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1 More Than An EyeWitness Evidence for Evolution.

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Presentation on theme: "1 More Than An EyeWitness Evidence for Evolution."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 More Than An EyeWitness Evidence for Evolution

2 2 Sources of Evidence From the fossil recordFrom studies of anatomy From studies of embryology From studies of DNA From observation Biochemistry

3 3 EVIDENCE FROM FOSSILS From the fossil record

4 4 Transitional Organisms If evolution has occurred in the past there should be evidence of transitional organisms in the fossil record.

5 5 Archeopteryx Archeopteryx shows evidence of the evolution of birds from reptiles….there is evidence of feathers, a characteristic of birds, and claws, a characteristic of reptiles.

6 6 EVIDENCE FROM ANATOMY From studies of anatomy

7 7

8 8 Did you write down all your Guesses? IF SO: CLICK!!!!

9 9

10 10 Did you write down all your Guesses? IF SO: CLICK!!!!

11 11 Identify how each organism uses its forelimb FrogLizardBat Human LionSea Lion bird balanceWalkingflyingMultiple uses walkingswimmingflying

12 12 Anatomical Studies show Homologous parts – similar in structure but not necessarily function – evidence of evolution from common ancestor Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

13 13 Anatomical studies show... Name two other organisms that have the ability to fly but have wings very different than those of the bird or the bat?

14 14 Analogous structures Butterflies or insects have wings but they are very different from the birds. These organisms do not have a common ancestor but have adapted to a similar environment. Again evolution explains the similarities. Copyright © The McGraw Hill Companies. Permission required for reproduction or display

15 15 Anatomical studies show Vestigial parts – why does a whale have a pelvis and femur bones if it has no hind limbs?

16 16 Vestigial structures Why does this salamander have eyes if it never sees the light of day?

17 17 Vestigial structures

18 18 Did you write down all your Answers? IF SO: CLICK!!!!

19 19 Why do these structures occur? These structures may be homologous to ones that had a function in the ancestors of these organisms thus suggesting their evolution from this common ancestor.

20 20 Anatomical Studies Anatomical studies of cells show a commonality in structure of the cell membrane among almost all living things. Does this suggest a common ancestor for all life?

21 21 EVIDENCE FROM EMBRYOLOGY From studies of embryology

22 22 Embryology Studies Even though it may not be apparent during the first stage (A) these five organisms are very different when born and at later stages of embryonic development. Why do they look so similar initially? Copyright © The McGraw Hill Companies. Permission required for reproduction or display Stage (A) ABCDE

23 23 Did you THINK about it? Did you write down all your Guesses? IF SO: CLICK!!!!

24 24 Embryology Studies The organisms are: –Fish –Salamander –Chicken –Rabbit –Human –Why would these five, so different looking organisms at birth, look so similar before birth?

25 25 More about embryological studies

26 26 EVIDENCE FROM BIOCHEMISTRY

27 27 Studies of Biochemistry SpeciesSequence of Amino Acids in the Same part of the Hemoglobin Molecule HumanLys-Glu-His-Iso HorseArg-Lys-His-Lys GorillaLys-Glu-His-Lys ChimpanzeeLys-Glu-His-Iso ZebraArg-Lys-His-Arg

28 28 Which organisms appear to be more closely related to each other? Human and chimpanzee have no differences in their amino acid sequence suggesting their close evolutionary relationship, they have a more recent common ancestor. Studies of other chemicals, like proteins used in digestion, show similar comparisons in these organisms.

29 29 EVIDENCE FROM DNA From studies of DNA

30 30 DNA The sequence of the nucleotides making up their DNA would also be similar because DNA determines the sequence of amino acids in proteins. From studies of DNA

31 31 DIRECT OBSERVATION OF EVOLUTION OCCURRING IN MODERN DAY ORGANISMS From observation

32 32 Observations of Evolution in modern organisms Mosquitoes resistance to insecticides Bacteria resistance to antibiotics New strains of Plasmodium that cause Malaria New strains of TB (tuberculosis) Peppered moth Darwin finches

33 33 Has and Does Evolution Occur? Scientists do not dispute that evolution does occur. Evolution is a FACT. How evolution occurs is not completely understood. Charles Darwin explained how evolution occurred through natural selection. Natural selection is a well documented THEORY uniting all of biology. Modern evolutionary theory uses ideas of genetics, particularly mutations, to help explain how evolution may occur. (Darwin didn’t know about mutations.)


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