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1 What is Ecology?. 2 Ecology: Study of interactions between organisms and their environment Abiotic Factors- Non-living parts of the environment. Biotic.

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Presentation on theme: "1 What is Ecology?. 2 Ecology: Study of interactions between organisms and their environment Abiotic Factors- Non-living parts of the environment. Biotic."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 What is Ecology?

2 2 Ecology: Study of interactions between organisms and their environment Abiotic Factors- Non-living parts of the environment. Biotic Factors- All the living parts of the environment Producer- Uses the sun to make food “autotroph” Consumer- organisms eat others for energy “heterotrophs” Decomposer- break down dead organisms and cause decay Scavenger-eats dead organisms

3 3 See if you know the difference between the two!

4 4 Abiotic or Biotic? Biotic

5 5 Abiotic

6 6 Abiotic

7 7 Biotic

8 8 Biotic Factors Review

9 9 Biotic Factors Producers Organisms that make their own food. Ex- Plants & some bacteria Producers Organisms that make their own food. Ex- Plants & some bacteria Consumers: Organisms that eat (consume) other organisms for energy (animals) Consumers: Organisms that eat (consume) other organisms for energy (animals)

10 10 Biotic Factors Decomposers: Consumers that eat waste products for energy. Waste products are feces, urine, fallen leaves, dead animals. (Fungi, some bacteria)

11 11 Levels of Organization

12 12 Review: What are the Simplest Levels? AtomAtom MoleculeMolecule OrganelleOrganelle CellCell TissueTissue OrganOrgan System System AtomAtom MoleculeMolecule OrganelleOrganelle CellCell TissueTissue OrganOrgan System System

13 Levels of Organization Populations- groups of organisms of the same species. 1. Organism- individual possessing all 8 characteristics of life The 5 Levels of Ecological Organization 3. Community- group of populations living together. 4. Ecosystem- living & nonliving parts interact together. 5. Biosphere- part of the earth that supports life

14 14 Which Level of Ecological Organization? Take this quiz to see if you can tell the difference between the two!

15 15 Which Level? Organism

16 16 Which Level of Organization? PopulationPopulation

17 17 Which Level of Organization? Biological Community:Biological Community:

18 18 Which Level of Organization? Ecosystem:Ecosystem:

19 19 Which Level of Organization? Biosphere:Biosphere:

20 20 What level of organization? Organism

21 21 What level of Organization? Community

22 22 What level of Organization? Population

23 23 Habitat & Niche Habitat is where something livesHabitat is where something lives Niche is an organism’s total way of life (how it eats, competes with others)Niche is an organism’s total way of life (how it eats, competes with others) Habitat is where something livesHabitat is where something lives Niche is an organism’s total way of life (how it eats, competes with others)Niche is an organism’s total way of life (how it eats, competes with others)

24 24 Feeding Relationships Autotrophs: Organisms that make their own food (plants and some bacteria)….PRODUCERS!! Heterotrophs: Organisms that eat other organisms (they cannot make their own food)….CONSUMERS!!!

25 25 Feeding Relationships Herbivores: eat plants (cows) Carnivores: eat meat (wolves) Omnivores: eat plants and meat (humans) Detrivore: eat decaying (dead) materials

26 26 FYI- Niche Includes all its interactions with the biotic and abiotic parts of the environment Each type of organism occupies its own niche to avoid competition with other types of organisms Two species can share the same habitat but not the same niche Includes all its interactions with the biotic and abiotic parts of the environment Each type of organism occupies its own niche to avoid competition with other types of organisms Two species can share the same habitat but not the same niche Example: Ants and bacteria both live in the dirt (habitat) but have different niches. Ants eat dead insects and bacteria eat dead leaves, dead logs, and animal waste. So ants and bacteria don’t compete for resources.

27 27 Survival Relationships Predator-prey: predators are consumers that hunt and eat other organisms called prey.

28 28 Survival Relationships Symbiosis: relationship in which one species lives on, in, or near another species and affects its survival. 3 Types: –Mutualism –Commensalisms –Parasitism Symbiosis: relationship in which one species lives on, in, or near another species and affects its survival. 3 Types: –Mutualism –Commensalisms –Parasitism

29 29 Mutualism type of symbiosis in which both species benefit. –Ex. Clownfish living in the sea anemones. It provides protection for the fish, and attracts potential food for the anemones. type of symbiosis in which both species benefit. –Ex. Clownfish living in the sea anemones. It provides protection for the fish, and attracts potential food for the anemones.

30 30

31 31 Commensalism type of symbiosis in which one species benefits and the other species is neither harmed nor benefited –Example: Spanish moss grows on the branches of trees. The moss gets a habitat and the tree gets nothing. type of symbiosis in which one species benefits and the other species is neither harmed nor benefited –Example: Spanish moss grows on the branches of trees. The moss gets a habitat and the tree gets nothing.

32 32 Parasitism one species benefits and the other species is harmed. –Parasite: organism that harms but does not usually kill another organism –Host: organism that is harmed by a parasite Ex. Ticks feed on dogs, people, etc. The ticks get food (blood) and the hosts lose blood and can be infected with disease. one species benefits and the other species is harmed. –Parasite: organism that harms but does not usually kill another organism –Host: organism that is harmed by a parasite Ex. Ticks feed on dogs, people, etc. The ticks get food (blood) and the hosts lose blood and can be infected with disease.

33 33 Trophic levels and food chains Trophic level: A feeding level in an ecosystem. Food chain: lineup of organisms that shows who eats who. –Shows how matter and energy move through an ecosystem. Directions: On your paper, draw a picture that goes with each trophic level. Trophic level: A feeding level in an ecosystem. Food chain: lineup of organisms that shows who eats who. –Shows how matter and energy move through an ecosystem. Directions: On your paper, draw a picture that goes with each trophic level.

34 34 Eaten by 1 st trophic level: producers (make their own food) 2 nd trophic level: primary consumer (eats plants) 3 rd trophic level: secondary consumer (small carnivore) 4 th trophic level: tertiary consumer (large carnivore) Eaten by Eaten by Last trophic level: decomposer (eats dead animals) Bacteria Eaten by

35 35

36 36 Energy Pyramid Every time an organism eats, it obtains energy from its food. Energy is transferred from the 1st  2nd  3rd trophic level and so on. of this energy is lost along the way during an organism’s metabolism and as heat. This energy can be measured in kilocalories (kcal). Every time an organism eats, it obtains energy from its food. Energy is transferred from the 1st  2nd  3rd trophic level and so on. of this energy is lost along the way during an organism’s metabolism and as heat. This energy can be measured in kilocalories (kcal).

37 37 Energy Pyramid Picture that shows how much energy is transferred among the different trophic levels in a food chain; energy is lost as you move up the pyramid.

38 38 Trophic LevelEnergy Available 1 st Producers 10,000 kcal/m 2 /year 2 nd Primary consumers 1000 kcal/m 2 /year 4 th Tertiary consumers 10 kcal/m 2 /year 3 rd Secondary consumers 100 kcal/m 2 /year

39 39

40 40

41 41 Some energy is lost as heat and the rest is consumed or excreted as waste.

42 42 Food Webs A food web is a network of connected food chains. More realistic than a food chain because most organisms feed on more than one species for food.

43 43

44 44 Practice with Food Chains & Food Webs

45 45 Identify the food chains inside the food web.

46 46 Do it yourself! 1. AS AN INDIVIDUAL….sketch a foodchain including 4-5 animals on extra paper. 2. AS A GROUP….On the paper provided, make your own food web using organisms from everyone’s food chains! 3. Remember to include every trophic level 4. Label all 15 organisms with their name and their trophic level (ex. Grass = producer) 1. AS AN INDIVIDUAL….sketch a foodchain including 4-5 animals on extra paper. 2. AS A GROUP….On the paper provided, make your own food web using organisms from everyone’s food chains! 3. Remember to include every trophic level 4. Label all 15 organisms with their name and their trophic level (ex. Grass = producer)

47 47 Cycles in Nature There is only a limited amount of resources (water, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon) on the earth. In order to keep these resources available to organisms, they must be recycled after they are used. Cycle: a process that recycles a resource so that you end up with what you started with. There is only a limited amount of resources (water, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon) on the earth. In order to keep these resources available to organisms, they must be recycled after they are used. Cycle: a process that recycles a resource so that you end up with what you started with.

48 48 Nitrogen Cycle 1. Nitrogen fixation: Bacteria in the ground change nitrogen from the atmosphere (N 2 ) to different nitrogen compounds 2. These bacteria live in plants and transfer the nitrogen compounds to the plants 3. Animals eat the plants and take in the nitrogen compounds 4. Bacteria eat the dead animals and animal waste and take in the nitrogen compounds 5. Denitrification: Bacteria change the nitrogen compounds back to N 2 and release it to the atmosphere

49 49 Nitrogen Cycle

50 50 Water Cycle 1. Precipitation: Rain and snow fall from the atmosphere to the earth 2. Seepage: Water seeps into the ground and plants use it 3. Transpiration: Plants give off water to the atmosphere 2. Runoff: Extra water runs off the land to lower-lying bodies of water 3. Evaporation of water from the bodies of water back into the atmosphere

51 51 Water Cycle

52 52 Carbon Cycle 1. Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and oxygen (O 2 ) are found in the atmosphere 2. Animals and plants use the O 2 to make energy (respiration) 2. Plants use CO 2 to make their own food (photosynthesis) 3. During respiration, animals and plants release CO 2 back into the atomosphere 3. During photosynthesis, plants release O 2 back into the atomosphere

53 53 Carbon Cycle

54 54 Population Size

55 55 Populations What is a population? What are some factors that can contribute to the size of a population? What is a population? What are some factors that can contribute to the size of a population?

56 56 Organism Interactions Limit Population Size Organisms depend on each other for: So what happens when these factors change? Organisms depend on each other for: So what happens when these factors change? Food Protection Reproduction Shelter

57 57 Organism Interactions Limit Population Size 1.Predation: –What could happen if a predator is introduced to a population and there are no organisms to eat it? 1.Predation: –What could happen if a predator is introduced to a population and there are no organisms to eat it? Unchecked for many years, the snakes caused the extinction of nearly every native bird species on the Pacific island of Guam

58 58 Organism Interactions Limit Population Size 2. Competition - What can happen if resources become limited? 2. Competition - What can happen if resources become limited?

59 59 Organism Interactions Limit Population Size 3. Crowding & Stress –As pop. Increase in size and start straining their resources, they may become stressed. What are some examples of stress symptoms? Aggression Decrease in parental care Decreased fertility Decreased resistance to disease 3. Crowding & Stress –As pop. Increase in size and start straining their resources, they may become stressed. What are some examples of stress symptoms? Aggression Decrease in parental care Decreased fertility Decreased resistance to disease

60 60 How do you determine human population size? Growth rate—amount that a population’s size changes over time –Birth rate—number of births occurring during a period of time (ADD) -- Death rate (or mortality rate)— number of deaths in a period of time (SUBTRACTS) Growth rate—amount that a population’s size changes over time –Birth rate—number of births occurring during a period of time (ADD) -- Death rate (or mortality rate)— number of deaths in a period of time (SUBTRACTS)

61 61 How do you determine human population size? Birth rate – death rate = growth rate - Positive number means the pop. is growing - Negative number means the pop. is shrinking Birth rate – death rate = growth rate - Positive number means the pop. is growing - Negative number means the pop. is shrinking

62 62 Human population size Other things that affect a population’s numbers: Life expectancy—how long on average an individual is expected to live –US men: 72 yrs, US women: 79 yrs Immigration—individuals moving into a population (ADDS) Emigration—individuals moving out of a population (SUBTRACTS) Other things that affect a population’s numbers: Life expectancy—how long on average an individual is expected to live –US men: 72 yrs, US women: 79 yrs Immigration—individuals moving into a population (ADDS) Emigration—individuals moving out of a population (SUBTRACTS)

63 63 What can affect population size? When you figure out the number of individuals living in a certain area, this is called the population density. There are two limiting factors (biotic and abiotic) that can affect the pop. density Limiting factor—any biotic or abiotic factor that restrains the growth of a population When you figure out the number of individuals living in a certain area, this is called the population density. There are two limiting factors (biotic and abiotic) that can affect the pop. density Limiting factor—any biotic or abiotic factor that restrains the growth of a population

64 64 What are limiting factors? Density-independent factors—factors that affect the population regardless of the population’s size –Ex: fires, climate Density-dependent factors—factors whose effects on the population depend on the population’s size –Ex. food shortages, disease Density-independent factors—factors that affect the population regardless of the population’s size –Ex: fires, climate Density-dependent factors—factors whose effects on the population depend on the population’s size –Ex. food shortages, disease

65 65 Density- dependent or Density- independent? Take the following quiz to find out!

66 66 Predation –Density-dependent Volcanic eruption –Density-independent Chemical pesticides –Density-independent Predation –Density-dependent Volcanic eruption –Density-independent Chemical pesticides –Density-independent Parasitism –Density-dependent Forest fire –Density-independent Migration –Density-dependent

67 67 Communities

68 68 FYI: How are communities formed? Communities are made of several populations living together Think back to population size. What are some limiting factors that can affect a community? Communities are made of several populations living together Think back to population size. What are some limiting factors that can affect a community?

69 69 FYI: Forming Communities What would happen if people stopped cutting the grass in their yards? 1. The grass would get taller & weeds would grow 2. Later, bushes would grow; trees would appear, and different animals would enter the area 3. After 30 years, it would eventually become a forest…BUT WHY? What would happen if people stopped cutting the grass in their yards? 1. The grass would get taller & weeds would grow 2. Later, bushes would grow; trees would appear, and different animals would enter the area 3. After 30 years, it would eventually become a forest…BUT WHY?

70 70 Forming Communities Succession—orderly, natural changes and species replacements that take place in the communities of an ecosystem Succession—orderly, natural changes and species replacements that take place in the communities of an ecosystem

71 71 Communitites Primary succession— development of a community in an area that did not previously exist –Ex: new volcanic island, bare rock, sand dune –Happens slowly Primary succession— development of a community in an area that did not previously exist –Ex: new volcanic island, bare rock, sand dune –Happens slowly

72 72

73 73 Communities Pioneer species—usually small, fast growing, and fast reproducing organisms that are first to colonize land after a disturbance Example of primary succession: lichens Pioneer species—usually small, fast growing, and fast reproducing organisms that are first to colonize land after a disturbance Example of primary succession: lichens

74 74 Communities Secondary succession— sequential replacement of species that follows a disruption of an existing community Example of secondary succession: fire, tornado Secondary succession— sequential replacement of species that follows a disruption of an existing community Example of secondary succession: fire, tornado

75 75

76 76 Communities Climax community— stable end point of a community after succession takes place Climax community— stable end point of a community after succession takes place

77 77 Biomes

78 78 Biomes Biomes—very large ecosystems that are distinguished by characteristic plants and animals. Terrestrial—land based Aquatic—water based Biomes—very large ecosystems that are distinguished by characteristic plants and animals. Terrestrial—land based Aquatic—water based

79 79 Tundra extreme northern latitudes cold, largely treeless permafrost—permanently frozen layer of soil extreme northern latitudes cold, largely treeless permafrost—permanently frozen layer of soil

80 80 Tundra long, cold winters and very short summers short growing season limits the producers in food webs very little precipitation thin, poor soil that can only support shallow-root plants long, cold winters and very short summers short growing season limits the producers in food webs very little precipitation thin, poor soil that can only support shallow-root plants

81 81 Tundra plants: grass, moss, small shrubs animals: caribou, snowy owl, artic fox, mosquitoes in summer, hares, reindeer. (Most migrate here in summer) plants: grass, moss, small shrubs animals: caribou, snowy owl, artic fox, mosquitoes in summer, hares, reindeer. (Most migrate here in summer)

82 82 Taiga forested biome with evergreen conifers South of tundra Long winters, but overall warmer and wetter than tundra Abundance of trees provides more food/shelter than tundra forested biome with evergreen conifers South of tundra Long winters, but overall warmer and wetter than tundra Abundance of trees provides more food/shelter than tundra

83 83 Taiga Plants: pines, firs, some grasses Animals: moose, bears, wolves, lynx Plants: pines, firs, some grasses Animals: moose, bears, wolves, lynx

84 84 Temperate deciduous forests characterized by trees that lose all their leaves in fall (Alabaster, AL) Receive constant rainfall ( cm annually) Longer summers Rich topsoil with layer of clay underneath characterized by trees that lose all their leaves in fall (Alabaster, AL) Receive constant rainfall ( cm annually) Longer summers Rich topsoil with layer of clay underneath

85 85 Temperate deciduous forests Plants: hickory, maples, oaks Animals: deer, hawk, squirrel, rabbits, bears Plants: hickory, maples, oaks Animals: deer, hawk, squirrel, rabbits, bears

86 86 Grasslands Usually in interiors of continents (Prairies & Savannas) Rainfall is not enough to support large trees Usually in interiors of continents (Prairies & Savannas) Rainfall is not enough to support large trees

87 87 Grasslands Plants: dominated by grasses Animals: jackrabbits, bison, deer, prairie dogs Plants: dominated by grasses Animals: jackrabbits, bison, deer, prairie dogs

88 88 Savannahs tropical or subtropical grasslands with scattered trees or shrubs

89 89 Savannahs Africa, South America, Australia Alternating wet/dry seasons Plants—short trees, shrubs, grasses Animals– lions, giraffes, antelopes, kangaroo (in Australia) Africa, South America, Australia Alternating wet/dry seasons Plants—short trees, shrubs, grasses Animals– lions, giraffes, antelopes, kangaroo (in Australia)

90 90 Deserts receive less than 10 inches (25 cm) of rain each year Can be hot or cold! Most plants and animals adapted to storing/saving water Rainfall is a limiting factor receive less than 10 inches (25 cm) of rain each year Can be hot or cold! Most plants and animals adapted to storing/saving water Rainfall is a limiting factor

91 91 Deserts Plants: cacti and other succulents (plants with thick/waxy leaves that can store water)

92 92 Deserts

93 93 Deserts Animals: tortoises, desert fox, kangaroo rat, coyotes, scorpions, camels –Most animals stay hidden during day Animals: tortoises, desert fox, kangaroo rat, coyotes, scorpions, camels –Most animals stay hidden during day

94 94 Tropical rain forests tall trees Stable, year round growing seasons Warm weather year round Most biologically diverse biome Average temp 25 degrees C tall trees Stable, year round growing seasons Warm weather year round Most biologically diverse biome Average temp 25 degrees C

95 95 Tropical rain forests Many niches b/c of “vertical layering” in forest Canopy (sunny tree tops), understory (dark/moist where smaller trees, ferns, shrubs grow), ground level Many niches b/c of “vertical layering” in forest Canopy (sunny tree tops), understory (dark/moist where smaller trees, ferns, shrubs grow), ground level

96 96 Tropical rain forests Plants—trees of all sizes, herbs, grasses Animals—monkeys, birds, jaguars,( and lots more…) Plants—trees of all sizes, herbs, grasses Animals—monkeys, birds, jaguars,( and lots more…)

97 97 Aquatic Biomes: Marine biomes—saltwater areas –Contains different zones based on light availability Marine biomes—saltwater areas –Contains different zones based on light availability

98 98 Aquatic Biomes: Estuaries—coastal body of water, partially surrounded by land in which freshwater and salt water mix

99 99 Aquatic Biomes: Freshwater biome—lakes, ponds, rivers, streams –Tadpoles, fish, insects, turtles, beavers, algae, water plants –Water temperature and light are limiting factors Freshwater biome—lakes, ponds, rivers, streams –Tadpoles, fish, insects, turtles, beavers, algae, water plants –Water temperature and light are limiting factors

100 100 Aquatic Biomes: Wetlands—where land and water meet

101 101 Aquatic Biomes: Swamps—have trees and running water

102 102 Aquatic Biomes: Marshes—no trees, but has running water

103 103 Aquatic Biomes: Bogs—get water supply from rain

104 104 Environmental Concerns

105 105 Pollution Pollution—of air, water, soil. –Acid rain kills aquatic life and plant life— disrupts food web –Too much nitrogen/phosphates from runoff damages lakes by disrupting plant/algae growth and food webs –Toxins (heavy metals, organic chemicals) cause illnesses, cancers in humans Pollution—of air, water, soil. –Acid rain kills aquatic life and plant life— disrupts food web –Too much nitrogen/phosphates from runoff damages lakes by disrupting plant/algae growth and food webs –Toxins (heavy metals, organic chemicals) cause illnesses, cancers in humans

106 106 Ozone –Ozone—naturally occurring gas (O3) that screens most of UV light from sun Humans are releasing Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC) from refrigerator chemicals and aerosol cans. Chemicals destroy ozone. Is causing a hole in the ozone layer. Could lead to more cancers Ground level ozone contributes to smog and breathing problems. Shelby and Jefferson Co. frequently exceed the legal limit (Ozone Alert Days/Air Quality Index) –Ozone—naturally occurring gas (O3) that screens most of UV light from sun Humans are releasing Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC) from refrigerator chemicals and aerosol cans. Chemicals destroy ozone. Is causing a hole in the ozone layer. Could lead to more cancers Ground level ozone contributes to smog and breathing problems. Shelby and Jefferson Co. frequently exceed the legal limit (Ozone Alert Days/Air Quality Index)

107 107 Human Impact Human overpopulation—resources are limited while waste increases Loss of biodiversity—deforestation, urban sprawl, endangered species (habitat loss and illegal animal trade), invasive species, overfishing Human overpopulation—resources are limited while waste increases Loss of biodiversity—deforestation, urban sprawl, endangered species (habitat loss and illegal animal trade), invasive species, overfishing

108 108 Global Warming/Climate Change –Greenhouse effect—The natural warming of the Earth due to gasses present in the atmosphere (CO2 and methane).These gasses trap in heat from the sun. –Concern: humans ARE releasing more pollutants and gasses, such as carbon dioxide, into the air. Average temperature HAS increased. Strange weather patterns noted How we’re releasing gasses/pollutants: burning fossil fuels for energy, burning rainforest, chemical industry wastes –Greenhouse effect—The natural warming of the Earth due to gasses present in the atmosphere (CO2 and methane).These gasses trap in heat from the sun. –Concern: humans ARE releasing more pollutants and gasses, such as carbon dioxide, into the air. Average temperature HAS increased. Strange weather patterns noted How we’re releasing gasses/pollutants: burning fossil fuels for energy, burning rainforest, chemical industry wastes

109 109 Global Warming/Climate Change –The debate: Are these gasses allowing more heat to be trapped, leading to a rise in global temperatures? Is the recorded temperature rise and changing weather patterns a normal response to many factors, all of which we may not understand? –Predictions: Earth warms up, polar ice caps and glaciers melt all over world, sea levels rise, massive flooding and global climate changes occurs. Increase in water born diseases. Global warming will be a mild problem –The debate: Are these gasses allowing more heat to be trapped, leading to a rise in global temperatures? Is the recorded temperature rise and changing weather patterns a normal response to many factors, all of which we may not understand? –Predictions: Earth warms up, polar ice caps and glaciers melt all over world, sea levels rise, massive flooding and global climate changes occurs. Increase in water born diseases. Global warming will be a mild problem


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