protectionImperial powers soon came to dominate Oceania
12Mid-19th Century Competition in the South Pacific Imperialists split Samoa into _________Samoa and _____________ SamoaThe South Pacific provided cheap labor for Australian sugar plantationsFiji enjoyed a prosperous sugar economyGermanAmerica
13American Imperialism in the South Pacific Traditionally, the United States had remained __________________In 1898, however, the nation annexed ________This strategic naval base in the Pacific Ocean also enjoyed economic prosperity from growing sugar cane and producing pineapplesThe United States received Spanish territories after the Spanish-American WarControl over Cuba had sparked these hostilitiesTerritories includedCuba, Guam, the Philippines, and Puerto RicoisolationistHawaii
15American Imperialism in the South Pacific PhilippinesThe _______________ mounted a great resistance movement against the United StatesThe United States officially declared the Philippines an American territory after three years of fighting______________________________led the Filipino insurrectionThe United States captured him prior to declaring the Philippines a territorySouth Pacific expansion and increased economic and political influence in Latin America transformed the United States into a global powerEmiliano Aguinaldo
16East Asia Sino-Japanese China’s continued decline and Japan’s rise to global power constituted the main East Asian developments of the late 19th centuryChinese conservatives opposed reformers’ attempts at modernizationProposed improvements included railroad constructionsThe pattern of European domination in China from the mid 19th century continuedThe United States and European powers annexed territory, forced trade concessions, and lent money to the Chinese government on adverse termsThe Chinese needed to borrow money from Europe following the _____________________ War from 1894 to 1895The Japanese extracted a war indemnity from the Chinese following the conflict over Korean controlEuropeans subsequently received trade privileges and permission to construct railroadsSino-Japanese
17German Qingdao Port Arthur Canton Two ___________ missionaries in China were murdered in 1897Europeans took full advantage of this situation to exploit ChinaThe Chinese granted Germany a lease on the port city of ____________Germans also received the right to build railroads in the province of ShandongRussia seized _______________The French obtained a lease on __________ BayA sphere of influence in southern China soon followedQingdaoPort ArthurCanton
18The Open Door PolicyThe United States instituted the Open Door policy in _________This agreement prevented further dividing up of ___________All colonizing nations except ________ agreed to the Open Door policyAll nations received equal ___________rights throughout ChinaChina thus retained some territorial integrity1898ChinaJapantrading
19The Open Door Policy Secretary John Hay. Give all nations equal access to trade in China.Guaranteed that China would NOT be taken over by any one foreign power.
21Patriotic Harmonious Fists The Boxer Rebellion: 1900Patriotic Harmonious FistsThe _____________________________protested the corrupting influences of _______________This group is known as the ____________ because of its members’ martial arts trainingForeign devils includedsoldiers,traders, andmissionariesThe rebellion mostly occurred in northern ChinaForeign embassies in Beijing endured a two-month siegeBoxers attacked Chinese, American, and European Christians in the province of _____________Railroads also became a target of sabotageForeign devilsBoxersShandong
22The Boxer Rebellion: 1900 Sent 20,000 troops crushed the revolt Japan,Britain,France,Italy,Germany,the United States, andRussiaThe _________ dynasty was forced to pay a substantial indemnityQing
25Rise of the Chinese Nationalists Fall of the Qing Dynasty The Chinese nationalist movement overthrew the Qing Dynasty in ______________________led this revolutionImperial economic exploitation fueled the nationalistsRailway leases allowed imperialists to exploit colonies economically1911Sun Yat-sen
26The Chinese Empire under Siege Empress Dowager Cixi,HIST 2322 / IDST 2373 Dr. Keller
27Japan Japan experienced a wildly different fate than China Meiji The _______ Restoration of 1868 transformed Japan into an industrial giantThe Japanese soon sought global influenceJapan gained a foothold in Korea in ________ from a Korean revolt against Chinese influenceThe Chinese lost the ______________War from 1894 to 1895Japan subsequently annexed ________and gained trading privileges and political influence in ____________Meiji1894Sino-JapaneseTaiwanKorea
28Japan vs. Russia 1904 1905 Manchuria Liaotung Port Arthur Japan Japanese victory in the Russo-Japanese War from _____to _______sent out global shockwavesInfluence in Chinese-held _____________ and Korea formed the basis for warConflict occurred following Russian attempts to take ____________Province in ChinaThe Russians especially sought the ice-free harbor of __________The Japanese controlled this port after the Sino-Japanese WarJapan retained possession of Liaotung following the country’s victory over RussiaThe Russians ceded their sphere of influence in Manchuria to _____________Japan also gained control over half of ______________ Island and Russian railroads in ManchuriaManchuriaLiaotungPort ArthurJapanSakhalin
29The Limits of Imperial Power Europeans suddenly realized the limits to their imperial power following the Russo-Japanese WarColonial subjects found______in European defeatThe Russo-Japanese War also played a part in the first ________________________in 1905This revolt against the regime of Tsar Nicholas failedhopeRussian Revolution
313.10 IDENTIFY (pp. 84-86) Place value. KhartoumOmdurmanBugamdaRhodesia(Zimbabwe)
323.10 IDENTIFY (pp. 84-86) Place value. Cape ColonyUnion ofSouth AfricaFashodaIndia
333.10 IDENTIFY (pp. 84-86) Place value. RussiaMarshallIslandsSamoaHawaii
343.11 DEFINITIONS (pp. 86-87) Great Game Political maneuverings--both formal and informal—between British and Russians ending with the Anglo-Russian Entente of 1907
353.11 DEFINITIONS (pp. 86-87) Anglo-Russian Entente of 1907 Agreement that finally resolved British and Russian differences over Persia, Tibet, and Afghanistan
363.11 DEFINITIONS (pp. 86-87) Black Flags A well-organized militant Vietnamese resistance movement fighting French infiltration
373.11 DEFINITIONS (pp. 86-87) Sino-Japanese War war fought over control of Korea where the Chinese were forced to borrow money from Europeans to help finance the war
383.11 DEFINITIONS (pp. 86-87) Open Door Policy A 1898 agreement allowing all colonizing nations except Japan equal trading rights in all parts of China
393.11 DEFINITIONS (pp. 86-87) Boxer Rebellion A 1900 protest against foreign influence in China that was suppressed by a force of colonizing troops
403.11 DEFINITIONS (pp. 86-87) Meiji Restoration 1868 series of reforms that thrust Japan into a seat of industrial power
413.11 DEFINITIONS (pp. 86-87) Russo-Japanese War clashes over Chinese-held Manchuria and Korea which was won by the Japanese
42The Mission of New Imperialism IntroductionNew imperialism contained different ideological foundations than the concept of the liberal empireFactors contributing to the mission of new imperialismAnticolonial revolts in Indiathe European Darwinian revolutionEuropeans began redefining their cultural, biological, and political relationship to colonial subject
43Liberal empire’s failure Europeans gradually abandoned the idea of Europeanizing non-Western peoplesThe idea to improve colonial subjects within their own cultural context arose insteadImperial rule by force replaced paternalistic justifications for empireAttempts to legitimize imperialist presence began disappearing by the mid 19th century________________ of cultural differences supplanted these ideas up through the era of new imperialismintolerance
44Belief in Biological Inferiority By the late 19th century, many Europeans believed that imperial subjects were ____________inferiorAs a result, colonists believed that they could not bridge the ______ or improve their subjectsEuropeans thus let themselves off the hook for the responsibility of civilizing subjectsThe ___________________________of 1857 also contributed to these ideasBritish expectations regarding colonial subjects changed drastically following this eventbiologicallygapIndian Rebellion
45“The White Man’s Burden” Rudyard KiplingRudyard Kipling represented the ______________view of many imperialists in the late 19th centuryThis British poet wrote ______________________The poem chronicles the thankless and futile task of bringing civilization to colonial subjectsThe supposedly uncivilized peoples returned European kindness with _______________A civilizing mission ultimately would fail as primitive peoples only slid back into their natural statespessimistic“The White Man’s Burden”hostility
46‘‘The White Man’s Burden’’ ~ Rudyard Kipling ‘‘Take up the White Man’s ________---And reap his old reward;The ______ of those ye better,The hate of those ye guard----And when your goal is nearestThe end for others sought,Watch _____and heathen ____Bring all your hopes to nought”Burdenblamefollysloth
48The influence of Darwin European ideological developments had a greater effect on the _________________than the politics of imperial ruleIn the late 19th century, the Darwinian revolution forever changed what it meant to be __________civilizing missionhuman
52The influence of Darwin The theory of evolution presented by Charles Darwin most affected European views about the capacity of primitives to become civilized in the late 19th centurySocial Darwinists _____________ the theories of Darwin to explain cultural differencesDecades of scientific research on racial development and differences between races had already weakened the Enlightenment idea that only one human ________ existedSocial Darwinism fought against many key beliefs of _____________________ thoughtDarwin raised the idea of the animal nature of all humansHe linked all humans to a common ape ancestordistortedspeciesEnlightenment
53The GAPEuropeans sought to distance themselves and their civility from the primitiveness of other racesThis desire caused Europeans to stray from the Enlightenment belief that all cultures occupied different parts of the same path to civilizationDebates raged as to ___________________ opposed this ideaspeciesDarwin
54Legacies of Imperialism Empire & SocietyColonial ConflictScientific RacismPopular RacismIllustration from Indigenous Races of the Earth.HIST 2322 / IDST 2373 Dr. Keller
55Natural selection natural selection survival biology culture progress Natural selection challenged European ideas about humans’ ability to make choices and influence their worldThe theory of ____________________holds that the primary means of species evolution is the inherent picking of traits best adapted for _____________19th-century Europeans began to believe that ______________determined ________________Enlightenment thinkers held that natural and social environment shaped cultureSocially engineered __________ became impossible under social Darwinismnatural selectionsurvivalbiologycultureprogress
56Social Darwinism stressed the permanence of racial traits Enlightenment thinkers believed in humans’ ability to changeDarwin held that the physical distinctions between races emerged early on through __________selectionThese sexually selected traits provided no benefit for survivalAs a result, these traits did not evolve or did so very slowlyExamples include skin color and hair textureMany race scientists in the late 19th century assumed racial traits to be __________Charles Darwin never professed this belief himselfMisrepresentations of Darwin’s work resulted in the abandonment of Enlightenment beliefs in humans’ ability to progress and changeThe ideological foundations of new imperialism began to replace those of the ______________ empiresexualfixedliberal
57Public views of raceSocial Darwinism widely affected the collective European consciousnessNewspapers, imperial adventure novels, and periodicals reinforced the ideas espoused by DarwinEuropeans came to see colonial natives as both culturally and biologically___________Ideas about the inability of indigenous peoples to improve also spread throughout the public mindbackward
58Racist propagandists had appeared for decades before Darwin’s works GobineauRacist propagandists had appeared for decades before Darwin’s worksCount __________ and Robert________published works almost a decade before DarwinThe ideas of Charles Darwin appeared to grant new legitimacy to racial worksEuropeans assumed that Africans enjoyed an especially close relationship with ____________Scientific evidence backed up this long-presumed linkSome extreme social Darwinists stated that Africans were biologically defective___________________published Social Evolution in 1894This work averred that white rule in Africa and black extinction were inevitable_____________ now became an inescapable biological inferiorityKnoxGobineauprimatesBenjamin KiddBlacknessKnox
60Eugenics and the science of race Charles Darwin’s works also influenced scholarly views of colonial nativesRace scientists distorted Darwinian views to support ______________ theories of raceDarwin and late 19th century race scientists advocated the _______________ determinants of civilizationThese professionals regarded _________ determinants as unimportantRace scientists, however, went further than DarwinThese quasi-scholars advocated the permanence of race traits and the irredeemable _______ between different race-culture groupshierarchicalbiologicalsocialgap
61EUGENICSEugenics became a highly prestigious branch of science by the early 20th centuryThis new science heavily influenced public policySo-called unfit groups, such as people suffering from mental impairment, underwent forced _____________________________________stymied the influx of racial undesirablesEugenicists actually consisted of a variety of individualsEugenics often connotes Hitler-like ideas due to similarities between eugenics and the Holocaust___________ was a Victorian liberalHe believed in the ability of human progress________________advocated for the expulsion of blacks from British South Africa to biologically and morally purify the colonysterilizationImmigration quotasGaltonKarl Pearson
63Francis Galton The Victorian Liberal Eugenics = progress!
64FRANCIS GABON Not to be confused with FRANCIS GALTON!!!!! Father of EugenicsCousin of DarwinTeacher of Pearson
65Let’s just expel all the black people from British South Africa… Let’s just expel all the black people from British South Africa….It’ll PURIFY the colony morally!
66Karl Pearson selective breeding 1936Karl Pearson lived from 1857 to _______The English mathematician studied math, law, social philosophy, and political philosophy at ____________ UniversityPearson also held the first chair of ____________ at University College in LondonHe later became director of the eugenics laboratory at the collegePearson followed the teachings of Francis ________ (NOT GALTON!!!)Gabon desired to implement ________________________ to improve the human racePearson used statistical methods to study biological problemsHe especially focused on evolution and heredityPearson termed this new science biometricsCambridgeeugenicsGabonselective breeding
67EUGENICSContemporary scholars view Pearson’s views on eugenics as racist and problematicPearson claimed to be a _____________He wanted to “uplift the masses”According to Pearson, a nation’s progress depended on replacing a country’s _____________to the detriment of inferior racesThe 20th century saw eugenics applied in many undesirable situationsThe _________ in Germany carried out mass exterminations in the name of eugenicssocialistbetter stockNazis
68DEMIDEC TRANSLATIONKARL PEARSON ON NATIONAL LIFE FROM THE STANDPOINT OF SCIENCE These arguments appeared in Pearson’s work, National Life from the Standpoint of Science (1901)
69History shows me the only way in which a high state of civilization has been produced. This method is the struggle of race with race, with the mentally and physically fitter race surviving. This struggle produces intense suffering while in progress, but the struggle has allowed the white man to reach his present stage of development. Because of this progress, the white man no longer lives in caves feeding on roots and nuts.
70This progress redeems the struggle for race, despicable as it may seem This progress redeems the struggle for race, despicable as it may seem. You, the audience, may hope for a time when agriculturereplaced war. You may hope for a time when English, German, and American traders no longer compete for raw materials, a timewhen white and black men share soil. When this day comes, mankind will no longerprogress.
71No factor will encourage progress and evolution among mankind. No natural factor will restrict the fertility of inferior stock. Heredity will no longer be guided by natural selection and man will reach a plateau. Unless an end to fertility comes, catastrophe will rise, whether famine or pestilence. The East currently experiences this disaster. Physical selection does the work much more ruthlessly than the race struggle.Physical selection also does this process in a much more inefficient manner, as seen in China and India throughout history.
72A race struggle exists just as a national struggle exists A race struggle exists just as a national struggle exists. This struggle originated out oftribal warfare. Currently, the civilized white man attempts to adapt his country to anever-changing environment. The nation must predict where the struggle will exist. Maintaining a strong national positionbecomes more and more a preparatory act. White men must act with insight on comingevents.
73We do well to remember that the law of inheritance governs mankind. Mankind willsuffer if we raise the inferiors in our society toproduce children. If any social or class prejudices allow tampering with this barbaric imposition of natural selection, our nation’scharacter will sharply decline in a few generations.
74This ‘‘scientific view of a nation’’ allows an extremely efficient internal organization for a country. The country constantly improves its populace through this race struggle. The struggle for trade-routes and the struggle for sources of raw materials is only one additional way the race struggle presents itself. I have taken the natural history view of mankind here. I do not think you can effectively fight against the tenets ofthis logic.
75The growth of anthropology The theories of Charles Darwin also influenced the new scientific field of _______________This branch of science emerged in the late _____centuryAnthropology studies the stages of human cultural evolutionAnthropologists strive to identify _______________ cultural traits of mankind through comparatively studying culturesArchaeologists and anthropologists debated the ancestry of 19th century savagesTheories ranged from being remnants of the Europe of old to degeneration from higher level civilizationsArguments also occurred over savages’ ability to improveanthropology19thuniversal
76Edward Burnett Tylor survivals social evolutionary universalist moral Edward Burnett Tylor advanced his doctrine of _________ to attempt to answer the debateThis ____________________ anthropologist advocated that contemporary savages provided Europeans a rare opportunity to view their pastThe liberal _____________ in Tylor acknowledged the _______traits in savage cultureThis culture contrasted with a few moral defects in European societysurvivalssocial evolutionaryuniversalistmoral
77Edward Burnett TylorTylor’s theory ultimately held that savage culture developed outside of the ____________ of evolutionAfricans especially deviated from the normal cultural evolution of humansHe therefore believed that European societies and cultures would always remain _____________mainstreamsuperior
78European colonizers used anthropology to implement imperialism Governments often sponsored ethnographic research in the 19th century to understand “primitive culture”This application of scientific research to political control essentially continued the tradition from the EnlightenmentCaptain _____________South Pacific expeditions and Mungo Park’s African voyages exemplify this scientific-political minglingThe mixing of scientific and political motives branched out into its own version in the late 19th centuryEuropeans believed their cultural superiority stemmed from_______________This permanent superiority also gave them the ______________to rule the worldJames Cook’sbiologyimperative
79The Height of New Imperialism Reaching the apex Europeans transformed the lives of colonial subjects by the dawn of the 20th centuryCultural practices, economic influences, social orders, and constructed environments of subjects all originated from EuropeThe construction of colonial cities and establishment of a cash crop economy altered the makeup of the coloniesIntroduction of Western education and the remapping of indigenous social hierarchies constituted two more important changesThe first anti-colonial _________________ movements responded to these transformationsOrdinary Europeans became more aware of these transformations as wellColonies entered the political consciousness of Europe by World War I more than ever beforeThe possession of empire allowed non-Western culture to trickle back to Europenationalist
813.12 CHARTING (pp )Sun Yat-senTsar Nicholas IIRudyard Kipling
823.12 CHARTING (pp )Benjamin KiddCharles FarwinCharles Gordon
833. 13 CHOICES (pp. 88-89) Natural selection 3.13 CHOICES (pp ) Natural selection. Identify whether the statements below describe Darwinian or Enlightenment thought. Mark both if the statements apply to both schools of thought.XXX
923.14 ANALOGIES (pp )7. Boxers : China :: Black Flags : ____________________Vietnam
93Colonial infrastructure construction Europeans turned to constructing colonial _______________________ and implementing colonial administration at the beginning of the 20th centuryBy this point, global conquest had largely come to an endImperialists built colonial cities, ports, and towns in less urbanized regions of empiresGateways, clock towers, hospitals, and schools soon filled these settlementsEuropeans also undertook modernization projects in cities and ports such as Cairo, Bombay, Lagos, and SingaporeSlums were cleared and new housing and roadways constructedHighway systems, bridges, canals, and railway networks served as new methods of transportationinfrastructure
94The TelegraphThe telegraph and other methods of communication became a part of the coloniesTelegraph lines first connected Europe to India in ________By 1871, a cable ran from _________________ to Shanghai, Hong Kong, and Singapore1865Vladivostok
95European Models of Administration European models of administration became a part of colonial life___________services, the armed forces, judiciary authorities, and the police all underwent administrative changesEuropean-style education, including instruction in European languages, was also somewhat availableWestern-style medicine was another education topic granted to coloniesImperialists saw these tasks as crucial to colonial ruleThe efficient transport of goods depended on _________ layouts in colonial ports and cities, as well as the construction of railroad linesEuropean commercial exploitation depended on these advancesInfrastructure also held ____________& ___________importanceRailroads and telegraphs prompted quick ______________________of European troopsStreet grids in urban areas allowed for the ______________________ of local populationspostalgridStrategic militarymobilizationsurveilance
96Regulation of Race Relations - The Modernization Agenda Europeans and natives received different areas within modernized cities and portsImperialists often received more ______________ and better ventilated residential areasThese settlements were often nearly military settlementsEuropean institutions such as polo fields, clubs, and churches were designated as “white-only”Natives clustered in unhealthy and crowded urban spacesThe British successfully divided Madras into European and Indian quartersEuropeans inhabited __________ Town and Indians lived in __________TownsanitaryWhiteBlack
97Economics NEOMERCANTILISM Global trade had long run counter to the best interests of Africa and AsiaEuropean conquest and the Industrial Revolution only widened this gapIndustrial states in Europe exported manufactured goods to coloniesColonies provided cash crops and other raw materials in returnMore countries began flooding colonial markets by the late 19th centuryThe rise of __________________________ in the 1880s prevented colonies from entering into trade relationships outside of their colonizing countryNEOMERCANTILISM
98Conquest and Coercion CASH wage famine Late-19th century conquests ensured that colonists could coerce their subjects to implement and support agricultural and labor regimesThe use of a ________-based agricultural economy allowed peasants to move beyond subsistence farmingThe production of crops for European industrial raw materials or ________ labor replaced more traditional work methodsWage labor appeared on both small farms and European-run plantationsBritish India served as a major producer of cotton, indigo, opium, rice, and tea during this periodMany peasants paid a high price for the abrupt transition in their economiesThe abandonment of subsistence farming left peasant populations more vulnerable to _______________CASHwagefamine
99Commercial Fluctuations and Taxation International commerce fluctuations also affected indigenous peoples much more than they had in the past____________________in the early 20th century rendered Indian indigo completely obsoleteThousands of Indian indigo farmers went bankruptIndigo had previously served as the pinnacle of the British textile industry_________ remained high despite weakened economic positionsMany peasants migrated to cities and towns to work as urban laborersSynthetic dyesTaxes
100Global migration of labor Modern transportation allowed Europeans to send millions of ______________ laborers to construct irrigation systems and railroadsWork in plantations and in mines was also commonMigrant labor divided families and upset local demographic balances_________________ laborers from Vietnam worked French Cambodian plantationsTens of thousands of coolies migrated to British territories________________ were Indian and Chinese laborersThe location of coolies’ migrations included Burma, Australia, Malaya, Fiji, Ceylon, East Africa, the West Indies, and South Africa200Ceylon is now known as Sri LankaIndentured labor from existing colonies occasionally assisted in the colonization of new regionsLaborers from India helped the British settle East Africa through the construction of railroadsindenturedCochin-ChineseCoolies
101Culture architecture railroad cricket Western cultural influence spread throughout the worldEducation, law and order, group relations, language, and dress code restructured the fabric of societyDakar and Delhi currently exhibit European styles of _____________________African and Asian ___________networks demonstrate European cultural influenceInhabitants of the West Indies and South Africa enjoy the British sport of___________Missionaries to India often wore a European blouse with a traditional sariarchitecturerailroadcricket
102Colonial society included new divisions and hierarchies The founding of Western-style schools produced a Western-educated _________ in the coloniesImperialists hoped to create loyal subjects to serve in lower-level colonial administrative positionsEuropean colonizers often favored the __________________ instead of newly educated professional classesWestern-educated colonial subjects found themselves in the worst of both worldsEuropeans looked down upon them and excluded them from positions of powerLocal populations also ostracized these local “traitors”Educated Algerians favored French over ArabiceliteTraditional elites
103European colonizers emphasized social identities of the colonized Social conflict bred between different indigenous groups as a resultBritish politicians in India in the late 19th century reinforced caste divisionsThe caste system divided up society based on birthThe British stated that caste was the foundation of traditional Indian societyCaste served as only one of multiple social markers in pre-colonial IndiaBritish authorities increasingly relied on _________ stereotypesThe ___________ and the__________were labeled “martial”These two groups were considered good recruits for the British armyThe _______________ became inherently “criminal” and met suspicion and disgustClassifications became more rigid as time went onSocial boundaries became harder to surmount within Indian societycasteGurkhasSikhsKallars
104____ ____ ____ ________ ___ ______ ______ 3.15 EITHER/OR (pp )____1. Karl Pearson was a student of (LAW, POLITICS) and (CULTURAL, SOCIAL) and political psychology at (CAMBRIDGE, OXFORD) and a (MATHEMETICIAN, SCIENTIST).2. Pearson held the (FIRST, SECOND) chair of eugenics at the (UNIVERSITY, LONDON) College and later became the (DIRECTOR, FOUNDER) of Eugenics there._______________________________
105______ ______ ______ ____ 3.15 EITHER/OR (pp )3. He studied under Francis Gabon, the (FOUNDER, OPPONENT) of eugenics, the goal of which was selective (BREEDING, ENROLLING) of humans in order to improve the human race.4. Pearson claimed to be a (COMMUNIST, SOCIALIST) but by (TODAY’S, HIS) standards his views are troubling and quite racist.______________________
106______ ____ ____ ___ ____ __ 3.15 EITHER/OR (pp )______5. He claimed that a country should (REPLENISH, CREATE) its “better” stock of humans at the (BENEFIT, EXPENSE) of other (“INFERIOR”, “SUPERIOR”) races in order to make progress and improve itself.6. His principles of eugenics were carried out by (MANY, A HANDFUL) in the twentieth century in the (WESTERN, EASTERN) world, most notably perhaps the German (NAZI, NATIONAL) Party._________________
1073.16 FILL IN THE BLANK (pp. 90-91) high civilization struggle survival 1. “History shows me one way, and one way only, in which a ______________________ state of ______________________ has been produced, namely, the _____________________ of race with race, and ______________________ of the ______________________ and ______________________ fitter race.”highcivilizationstrugglesurvivalphysicallymentally
1083.16 FILL IN THE BLANK (pp. 90-91) suffering progress development 2. “The struggle means ______________________, intense suffering, while it is in______________________; but that struggle and that suffering have been the stages by which the white man has reached his present stage of ____________ and they ______________________ for the fact that he no longer lives in caves and feeds on roots and nuts.”progressdevelopmentaccount
1093.16 FILL IN THE BLANK (pp. 90-91) sword plowshare Food supply soil 3. “You may hope for a time when the ______________________ shall be turned into the ______________________, when American and German and English traders shall no longer compete in the markets of the world for their raw material and for their food ______________________, when the white man and the dark shall share the ______________________ between them…when that day comes ______________________ will no longer progress; there will be nothing to check the ______________________ of inferior ______________________.”plowshareFood supplysoilmankindfertilitystock
1103.16 FILL IN THE BLANK (pp. 90-91) unconscious tribes civilized 4. “In the early days of that struggle it was a blind, ______________________ struggle of barbaric ______________________. At the present day, in the case of the ______________________ white man, it has become more and more the ______________________, carefully directed attempt of the nation to fit itself to a continuously ______________________ environment.”tribescivilizedconsciouschanging
1113.16 FILL IN THE BLANK (pp. 90-91) universal inheritance dearth 5. “We have to remember that man is subject to the ______________________ law of ______________________, and that a ______________________ of capacity may arise if we ______________________ our society from the inferior and not the ______________________ stock.”inheritancedearthcapacityinferior
1123.16 FILL IN THE BLANK (pp. 90-91) view organized efficiency external 6. “You will see that my ______________________ …is that of an _____________ whole, kept up to a high pitch of internal ______________________ by insuring that its numbers are substantially recruited from the better stocks, and kept up a high pitch of ______________________ efficiency by contest, chiefly by way of war with inferior races, and with equal races by the struggle for ______________ and for the sources of raw material and of food supply.”efficiencyexternaltrade routes
1133.17 LISTING (p. 91)1. Four areas of colonial life that Europeans changed-constructed environment-economic life-social order-cultural practices
1143.17 LISTING (p. 91)2. Four specific ways that Europeans sought to consolidate and exploit their power over the colonies.-building colonial cities-establishing cash crop economies-introducing Western education-remapping indigenous social hierarchies
1153.17 LISTING (p. 91)3. Four examples of places where cities and ports existed and Europeans undertook big modernization projects.-Cairo-Lagos-Singapore-Bombay
1163.17 LISTING (p. 91)4. Four new modes of transportation brought to the empires.-highway systems-bridges-canals-railway networks
118Governing the colonies through… …brute force Congo Free StateKing Leopold II of Belgium ruled the ________________ through brute forceThe racist view of the colonial savage reached its logical endpoint through this colonial ruleBelgian troops forced Congolese men into hard labor at gunpoint from 1898 to 1905; two common activities:Construction of roadsmilitary serviceAfter discharge from the military, Congolese men often worked as rural ___________________The rural police force caused the abandonment of subsistence farming and the implementation of _____________ productionNatives who resisted were ____________ by the policeThese police then turned over baskets of severed ___________ to Belgian authorities as proof of punishmentNot all of these hands belonged to corpsespolicerubbershothands
1245-8 Million Victims! (50% of Popul.) It is blood-curdling to see them (the soldiers) returning with the hands of the slain, and to find the hands of young children amongst the bigger ones evidencing their bravery...The rubber from this district has cost hundreds of lives, and the scenes I have witnessed, while unable to help the oppressed, have been almost enough to make me wish I were dead... This rubber traffic is steeped in blood, and if the natives were to rise and sweep every white person on the Upper Congo into eternity, there would still be left a fearful balance to their credit Belgian Official
125Governing the colonies through… …brute force European powers condemned Leopold’s de facto enslavement of CongoMurder and maiming particularly constituted moral outragesThe ____________________assumed control of the colony in ______________An official Belgian commission asserted that Leopold’s brutal methods cut the Congolese population in _____Scholars have recently estimated the effects of Leopold’s reign to be far worseSome academics estimate that the population dropped from between ___ & _____million down to _____ millionThe _________________ also used brutal force in their African coloniesBelgian Parliament1908half8Portuguese
126Governing the colonies through… indirect rule Britain____________ utilized indirect rule in its empire more than any other European powerThe _____________________served as evidence that direct colonial involvement did not work in practiceHands-off policies delegated large amounts of power to chiefs, kings, and princesThese rulers were compelled to carry out the orders of colonial officialsColonial __________ experienced the fullest use of British indirect ruleIndirect rule prospered in the British Empire for multiple reasonsDependence on local people ________ Britain far less than direct ruleThe British also gained ________________ from colonial subjects through a reliance on tradition and indigenous leadersThis legitimacy ostensibly stabilized colonial administrations and allowed them to better withstand local insurrectionIndian RebellionAfricacostlegitimacy
127Governing the colonies through… indirect rule Indirect rule also created many negative consequences for British coloniesIndigenous cultures did not remain intact, despite British claims to the contraryIndirect rule typically removed limitations previously in place on local ______________Chiefs only had to answer to British colonial officials instead of local authoritiesThe British essentially cleared the path for the rise of ________Fulani Emirs in ______________ largely acted as dictatorsBritons also promoted ___________________to the detriment of other loyalties and social affiliationsIndirect rule promoted tribal divisions and ethnic conflictsIndirect rule neglected the higher ________of colonial subjectsWestern-educated Africans were seen as a threat to British rulechiefsdespotsNigeriatribal identityeducation
128Governing the colonies through… the civilizing mission The French adopted a third method of rule over their African coloniesMany parts of the French Empire experienced direct rule by French officials based on French laws and codesThis method of governance reflected the French _ _________________________translates to “civilizing mission”The French sought to _______________ natives to the French cultureEven after other European nations moved away from ideas regarding assimilation, the French retained this method of colonial rulemission civilisatriceassimilate
129Governing the colonies through… the civilizing mission Multiple ideas explain this idea in tandemFrench _____________ partially accounts for the retaining of assimilation ideasThe French also believed that they had guarded European civilization for centuriesThe idea had its origins in universal ________________and Enlightenment ________________French ___________________ incorporated these ideas into the French consciousness_____________________had a lesser impact on French societyFrench philosophy and science emphasized the role of _____________________ in human developmentchauvanismequalityuniversalismrepublicanismSocial Darwinismenvironment
130Governing the colonies through… the civilizing mission The French colonial government system had mixed resultsThis system of government destroyed cultural and political _____________ more fully than the British systemNatives, however, were viewed as potential ______________________These colonial subjects could gain rights as French ______________after undergoing a civilizing processFrance granted colonial subjects citizenship rights in some instances________________ males received voting rights in ______________________________went from Senegal to the French _________________________institutionsFrenchmencitizensSenegalese1848Durand Valentinlegislature
132Governing the colonies through… the civilizing mission citizenshipThe promise of French _______________ involved acknowledging greater dependence on colonial masters__________________ and self-autonomy were lost for colonial subjects in the process_________ often undermined French ideals of democracy and republicanismAfricans were often excluded from _______________posts in West AfricaThese same subjects did not possess the right to __________ their own representativesSelf-determinismRacismadministrativeelect
133One Final Comparison French and British rule The French and British forms of colonial governance did not actually differ that greatlyBoth counties relied on a combination of direct and indirect ruleA European official often ruled in tandem with paid localsThe French focused their ____________________ efforts on colonies with the greatest potential for Westernization____________ represents one such colonyThe French otherwise only tried to improve natives within their own cultural contexts….three such coloniesIndochina,Morocco, andMadagascarDarwinian ideas gradually gained strength in FranceThe debate over the possibility and desirability of colonial assimilation grew heatedThe French abandoned the mission civilisatrice following __________French and British rule differed more in theory than in _________assimilationistAlgeriaWWIpractice
1343.18 OUTLINING (pp )I. Europeans transformed the constructed _______________________ in their colonial possessions in many ways. a. New methods of _______________________ i. Highway systems ii. Bridges iii. _______________________ iv. Railway networks b. New systems of ________________environmenttransportationcanalscommunication
1353.18 OUTLINING (pp )II. Europeans imposed their own models of _______________________ in the colonies a. Reorganized current systems i. Police ii. _______________________ iii. Judiciary iv. _______________________ service b. Introduced new Europeans ideas in some areas i. EducationadministrationArmyPostalmedicine
1363.18 OUTLINING (pp. 91-92) grid telegraphs mobilization coastal III. All these changes were made for the safety and efficiency of the Europeans and their colonial goals a. _______________________ layouts in colonial cities and ports for easy transport of goods b. Railways and _______________________ for the rapid _______________________of European troops c. Colonial _______________________ cities to keep Europeans separated from natives d. Creation of _______________________ -style institutions i. Clubs ii. _______________________ fields iii. _______________________gridtelegraphsmobilizationcoastalEuropeanPolochurches
1373.19 FALSE (pp ) Fix!1. The gap between metropole and colony in the late nineteenth century widened.
1383.19 FALSE (pp ) Fix!2. British India became a major producer of cash crops during the late nineteenth century, especially tea.
1393.19 FALSE (pp ) Fix!3. Indian indigo was long a staple of the British textile industry even after the invention of synthetic dyes in the early twentieth century.
1403.19 FALSE (pp ) Fix!4. The diaspora of migrant labor made the construction of infrastructure like railways and irrigation systems easier and also united families.
1413.19 FALSE (pp ) Fix!5. Europeans conquered by military, diplomatic, and economic means but did little to change culture in colonial areas.
1423.19 FALSE (pp ) Fix!6. One example of the influence of western culture is the popularity of soccer in the West Indies and South Asia.
1433.19 FALSE (pp ) Fix!7. Western-educated colonial subjects were able to bridge the gap between colonizers and the colonized.
1443.19 FALSE (pp ) Fix!8. The British rejected the caste system already in place in India.
1453. 20 CHOICES (pp. 93-94) Those Belgians didn’t waffle 3.20 CHOICES (pp ) Those Belgians didn’t waffle! Identify whether the statements below describe Belgian or British imperialism.xxx
1463. 20 CHOICES (pp. 93-94) Those Belgians didn’t waffle 3.20 CHOICES (pp ) Those Belgians didn’t waffle! Identify whether the statements below describe Belgian or British imperialism.xx
1473. 20 CHOICES (pp. 93-94) Those Belgians didn’t waffle 3.20 CHOICES (pp ) Those Belgians didn’t waffle! Identify whether the statements below describe Belgian or British imperialism.xxx
1483. 20 CHOICES (pp. 93-94) Those Belgians didn’t waffle 3.20 CHOICES (pp ) Those Belgians didn’t waffle! Identify whether the statements below describe Belgian or British imperialism.xxx
149Democratic Republic of the Congo 3.21 IDENTIFY (pp , 92)BotswanaZimbabweMalawiNamibiaDemocratic Republic of the Congo
1503.21 IDENTIFY (pp , 92)TogoTanzaniaMozambiqueSomaliaVietnamSri Lana
151British gen. who defeated Mahdists at Omdurman 3.22 WHO’S WHO? (pp )Durand ValentinCharles GordonBritish gen. who defeated Mahdists at OmdurmanGeorge Goldie
1523.22 WHO’S WHO? (pp. 84-94) Cecil Rhodes Francis Gabon Kallars Influential 19th century racist writers who published 10 yrs. before DarwinxFrancis GabonCastes of people labeled by the British as good recruits for the military because they werenaturally “martial”Kallars
153The French and the British 3.23 MULTIPLE CHOICE (pp )The French and the Britisha. employed strictly indirect rule.b. shared little in common in their ideologies or methods of rule.c. relied on purely direct rule and violent means to control the colonial population.d. combined direct rule through a European official with indirect rule through local officials as well.e. abandoned assimilation early on in their imperialist quests.
1542. British rule 3.23 MULTIPLE CHOICE (pp. 93-94) a. cleared the way for benevolent local leaders to come to power.b. promoted higher education amongst colonial subjects.c. embraced and empowered Western-educated Africans.d. left indigenous culture intact.e. was less direct in Africa than it had been in India.
1553.23 MULTIPLE CHOICE (pp. 93-94) 3. The French a. granted citizenship to all of its colonial subjects.b. and their policy of governance was less destructive to indigenous institutions than even British policy.c. Abandoned their policy of assimilation, or mission civilisatrice, as official policy after World War I.d. Were influenced by Darwin’s ideas earlier than many others in Europe.e. Policy of assimilation grew out of the Enlightenment and its basic principles.