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TACTICS OF RULE The New Imperialism 1870-1914 SUPERQUIZ Section III - 13 questions (32.5%) Part 2.

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Presentation on theme: "TACTICS OF RULE The New Imperialism 1870-1914 SUPERQUIZ Section III - 13 questions (32.5%) Part 2."— Presentation transcript:

1 TACTICS OF RULE The New Imperialism SUPERQUIZ Section III - 13 questions (32.5%) Part 2

2 On to Asia! Not quite Africa – _____________ served as the main realm for imperial expansion during the late 19th century – Beginning in the early 20th century, however, ___________became the site for aggressive Expansionism The Middle East The British began to withdraw support for the ________________________in the late 19th century – This bankrupt political power suffered from commercial decline internal dissent – In 1869, the opening of the __________________caused the Ottoman Empire to lose its strategic role to Britain – Previously, the Ottoman Empire had served as the British __________________to Asia

3 Indians must produce raw materials for Britain Indians must buy finished goods from Britain India was a major supplier of raw materials Tea, indigo, coffee, cotton, and jute, opium Jewel in the Crown

4 South and Central Asia India retained its status as the jewel of the British Empire – The British monarchy ruled India directly after 1857 – Indian trade and capital investment remained a crucial part of Britain London financiers provided upwards of £________________ to India from 1875 to 1900 Most of this money went to the construction of railroads – India emerged as Britain’s chief market for export goods by World War I

5 British politicians often worried about the security of India Russia and other expansionist powers threatened India’s borders The ________________War – The allied forces British, French, and Ottoman Turks – fought the Russians lasted from ______ to _______

6 The Great Game

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8 The Great Game was the formal and informal diplomacy between ______and ______ at the time – The Anglo-Russian Entente of _______ brought the Great Game to a close settled British and Russian differences over – Tibet, – Afghanistan, and – Persia – ____________ was separated into Russian and British spheres of influence – Russia consolidated its hold on Central Asia

9 Southeast Asia and the South Pacific The Dutch strengthened their hold on the Dutch East Indies in the era of new imperialism – The Dutch East India consisted of the Indonesian islands of Sumatra, Java, Borneo, and the western half of New Guinea – Rubber and coffee sustained the colonial plantation economy The British expanded through Southeast Asia – Burma was annexed in ______ – The British also appropriated part of Malaya in ______

10 French Expansion late 19th century: French expanded holdings in Southeast Asian French commercial interests existed in Indochina from the early 19th century ________ & ________in Vietnam became part of the French Empire in __________ – The Black Flags resisted French encroachment This well-organized militant group appealed for help from the Chinese The Chinese had formerly ruled over Vietnam The French seized Cambodia and Laos in ________ France formed the __________________Union in 1894

11 Mid-19 th Century Competition in the South Pacific Europeans saw South Pacific Islanders as “primitives” needing European protection Imperial powers soon came to dominate Oceania

12 Mid-19 th Century Competition in the South Pacific Imperialists split Samoa into _________Samoa and _____________ Samoa The South Pacific provided cheap labor for Australian sugar plantations – Fiji enjoyed a prosperous sugar economy

13 American Imperialism in the South Pacific Traditionally, the United States had remained __________________ In 1898, however, the nation annexed ________ – This strategic naval base in the Pacific Ocean also enjoyed economic prosperity from growing sugar cane and producing pineapples The United States received Spanish territories after the Spanish-American War – Control over Cuba had sparked these hostilities – Territories included – Cuba, Guam, the Philippines, and Puerto Rico

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15 American Imperialism in the South Pacific The _______________ mounted a great resistance movement against the United States – The United States officially declared the Philippines an American territory after three years of fighting – _____________________________ _led the Filipino insurrection The United States captured him prior to declaring the Philippines a territory South Pacific expansion and increased economic and political influence in Latin America transformed the United States into a global power

16 East Asia China’s continued decline and Japan’s rise to global power constituted the main East Asian developments of the late 19th century – Chinese conservatives opposed reformers’ attempts at modernization Proposed improvements included railroad constructions The pattern of European domination in China from the mid 19th century continued – The United States and European powers annexed territory, forced trade concessions, and lent money to the Chinese government on adverse terms – The Chinese needed to borrow money from Europe following the _____________________ War from 1894 to 1895 The Japanese extracted a war indemnity from the Chinese following the conflict over Korean control Europeans subsequently received trade privileges and permission to construct railroads

17 Two ___________ missionaries in China were murdered in 1897 – Europeans took full advantage of this situation to exploit China – The Chinese granted Germany a lease on the port city of ____________ Germans also received the right to build railroads in the province of Shandong – Russia seized _______________ – The French obtained a lease on __________ Bay A sphere of influence in southern China soon followed

18 The Open Door Policy The United States instituted the Open Door policy in _________ – This agreement prevented further dividing up of ___________ – All colonizing nations except ________ agreed to the Open Door policy – All nations received equal ___________rights throughout China China thus retained some territorial integrity

19 The Open Door Policy Secretary John Hay. Give all nations equal access to trade in China. Guaranteed that China would NOT be taken over by any one foreign power.

20 The Open Door Policy

21 The Boxer Rebellion: 1900 The _____________________________protested the corrupting influences of _______________ – This group is known as the ____________ because of its members’ martial arts training – Foreign devils included soldiers, traders, and missionaries The rebellion mostly occurred in northern China – Foreign embassies in Beijing endured a two-month siege – Boxers attacked Chinese, American, and European Christians in the province of _____________ – Railroads also became a target of sabotage

22 The Boxer Rebellion: 1900 Sent 20,000 troops crushed the revolt – Japan, – Britain, – France, – Italy, – Germany, – the United States, and – Russia The _________ dynasty was forced to pay a substantial indemnity

23 Boxers

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25 Rise of the Chinese Nationalists Fall of the Qing Dynasty The Chinese nationalist movement overthrew the Qing Dynasty in ___________ – ___________led this revolution – Imperial economic exploitation fueled the nationalists Railway leases allowed imperialists to exploit colonies economically

26 HIST 2322 / IDST 2373 Dr. Keller26 The Chinese Empire under Siege Empress Dowager Cixi,

27 Japan Japan experienced a wildly different fate than China – The _______ Restoration of 1868 transformed Japan into an industrial giant – The Japanese soon sought global influence Japan gained a foothold in Korea in ________ from a Korean revolt against Chinese influence – The Chinese lost the ______________War from 1894 to 1895 Japan subsequently annexed ________and gained trading privileges and political influence in ____________

28 Japan vs. Russia Japanese victory in the Russo-Japanese War from _____to _______sent out global shockwaves – Influence in Chinese-held _____________ and Korea formed the basis for war Conflict occurred following Russian attempts to take ____________Province in China – The Russians especially sought the ice-free harbor of __________ – The Japanese controlled this port after the Sino-Japanese War Japan retained possession of Liaotung following the country’s victory over Russia – The Russians ceded their sphere of influence in Manchuria to _____________ – Japan also gained control over half of ______________ Island and Russian railroads in Manchuria

29 The Limits of Imperial Power Europeans suddenly realized the limits to their imperial power following the Russo-Japanese War – Colonial subjects found______in European defeat – The Russo-Japanese War also played a part in the first ________________________in 1905 This revolt against the regime of Tsar Nicholas failed

30 Japan annexed Korea in 1910

31 3.10 IDENTIFY (pp ) Place value.

32

33

34 3.11 DEFINITIONS (pp ) Great Game Political maneuverings-- both formal and informal—between British and Russians ending with the Anglo- Russian Entente of 1907

35 3.11 DEFINITIONS (pp ) Anglo-Russian Entente of 1907 Agreement that finally resolved British and Russian differences over Persia, Tibet, and Afghanistan

36 3.11 DEFINITIONS (pp ) Black Flags A well-organized militant Vietnamese resistance movement fighting French infiltration

37 3.11 DEFINITIONS (pp ) Sino-Japanese War war fought over control of Korea where the Chinese were forced to borrow money from Europeans to help finance the war

38 3.11 DEFINITIONS (pp ) Open Door Policy A 1898 agreement allowing all colonizing nations except Japan equal trading rights in all parts of China

39 3.11 DEFINITIONS (pp ) Boxer Rebellion A 1900 protest against foreign influence in China that was suppressed by a force of colonizing troops

40 3.11 DEFINITIONS (pp ) Meiji Restoration 1868 series of reforms that thrust Japan into a seat of industrial power

41 3.11 DEFINITIONS (pp ) Russo-Japanese War clashes over Chinese-held Manchuria and Korea which was won by the Japanese

42 The Mission of New Imperialism Introduction – New imperialism contained different ideological foundations than the concept of the liberal empire – Factors contributing to the mission of new imperialism Anticolonial revolts in India the European Darwinian revolution – Europeans began redefining their cultural, biological, and political relationship to colonial subject

43 Liberal empire’s failure Europeans gradually abandoned the idea of Europeanizing non-Western peoples – The idea to improve colonial subjects within their own cultural context arose instead – Imperial rule by force replaced paternalistic justifications for empire Attempts to legitimize imperialist presence began disappearing by the mid 19th century – ________________ of cultural differences supplanted these ideas up through the era of new imperialism

44 Belief in Biological Inferiority By the late 19th century, many Europeans believed that imperial subjects were ____________inferior – As a result, colonists believed that they could not bridge the ______ or improve their subjects – Europeans thus let themselves off the hook for the responsibility of civilizing subjects The ___________________________of 1857 also contributed to these ideas British expectations regarding colonial subjects changed drastically following this event

45 Rudyard Kipling Rudyard Kipling represented the ______________view of many imperialists in the late 19 th century – This British poet wrote ______________________ The poem chronicles the thankless and futile task of bringing civilization to colonial subjects – The supposedly uncivilized peoples returned European kindness with _______________ – A civilizing mission ultimately would fail as primitive peoples only slid back into their natural states

46 ‘‘The White Man’s Burden’’ ~ Rudyard Kipling ‘‘Take up the White Man’s ________--- And reap his old reward; The ______ of those ye better, The hate of those ye guard---- And when your goal is nearest The end for others sought, Watch _____and heathen ____ Bring all your hopes to nought”

47 ‘‘The White Man’s Burden’’ ~ Rudyard Kipling

48 The influence of Darwin European ideological developments had a greater effect on the _________________ than the politics of imperial rule In the late 19th century, the Darwinian revolution forever changed what it meant to be __________

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50 Herbert Spencer

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52 The influence of Darwin The theory of evolution presented by Charles Darwin most affected European views about the capacity of primitives to become civilized in the late 19th century – Social Darwinists _____________ the theories of Darwin to explain cultural differences – Decades of scientific research on racial development and differences between races had already weakened the Enlightenment idea that only one human ________ existed Social Darwinism fought against many key beliefs of _____________________ thought – Darwin raised the idea of the animal nature of all humans – He linked all humans to a common ape ancestor

53 The GAP Europeans sought to distance themselves and their civility from the primitiveness of other races – This desire caused Europeans to stray from the Enlightenment belief that all cultures occupied different parts of the same path to civilization Debates raged as to __________ – _________ opposed this idea

54 HIST 2322 / IDST 2373 Dr. Keller54 Empire & Society Colonial Conflict Scientific Racism Popular Racism Legacies of Imperialism Illustration from Indigenous Races of the Earth.

55 Natural selection Natural selection challenged European ideas about humans’ ability to make choices and influence their world – The theory of ____________________holds that the primary means of species evolution is the inherent picking of traits best adapted for _____________ – 19th-century Europeans began to believe that ______________determined ________________ Enlightenment thinkers held that natural and social environment shaped culture – Socially engineered __________ became impossible under social Darwinism

56 Social Darwinism stressed the permanence of racial traits Enlightenment thinkers believed in humans’ ability to change Darwin held that the physical distinctions between races emerged early on through __________selection – These sexually selected traits provided no benefit for survival As a result, these traits did not evolve or did so very slowly Examples include skin color and hair texture Many race scientists in the late 19th century assumed racial traits to be __________ – Charles Darwin never professed this belief himself Misrepresentations of Darwin’s work resulted in the abandonment of Enlightenment beliefs in humans’ ability to progress and change – The ideological foundations of new imperialism began to replace those of the ______________ empire

57 Public views of race Social Darwinism widely affected the collective European consciousness – Newspapers, imperial adventure novels, and periodicals reinforced the ideas espoused by Darwin Europeans came to see colonial natives as both culturally and biologically___________ – Ideas about the inability of indigenous peoples to improve also spread throughout the public mind

58 Racist propagandists had appeared for decades before Darwin’s works – Count __________ and Robert________published works almost a decade before Darwin – The ideas of Charles Darwin appeared to grant new legitimacy to racial works Europeans assumed that Africans enjoyed an especially close relationship with ____________ – Scientific evidence backed up this long-presumed link – Some extreme social Darwinists stated that Africans were biologically defective ___________________published Social Evolution in 1894 This work averred that white rule in Africa and black extinction were inevitable – _____________ now became an inescapable biological inferiority

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60 Eugenics and the science of race Charles Darwin’s works also influenced scholarly views of colonial natives – Race scientists distorted Darwinian views to support ______________ theories of race Darwin and late 19th century race scientists advocated the _______________ determinants of civilization – These professionals regarded _________ determinants as unimportant Race scientists, however, went further than Darwin – These quasi-scholars advocated the permanence of race traits and the irredeemable _______ between different race-culture groups

61 EUGENICS Eugenics became a highly prestigious branch of science by the early 20th century This new science heavily influenced public policy – So-called unfit groups, such as people suffering from mental impairment, underwent forced ________________ – _____________________stymied the influx of racial undesirables Eugenicists actually consisted of a variety of individuals – Eugenics often connotes Hitler-like ideas due to similarities between eugenics and the Holocaust – ___________ was a Victorian liberal He believed in the ability of human progress – ________________advocated for the expulsion of blacks from British South Africa to biologically and morally purify the colony

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63 Francis Galton The Victorian Liberal Eugenics = progress!

64 FRANCIS GABON Not to be confused with FRANCIS GALTON!!!!! Father of Eugenics Cousin of Darwin Teacher of Pearson

65 Let’s just expel all the black people from British South Africa….It’ll PURIFY the colony morally!

66 Karl Pearson Karl Pearson lived from 1857 to _______ The English mathematician studied math, law, social philosophy, and political philosophy at ____________ University Pearson also held the first chair of ____________ at University College in London – He later became director of the eugenics laboratory at the college Pearson followed the teachings of Francis ________ (NOT GALTON!!!) – Gabon desired to implement ________________________ to improve the human race – Pearson used statistical methods to study biological problems He especially focused on evolution and heredity Pearson termed this new science biometrics

67 EUGENICS Contemporary scholars view Pearson’s views on eugenics as racist and problematic – Pearson claimed to be a _____________ He wanted to “uplift the masses” – According to Pearson, a nation’s progress depended on replacing a country’s _____________to the detriment of inferior races – The 20th century saw eugenics applied in many undesirable situations The _________ in Germany carried out mass exterminations in the name of eugenics

68 DEMIDEC TRANSLATION KARL PEARSON ON NATIONAL LIFE FROM THE STANDPOINT OF SCIENCE These arguments appeared in Pearson’s work, National Life from the Standpoint of Science (1901)

69 History shows me the only way in which a high state of civilization has been produced. This method is the struggle of race with race, with the mentally and physically fitter race surviving. This struggle produces intense suffering while in progress, but the struggle has allowed the white man to reach his present stage of development. Because of this progress, the white man no longer lives in caves feeding on roots and nuts.

70 This progress redeems the struggle for race, despicable as it may seem. You, the audience, may hope for a time when agriculture replaced war. You may hope for a time when English, German, and American traders no longer compete for raw materials, a time when white and black men share soil. When this day comes, mankind will no longer progress.

71 No factor will encourage progress and evolution among mankind. No natural factor will restrict the fertility of inferior stock. Heredity will no longer be guided by natural selection and man will reach a plateau. Unless an end to fertility comes, catastrophe will rise, whether famine or pestilence. The East currently experiences this disaster. Physical selection does the work much more ruthlessly than the race struggle. Physical selection also does this process in a much more inefficient manner, as seen in China and India throughout history.

72 A race struggle exists just as a national struggle exists. This struggle originated out of tribal warfare. Currently, the civilized white man attempts to adapt his country to an ever-changing environment. The nation must predict where the struggle will exist. Maintaining a strong national position becomes more and more a preparatory act. White men must act with insight on coming events.

73 We do well to remember that the law of inheritance governs mankind. Mankind will suffer if we raise the inferiors in our society to produce children. If any social or class prejudices allow tampering with this barbaric imposition of natural selection, our nation’s character will sharply decline in a few generations.

74 This ‘‘scientific view of a nation’’ allows an extremely efficient internal organization for a country. The country constantly improves its populace through this race struggle. The struggle for trade-routes and the struggle for sources of raw materials is only one additional way the race struggle presents itself. I have taken the natural history view of mankind here. I do not think you can effectively fight against the tenets of this logic.

75 The growth of anthropology The theories of Charles Darwin also influenced the new scientific field of _______________ – This branch of science emerged in the late _____century – Anthropology studies the stages of human cultural evolution Anthropologists strive to identify _______________ cultural traits of mankind through comparatively studying cultures Archaeologists and anthropologists debated the ancestry of 19th century savages – Theories ranged from being remnants of the Europe of old to degeneration from higher level civilizations – Arguments also occurred over savages’ ability to improve

76 Edward Burnett Tylor Edward Burnett Tylor advanced his doctrine of _________ to attempt to answer the debate This ____________________ anthropologist advocated that contemporary savages provided Europeans a rare opportunity to view their past The liberal _____________ in Tylor acknowledged the _______traits in savage culture – This culture contrasted with a few moral defects in European society

77 Edward Burnett Tylor Tylor’s theory ultimately held that savage culture developed outside of the ____________ of evolution Africans especially deviated from the normal cultural evolution of humans He therefore believed that European societies and cultures would always remain _____________

78 European colonizers used anthropology to implement imperialism Governments often sponsored ethnographic research in the 19th century to understand “primitive culture” This application of scientific research to political control essentially continued the tradition from the Enlightenment – Captain _____________South Pacific expeditions and Mungo Park’s African voyages exemplify this scientific- political mingling The mixing of scientific and political motives branched out into its own version in the late 19th century – Europeans believed their cultural superiority stemmed from_______________ – This permanent superiority also gave them the ______________to rule the world

79 The Height of New Imperialism Reaching the apex Europeans transformed the lives of colonial subjects by the dawn of the 20th century – Cultural practices, economic influences, social orders, and constructed environments of subjects all originated from Europe – The construction of colonial cities and establishment of a cash crop economy altered the makeup of the colonies – Introduction of Western education and the remapping of indigenous social hierarchies constituted two more important changes The first anti-colonial _________________ movements responded to these transformations Ordinary Europeans became more aware of these transformations as well – Colonies entered the political consciousness of Europe by World War I more than ever before – The possession of empire allowed non-Western culture to trickle back to Europe

80 3.12 CHARTING (pp )

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83 3.13 CHOICES (pp ) Natural selection. Identify whether the statements below describe Darwinian or Enlightenment thought. Mark both if the statements apply to both schools of thought.

84 3.13 CHOICES (pp )

85

86 3.14 ANALOGIES (pp ) 1. Meiji Restoration : Japan :: Taiping Rebellion : ____________________ China

87 3.14 ANALOGIES (pp ) 2. Benjamin Kidd : Social Evolution :: ____________________: National Life from the Standpoint of Science Karl Pearson

88 3.14 ANALOGIES (pp ) 3. Charles Darwin : Natural Selection :: ____________________: Doctrine of survivals Edward Burnett Tylor

89 3.14 ANALOGIES (pp ) 4. Mungo Park : Africa :: ____________________: Pacific Captain James Cook

90 3.14 ANALOGIES (pp ) 5. Kaiser Wilhelm II : Germany :: King Leopold II : ____________________ Belgium

91 3.14 ANALOGIES (pp ) 6. Bechuanaland : Botswana :: Rhodesia : ____________________ Zimbabwe

92 3.14 ANALOGIES (pp ) 7. Boxers : China :: Black Flags : ____________________ Vietnam

93 Colonial infrastructure construction Europeans turned to constructing colonial _______________________ and implementing colonial administration at the beginning of the 20th century – By this point, global conquest had largely come to an end – Imperialists built colonial cities, ports, and towns in less urbanized regions of empires Gateways, clock towers, hospitals, and schools soon filled these settlements – Europeans also undertook modernization projects in cities and ports such as Cairo, Bombay, Lagos, and Singapore Slums were cleared and new housing and roadways constructed – Highway systems, bridges, canals, and railway networks served as new methods of transportation

94 The Telegraph – The telegraph and other methods of communication became a part of the colonies – Telegraph lines first connected Europe to India in ________ – By 1871, a cable ran from _________________ to Shanghai, Hong Kong, and Singapore

95 European Models of Administration European models of administration became a part of colonial life – ___________services, the armed forces, judiciary authorities, and the police all underwent administrative changes – European-style education, including instruction in European languages, was also somewhat available Western-style medicine was another education topic granted to colonies Imperialists saw these tasks as crucial to colonial rule – The efficient transport of goods depended on _________ layouts in colonial ports and cities, as well as the construction of railroad lines European commercial exploitation depended on these advances – Infrastructure also held ____________& ___________importance Railroads and telegraphs prompted quick ______________________of European troops Street grids in urban areas allowed for the ______________________ of local populations

96 Regulation of Race Relations - The Modernization Agenda Europeans and natives received different areas within modernized cities and ports – Imperialists often received more ______________ and better ventilated residential areas These settlements were often nearly military settlements European institutions such as polo fields, clubs, and churches were designated as “white-only” – Natives clustered in unhealthy and crowded urban spaces The British successfully divided Madras into European and Indian quarters – Europeans inhabited __________ Town and Indians lived in __________Town

97 Economics Global trade had long run counter to the best interests of Africa and Asia – European conquest and the Industrial Revolution only widened this gap Industrial states in Europe exported manufactured goods to colonies – Colonies provided cash crops and other raw materials in return – More countries began flooding colonial markets by the late 19th century – The rise of __________________________ in the 1880s prevented colonies from entering into trade relationships outside of their colonizing country

98 Conquest and Coercion Late-19th century conquests ensured that colonists could coerce their subjects to implement and support agricultural and labor regimes – The use of a ________-based agricultural economy allowed peasants to move beyond subsistence farming – The production of crops for European industrial raw materials or ________ labor replaced more traditional work methods Wage labor appeared on both small farms and European-run plantations British India served as a major producer of cotton, indigo, opium, rice, and tea during this period – Many peasants paid a high price for the abrupt transition in their economies – The abandonment of subsistence farming left peasant populations more vulnerable to _______________

99 Commercial Fluctuations and Taxation International commerce fluctuations also affected indigenous peoples much more than they had in the past – ____________________in the early 20th century rendered Indian indigo completely obsolete Thousands of Indian indigo farmers went bankrupt – Indigo had previously served as the pinnacle of the British textile industry _________ remained high despite weakened economic positions – Many peasants migrated to cities and towns to work as urban laborers

100 Global migration of labor Modern transportation allowed Europeans to send millions of ______________ laborers to construct irrigation systems and railroads – Work in plantations and in mines was also common Migrant labor divided families and upset local demographic balances – _________________ laborers from Vietnam worked French Cambodian plantations – Tens of thousands of coolies migrated to British territories ________________ were Indian and Chinese laborers The location of coolies’ migrations included Burma, Australia, Malaya, Fiji, Ceylon, East Africa, the West Indies, and South Africa200 – Ceylon is now known as Sri Lanka – Indentured labor from existing colonies occasionally assisted in the colonization of new regions Laborers from India helped the British settle East Africa through the construction of railroads

101 Culture Western cultural influence spread throughout the world – Education, law and order, group relations, language, and dress code restructured the fabric of society – Dakar and Delhi currently exhibit European styles of _____________________ – African and Asian ___________networks demonstrate European cultural influence – Inhabitants of the West Indies and South Africa enjoy the British sport of___________ – Missionaries to India often wore a European blouse with a traditional sari

102 Colonial society included new divisions and hierarchies The founding of Western-style schools produced a Western-educated _________ in the colonies Imperialists hoped to create loyal subjects to serve in lower-level colonial administrative positions – European colonizers often favored the __________________ instead of newly educated professional classes Western-educated colonial subjects found themselves in the worst of both worlds – Europeans looked down upon them and excluded them from positions of power – Local populations also ostracized these local “traitors” Educated Algerians favored French over Arabic

103 European colonizers emphasized social identities of the colonized Social conflict bred between different indigenous groups as a result – British politicians in India in the late 19th century reinforced caste divisions The caste system divided up society based on birth – The British stated that caste was the foundation of traditional Indian society Caste served as only one of multiple social markers in pre-colonial India British authorities increasingly relied on _________ stereotypes – The ___________ and the__________were labeled “martial” These two groups were considered good recruits for the British army – The _______________ became inherently “criminal” and met suspicion and disgust – Classifications became more rigid as time went on Social boundaries became harder to surmount within Indian society

104 3.15 EITHER/OR (pp ) 1. Karl Pearson was a student of (LAW, POLITICS) and (CULTURAL, SOCIAL) and political psychology at (CAMBRIDGE, OXFORD) and a (MATHEMETICIAN, SCIENTIST). 2. Pearson held the (FIRST, SECOND) chair of eugenics at the (UNIVERSITY, LONDON) College and later became the (DIRECTOR, FOUNDER) of Eugenics there.

105 3.15 EITHER/OR (pp ) 3. He studied under Francis Gabon, the (FOUNDER, OPPONENT) of eugenics, the goal of which was selective (BREEDING, ENROLLING) of humans in order to improve the human race. 4. Pearson claimed to be a (COMMUNIST, SOCIALIST) but by (TODAY’S, HIS) standards his views are troubling and quite racist.

106 3.15 EITHER/OR (pp ) 5. He claimed that a country should (REPLENISH, CREATE) its “better” stock of humans at the (BENEFIT, EXPENSE) of other (“INFERIOR”, “SUPERIOR”) races in order to make progress and improve itself. 6. His principles of eugenics were carried out by (MANY, A HANDFUL) in the twentieth century in the (WESTERN, EASTERN) world, most notably perhaps the German (NAZI, NATIONAL) Party.

107 3.16 FILL IN THE BLANK (pp ) 1. “History shows me one way, and one way only, in which a ______________________ state of ______________________ has been produced, namely, the _____________________ of race with race, and ______________________ of the ______________________ and ______________________ fitter race.”

108 3.16 FILL IN THE BLANK (pp ) 2. “The struggle means ______________________, intense suffering, while it is in ______________________; but that struggle and that suffering have been the stages by which the white man has reached his present stage of ____________ and they ______________________ for the fact that he no longer lives in caves and feeds on roots and nuts.”

109 3.16 FILL IN THE BLANK (pp ) 3. “You may hope for a time when the ______________________ shall be turned into the ______________________, when American and German and English traders shall no longer compete in the markets of the world for their raw material and for their food ______________________, when the white man and the dark shall share the ______________________ between them…when that day comes ______________________ will no longer progress; there will be nothing to check the ______________________ of inferior ______________________.”

110 3.16 FILL IN THE BLANK (pp ) 4. “In the early days of that struggle it was a blind, ______________________ struggle of barbaric ______________________. At the present day, in the case of the ______________________ white man, it has become more and more the ______________________, carefully directed attempt of the nation to fit itself to a continuously ______________________ environment.”

111 3.16 FILL IN THE BLANK (pp ) 5. “We have to remember that man is subject to the ______________________ law of ______________________, and that a ______________________ of capacity may arise if we ______________________ our society from the inferior and not the ______________________ stock.”

112 3.16 FILL IN THE BLANK (pp ) 6. “You will see that my ______________________ …is that of an _____________ whole, kept up to a high pitch of internal ______________________ by insuring that its numbers are substantially recruited from the better stocks, and kept up a high pitch of ______________________ efficiency by contest, chiefly by way of war with inferior races, and with equal races by the struggle for ______________ and for the sources of raw material and of food supply.”

113 3.17 LISTING (p. 91) 1. Four areas of colonial life that Europeans changed -constructed environment -economic life -social order -cultural practices

114 3.17 LISTING (p. 91) 2. Four specific ways that Europeans sought to consolidate and exploit their power over the colonies. -building colonial cities -establishing cash crop economies -introducing Western education -remapping indigenous social hierarchies

115 3.17 LISTING (p. 91) 3. Four examples of places where cities and ports existed and Europeans undertook big modernization projects. -Cairo -Lagos -Singapore -Bombay

116 3.17 LISTING (p. 91) 4. Four new modes of transportation brought to the empires. -highway systems -bridges -canals -railway networks

117 Governing through… BRUTE FORCE

118 Governing the colonies through… …brute force King Leopold II of Belgium ruled the ________________ through brute force – The racist view of the colonial savage reached its logical endpoint through this colonial rule Belgian troops forced Congolese men into hard labor at gunpoint from 1898 to 1905; two common activities: – Construction of roads – military service After discharge from the military, Congolese men often worked as rural ___________________ – The rural police force caused the abandonment of subsistence farming and the implementation of _____________ production Natives who resisted were ____________ by the police These police then turned over baskets of severed ___________ to Belgian authorities as proof of punishment – Not all of these hands belonged to corpses

119 King Leopold II: (r – 1909)

120 Harvesting Rubber

121 Punishing “Lazy” Workers

122 Belgium’s Stranglehold on the Congo

123 Leopold’s Conscience??

124 5-8 Million Victims! (50% of Popul.) It is blood-curdling to see them (the soldiers) returning with the hands of the slain, and to find the hands of young children amongst the bigger ones evidencing their bravery...The rubber from this district has cost hundreds of lives, and the scenes I have witnessed, while unable to help the oppressed, have been almost enough to make me wish I were dead... This rubber traffic is steeped in blood, and if the natives were to rise and sweep every white person on the Upper Congo into eternity, there would still be left a fearful balance to their credit. -- Belgian Official

125 Governing the colonies through… …brute force European powers condemned Leopold’s de facto enslavement of Congo – Murder and maiming particularly constituted moral outrages – The ____________________assumed control of the colony in ______________ An official Belgian commission asserted that Leopold’s brutal methods cut the Congolese population in _____ – Scholars have recently estimated the effects of Leopold’s reign to be far worse – Some academics estimate that the population dropped from between ___ & _____million down to _____ million The _________________ also used brutal force in their African colonies

126 Governing the colonies through… indirect rule ____________ utilized indirect rule in its empire more than any other European power – The _____________________served as evidence that direct colonial involvement did not work in practice Hands-off policies delegated large amounts of power to chiefs, kings, and princes – These rulers were compelled to carry out the orders of colonial officials – Colonial __________ experienced the fullest use of British indirect rule Indirect rule prospered in the British Empire for multiple reasons – Dependence on local people ________ Britain far less than direct rule – The British also gained ________________ from colonial subjects through a reliance on tradition and indigenous leaders This legitimacy ostensibly stabilized colonial administrations and allowed them to better withstand local insurrection

127 Governing the colonies through… indirect rule Indirect rule also created many negative consequences for British colonies – Indigenous cultures did not remain intact, despite British claims to the contrary Indirect rule typically removed limitations previously in place on local ______________ Chiefs only had to answer to British colonial officials instead of local authorities – The British essentially cleared the path for the rise of ________ Fulani Emirs in ______________ largely acted as dictators – Britons also promoted ___________________to the detriment of other loyalties and social affiliations Indirect rule promoted tribal divisions and ethnic conflicts – Indirect rule neglected the higher ________of colonial subjects Western-educated Africans were seen as a threat to British rule

128 Governing the colonies through… the civilizing mission The French adopted a third method of rule over their African colonies Many parts of the French Empire experienced direct rule by French officials based on French laws and codes – This method of governance reflected the French _ _________________________ translates to “civilizing mission” The French sought to _______________ natives to the French culture – Even after other European nations moved away from ideas regarding assimilation, the French retained this method of colonial rule

129 Governing the colonies through… the civilizing mission Multiple ideas explain this idea in tandem – French _____________ partially accounts for the retaining of assimilation ideas – The French also believed that they had guarded European civilization for centuries The idea had its origins in universal ________________and Enlightenment ________________ French ___________________ incorporated these ideas into the French consciousness – _____________________had a lesser impact on French society French philosophy and science emphasized the role of _____________________ in human development

130 Governing the colonies through… the civilizing mission The French colonial government system had mixed results – This system of government destroyed cultural and political _____________ more fully than the British system – Natives, however, were viewed as potential ______________________ These colonial subjects could gain rights as French ______________after undergoing a civilizing process – France granted colonial subjects citizenship rights in some instances ________________ males received voting rights in ______ – ________________________went from Senegal to the French _________________________

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132 Governing the colonies through… the civilizing mission The promise of French _______________ involved acknowledging greater dependence on colonial masters – __________________ and self-autonomy were lost for colonial subjects in the process _________ often undermined French ideals of democracy and republicanism – Africans were often excluded from _______________posts in West Africa – These same subjects did not possess the right to __________ their own representatives

133 One Final Comparison French and British rule The French and British forms of colonial governance did not actually differ that greatly – Both counties relied on a combination of direct and indirect rule A European official often ruled in tandem with paid locals The French focused their ____________________ efforts on colonies with the greatest potential for Westernization – ____________ represents one such colony – The French otherwise only tried to improve natives within their own cultural contexts….three such colonies Indochina, Morocco, and Madagascar Darwinian ideas gradually gained strength in France – The debate over the possibility and desirability of colonial assimilation grew heated – The French abandoned the mission civilisatrice following __________ French and British rule differed more in theory than in _________

134 3.18 OUTLINING (pp ) I. Europeans transformed the constructed _______________________ in their colonial possessions in many ways. a. New methods of _______________________ i. Highway systems ii. Bridges iii. _______________________ iv. Railway networks b. New systems of ________________

135 3.18 OUTLINING (pp ) II. Europeans imposed their own models of _______________________ in the colonies a. Reorganized current systems i. Police ii. _______________________ iii. Judiciary iv. _______________________ service b. Introduced new Europeans ideas in some areas i. Education ii. _______________________

136 3.18 OUTLINING (pp ) III. All these changes were made for the safety and efficiency of the Europeans and their colonial goals a. _______________________ layouts in colonial cities and ports for easy transport of goods b. Railways and _______________________ for the rapid _______________________of European troops c. Colonial _______________________ cities to keep Europeans separated from natives d. Creation of _______________________ -style institutions i. Clubs ii. _______________________ fields iii. _______________________

137 3.19 FALSE (pp ) Fix! 1. The gap between metropole and colony in the late nineteenth century widened.

138 3.19 FALSE (pp ) Fix! 2. British India became a major producer of cash crops during the late nineteenth century, especially tea.

139 3.19 FALSE (pp ) Fix! 3. Indian indigo was long a staple of the British textile industry even after the invention of synthetic dyes in the early twentieth century.

140 3.19 FALSE (pp ) Fix! 4. The diaspora of migrant labor made the construction of infrastructure like railways and irrigation systems easier and also united families.

141 3.19 FALSE (pp ) Fix! 5. Europeans conquered by military, diplomatic, and economic means but did little to change culture in colonial areas.

142 3.19 FALSE (pp ) Fix! 6. One example of the influence of western culture is the popularity of soccer in the West Indies and South Asia.

143 3.19 FALSE (pp ) Fix! 7. Western-educated colonial subjects were able to bridge the gap between colonizers and the colonized.

144 3.19 FALSE (pp ) Fix! 8. The British rejected the caste system already in place in India.

145 3.20 CHOICES (pp ) Those Belgians didn’t waffle! Identify whether the statements below describe Belgian or British imperialism.

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149 3.21 IDENTIFY (pp , 92)

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151 3.22 WHO’S WHO? (pp )

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153 3.23 MULTIPLE CHOICE (pp ) 1.The French and the British a. employed strictly indirect rule. b. shared little in common in their ideologies or methods of rule. c. relied on purely direct rule and violent means to control the colonial population. d. combined direct rule through a European official with indirect rule through local officials as well. e. abandoned assimilation early on in their imperialist quests.

154 3.23 MULTIPLE CHOICE (pp ) 2. British rule a. cleared the way for benevolent local leaders to come to power. b. promoted higher education amongst colonial subjects. c. embraced and empowered Western-educated Africans. d. left indigenous culture intact. e. was less direct in Africa than it had been in India.

155 3. The French a. granted citizenship to all of its colonial subjects. b. and their policy of governance was less destructive to indigenous institutions than even British policy. c. Abandoned their policy of assimilation, or mission civilisatrice, as official policy after World War I. d. Were influenced by Darwin’s ideas earlier than many others in Europe. e. Policy of assimilation grew out of the Enlightenment and its basic principles.

156 STOP


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