2 Abiotic Factors- Non-living parts of the environment. Ecology:Study of interactionsbetween organismsand their environmentAbiotic Factors- Non-living parts of the environment.Scavenger-eats dead organismsProducer- Uses the sun to make food “autotroph”Biotic Factors- All the living parts of the environmentDecomposer- break down dead organisms and cause decayConsumer-organisms eat others for energy “heterotrophs”
3 Biotic vs. AbioticSee if you know the difference between the two!
12 Review: What are the Simplest Levels? AtomMoleculeOrganelleCellTissueOrganSystem
13 Levels of Organization 2. Populations- groups of organisms of the same species.1. Organism- individual possessing all 8 characteristics of life3. Community- group of populations living together.The 5 Levelsof EcologicalOrganization4. Ecosystem- living & nonliving parts interact together.5. Biosphere- part of the earth that supports life
14 Which Level of Ecological Organization Which Level of Ecological Organization? Take this quiz to see if you can tell the difference between the two!
23 Habitat & Niche Habitat is where something lives Niche is an organism’s total way of life (how it eats, competes with others)
24 Feeding Relationships Autotrophs: Organisms that make their own food (plants and some bacteria)….PRODUCERS!!Heterotrophs: Organisms that eat other organisms (they cannot make their own food)….CONSUMERS!!!
26 FYI- NicheIncludes all its interactions with the biotic and abiotic parts of the environmentEach type of organism occupies its own niche to avoid competition with other types of organismsTwo species can share the same habitat but not the same nicheExample: Ants and bacteria both live in the dirt (habitat) but have different niches. Ants eat dead insects and bacteria eat dead leaves, dead logs, and animal waste. So ants and bacteria don’t compete for resources.
27 Survival Relationships Predator-prey: predators are consumers that hunt and eat other organisms called prey.
28 Survival Relationships Symbiosis: relationship in which one species lives on, in, or near another species and affects its survival.3 Types:MutualismCommensalismsParasitism
29 Mutualism type of symbiosis in which both species benefit. Ex. Clownfish living in the sea anemones. It provides protection for the fish, and attracts potential food for the anemones.
31 Commensalismtype of symbiosis in which one species benefits and the other species is neither harmed nor benefitedExample: Spanish moss grows on the branches of trees. The moss gets a habitat and the tree gets nothing.
32 Parasitism one species benefits and the other species is harmed. Parasite: organism that harms but does not usually kill another organismHost: organism that is harmed by a parasiteEx. Ticks feed on dogs, people, etc. The ticks get food (blood) and the hosts lose blood and can be infected with disease.
33 Trophic levels and food chains Trophic level: A feeding level in an ecosystem.Food chain: lineup of organisms that shows who eats who.Shows how matter and energy move through an ecosystem.Directions: On your paper, draw a picture that goes with each trophic level.
34 Trophic Levels Eaten by Eaten by 1st trophic level: producers (make their own food)EatenbyEaten by2nd trophic level: primary consumer(eats plants)Bacteria3rd trophic level: secondary consumer (small carnivore)Eatenby4th trophic level: tertiary consumer (large carnivore)Last trophic level: decomposer (eats dead animals)
36 Energy PyramidEvery time an organism eats, it obtains energy from its food.Energy is transferred from the 1st 2nd 3rd trophic level and so on.of this energy is lost along the way during an organism’s metabolism and as heat.This energy can be measured in kilocalories (kcal).90%
37 Energy PyramidPicture that shows how much energy is transferred among the different trophic levels in a food chain; energy is lost as you move up the pyramid.
46 Do it yourself!1. AS AN INDIVIDUAL….sketch a foodchain including 4-5 animals on extra paper.2. AS A GROUP….On the paper provided, make your own food web using organisms from everyone’s food chains!3. Remember to include every trophic level4. Label all 15 organisms with their name and their trophic level (ex. Grass = producer)
47 Cycles in NatureThere is only a limited amount of resources (water, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon) on the earth.In order to keep these resources available to organisms, they must be recycled after they are used.Cycle: a process that recycles a resource so that you end up with what you started with.
48 Nitrogen Cycle1. Nitrogen fixation: Bacteria in the ground change nitrogen from the atmosphere (N2) to different nitrogen compounds5. Denitrification: Bacteria change the nitrogen compounds back to N2 and release it to the atmosphere2. These bacteria live in plants and transfer the nitrogen compounds to the plants4. Bacteria eat the dead animals and animal waste and take in the nitrogen compounds3. Animals eat the plants and take in the nitrogen compounds
50 Water Cycle 2. Seepage: Water seeps into the ground and plants use it 3. Transpiration: Plants give off water to the atmosphere1. Precipitation: Rain and snow fall from the atmosphere to the earth2. Runoff: Extra water runs off the land to lower-lying bodies of water3. Evaporation of water from the bodies of water back into the atmosphere
52 Carbon Cycle1. Carbon dioxide (CO2) and oxygen (O2) are found in the atmosphere2. Plants use CO2 to make their own food (photosynthesis)2. Animals and plants use the O2 to make energy (respiration)3. During photosynthesis, plants release O2 back into the atomosphere3. During respiration, animals and plants release CO2 back into the atomosphere
55 Populations What is a population? What are some factors that can contribute to the size of a population?
56 Organism Interactions Limit Population Size Organisms depend on each other for:So what happens when these factors change?ProtectionFoodReproductionShelter
57 Organism Interactions Limit Population Size Predation:What could happen if a predator is introduced to a population and there are no organisms to eat it?Unchecked for many years, the snakes caused the extinction of nearly every native bird species on the Pacific island of Guam
58 Organism Interactions Limit Population Size 2. Competition- What can happen if resources become limited?
59 Organism Interactions Limit Population Size 3. Crowding & StressAs pop. Increase in size and start straining their resources, they may become stressed. What are some examples of stress symptoms?AggressionDecrease in parental careDecreased fertilityDecreased resistance to disease
60 How do you determine human population size? Growth rate—amount that a population’s size changes over timeBirth rate—number of births occurring during a period of time (ADD)-- Death rate (or mortality rate)—number of deaths in a period of time (SUBTRACTS)
61 How do you determine human population size? Birth rate – death rate = growth rate- Positive number means the pop. is growing- Negative number means the pop. is shrinking
62 Human population size Other things that affect a population’s numbers: Life expectancy—how long on average an individual is expected to liveUS men: 72 yrs, US women: 79 yrsImmigration—individuals moving into a population (ADDS)Emigration—individuals moving out of a population (SUBTRACTS)
63 What can affect population size? When you figure out the number of individuals living in a certain area, this is called the population density.There are two limiting factors (biotic and abiotic) that can affect the pop. densityLimiting factor—any biotic or abiotic factor that restrains the growth of a population
64 What are limiting factors? Density-independent factors—factors that affect the population regardless of the population’s sizeEx: fires, climateDensity-dependent factors—factors whose effects on the population depend on the population’s sizeEx. food shortages, disease
65 Density- dependent or Density- independent Density- dependent or Density- independent? Take the following quiz to find out!
66 Predation Volcanic eruption Chemical pesticides Parasitism Forest fire Density-dependentVolcanic eruptionDensity-independentChemical pesticidesParasitismDensity-dependentForest fireDensity-independentMigration
68 FYI: How are communities formed? Communities are made of several populations living togetherThink back to population size. What are some limiting factors that can affect a community?
69 FYI: Forming Communities What would happen if people stopped cutting the grass in their yards?1. The grass would get taller & weeds would grow2. Later, bushes would grow; trees would appear, and different animals would enter the area3. After 30 years, it would eventually become a forest…BUT WHY?
70 Forming CommunitiesSuccession—orderly, natural changes and species replacements that take place in the communities of an ecosystem
71 CommunititesPrimary succession—development of a community in an area that did not previously existEx: new volcanic island, bare rock, sand duneHappens slowly
88 Savannahstropical or subtropical grasslands with scattered trees or shrubs
89 Savannahs Africa, South America, Australia Alternating wet/dry seasons Plants—short trees, shrubs, grassesAnimals– lions, giraffes, antelopes, kangaroo (in Australia)
90 receive less than 10 inches (25 cm) of rain each year Desertsreceive less than 10 inches (25 cm) of rain each yearCan be hot or cold!Most plants and animals adapted to storing/saving waterRainfall is a limiting factor
91 DesertsPlants: cacti and other succulents (plants with thick/waxy leaves that can store water)
105 Pollution Pollution—of air, water, soil. Acid rain kills aquatic life and plant life—disrupts food webToo much nitrogen/phosphates from runoff damages lakes by disrupting plant/algae growth and food websToxins (heavy metals, organic chemicals) cause illnesses, cancers in humans
106 OzoneOzone—naturally occurring gas (O3) that screens most of UV light from sunHumans are releasing Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC) from refrigerator chemicals and aerosol cans.Chemicals destroy ozone. Is causing a hole in the ozone layer. Could lead to more cancersGround level ozone contributes to smog and breathing problems.Shelby and Jefferson Co. frequently exceed the legal limit (Ozone Alert Days/Air Quality Index)
107 Human ImpactHuman overpopulation—resources are limited while waste increasesLoss of biodiversity—deforestation, urban sprawl, endangered species (habitat loss and illegal animal trade), invasive species, overfishing
108 Global Warming/Climate Change Greenhouse effect—The natural warming of the Earth due to gasses present in the atmosphere (CO2 and methane) .These gasses trap in heat from the sun.Concern: humans ARE releasing more pollutants and gasses, such as carbon dioxide, into the air. Average temperature HAS increased. Strange weather patterns notedHow we’re releasing gasses/pollutants: burning fossil fuels for energy, burning rainforest, chemical industry wastes
109 Global Warming/Climate Change The debate:Are these gasses allowing more heat to be trapped, leading to a rise in global temperatures?Is the recorded temperature rise and changing weather patterns a normal response to many factors, all of which we may not understand?Predictions:Earth warms up, polar ice caps and glaciers melt all over world, sea levels rise, massive flooding and global climate changes occurs. Increase in water born diseases.Global warming will be a mild problem