Presentation on theme: "Ann C. Sharp, PhD Lori Brandt, PhD Utah Valley University"— Presentation transcript:
1 Ann C. Sharp, PhD Lori Brandt, PhD Utah Valley University An Effective Coexistence: Explicit and Systematic Kindergarten Literacy Instruction and PlayfulnessAnn C. Sharp, PhDLori Brandt, PhDUtah Valley University
2 A year long investigation in a kindergarten classroom
3 BackgroundCame out of research being done on an early childhood instructional approach calledSystematic Engaging Early Literacy Instruction(SEEL)(Culatta & Hall, 2006; Culatta, et al. 2007)
4 Systematic Engaging Early Literacy Instruction (SEEL) A cooperative effort between Speech Language Pathology and Early Childhood Literacy Departments atBrigham Young UniversityCreated by Dr. Barbara CulattaUnder development by a team of literacy expertsDirected by Dr. Culatta & Dr. Hall-Kenyon.
5 SEEL InstructionMultiple and explicit exposures to the targeted literacy skill (Rayner, et al., 2001)Literacy skill is explicitly statedModeledPracticedA combination of seeing, hearing, saying, doing, or touching are combined to provide multiple pathways to memory (Adams, 1990; Fisher & Frey, 2008)Playful scenarios tap into autobiographical memories and ensure engagement (Tulving, 1993)
6 Teachers model instruction playfully often using creative drama-like principles (Deasy, 2002) Meaningful connections related to what children already know and think about (Gallego & Hollingsworth, 2000)Responsive reciprocal interactions such as turn-taking, attentive listening and waiting for children’s responses (Neuman & Roskos, 1997)Phonologically grounded focusing on rhyme and onset and rime, incorporating letter knowledge, through rhyming and alliteration (Snow, Burns, & Griffin, 1998)
7 playING with RhymeChildren may pack a black backpack with ack things like a rack and a tack and a snack. The snack might crack and the snack pack might not have a back. They may take their black backpack that they have packed to the shack by the track and enjoy their snack.
8 Sound Segmenting and Blending Take words apart and put them back together againTalk like a robotCount words, syllables, soundsClap, march, tap out words, syllables, soundsPlay ‘push and say’Make up words from word partsb acks ackt ack
9 Sound to Print playING with rhyming words Children segment and blend rhymed words into their onsets and rimesChange the onset to make new wordsUse letters/cards to connect to print by reading p ack, b ack, s ack
10 Preschool success!In preschool the SEEL curriculum showed tremendous potential as investigations demonstrated preschoolers gaining in their abilities to rhyme and to use letter/sound knowledge(Culatta, Kovarsky, Theadore, Franklin, &Timler, 2003; Culatta, Hall, Kovarsky, &Theadore, 2007)
11 KindergartenThe first year the SEEL curriculum was tested in Kindergarten, children showed gains in rhyming and letter/sound knowledge, but were not statistically showing significant gains in word identification skills.(unpublished manuscript Culatta, Hall & Bingham…)
12 Reading Research Suggests Explicit systematic phonics/spelling instruction is necessary for successful word identification(Beck & Juel, 1995; Adams, 1990; Stanovich, 1986; NRP, 2000)Phonics and spelling are heavily influenced by phonological awareness(Blachman, 1994; Brady & Fowler, 1988; Ehri et al., 2001; Wagner, Torgesen, & Rashotte, 1994)Beginning phonics instruction should be integrated with phonological awareness instruction(Cunningham, 1990; Gillon, 2004; Goswami, 2001)
13 SEEL the perfect fit!Spelling and phonics instruction begin with initial phoneme identification, rhyming, and blending of onsets and rimes(Gillon, 2004; Goswami & Bryant, 1992; Torgesen et al., 2005)What if individual phonemes are then analyzed as regularly consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) words?
14 Research QuestionIf SEEL added an explicit spelling/phonics component to their instruction would it strengthen the gains kindergarten children make in learning how to read?Can that spelling/phonics instruction be done playfully?
15 Research Design Multiple baseline design across subjects Baseline performance: spelling data collected and repeated 4x over a six week period and then graphedIntervention: Spelling instruction is introduced while spelling data continues to be collected over 4 month period and then results added to graphExperimental control is established through repeated measures of baseline during intervention and replicated over multiple studentsANCOVA with Pre and Post PALS K show growth
16 Participants10 kindergarteners ( 7 females & 3 males) in a class of 23 studentsDesignated as Tier 2 & 3by classroom and district screening assessmentsVerified by Pre PALS KWestern USMid-socio-economic school w/31% receiving free or reduced lunch
17 Baseline Measures Criteria 10 words set in a phrase (e.g., We got a ___.)5 cvc, all five vowels used every time3 most easily articulated blends (e.g., bl, gl, cl, etc.)3 digraphs (ch, sh, ck)Minimum of 3 words from rimes already learnedNo ccvcc wordsNo proper names
18 Procedures Pre PALS K administered individually in November 4 baseline measures administered individually Nov.-Dec.Spelling instruction intervention occurred January – AprilMeasures similar to the baseline were administered individually every other week on Mondays and Wednesdays during center time.Post PALS K administered individually in May
19 Adding Spelling/Phonics Instruction Spelling features highlighted came from the Emergent and Alphabetic Letter-Name phases (Bear, et al., 2012)Systematic, explicit, multi-sensory instruction (Adams, 1990; Torgesen, 2004; Birsh, 2005)Using effective spelling strategies (Sharp, et al. 2008)Spelling by analogy (Goswami & Bryant, 1992)Fully analyzing words (Gaskins, et al., 1996)Attention to orthographic rules (Carreker, 2005)Dictation (Carreker, 2005)Presented in game/activity formats
20 Instruction 15-minute center rotations Small group instruction (grouped by classroom teacher according to performance level)Twice a week: Tuesdays and ThursdaysCreated & taught by the principle investigatorSEEL activities were taught BEFORE spelling centers
21 SEEL Activity First Ducks and trucks get stuck in the muck The muck gets stuck on the children’s hands.“Yuck, stuck, muck is stuck. The duck is stuck. The truck is stuck. Oh yuck!”We ran out of luck!Let’s make our muck into a duck, buck, truck.
22 Then Spelling Center Instructions: Make –uck words by sucking on a straw to pull up letter cardsPlace letter on the correct blank space of one of the –uck words.Write the word on the whiteboard.Use the ‘I Can Spell Chart’ to analyze the word.Dictation:Tiers 2 & 3: The _(duck)_ is _(stuck)_ in the _(muck).
23 Instruction IncludedModeling the targetIdentifying the skill
24 3. Interacting and responding verbally or nonverbally
25 4. Explicitly paying attention to the spelling structure through use of playful practice.
27 GrowthIn 4 of the 5 areas measured by the PALS K significant growth was made
28 PALS K PRE AND POST Tier II & III students showed significant gains in four skill areas TEST ADMINMEANSTANDARD DEVIATIONt SCORESIGNIFICANCEWord Recognition in Isolation- PrePrimerFall1.201.81t(9)8.67p < 0.001Spring12.904.46Letter-Sound Knowledge9.905.327.7821.902.77Letter-sound spelling knowledge5.604.626.1816.405.95Alphabet knowledge lower case16.107.024.06p < 0.00324.40
29 Multiple baseline data corroborated and elaborate the results Marked improvement for each Tier II/III student on initial consonant, medial vowel, final consonant to near 100% performance at the end of the study as illustrated in the composite data.
30 Average Trendlines for Each Element Baseline 1 to Final Assessment
31 In addition, seven of the students showed a marked improvement in performance in each element at the point of transition from the baseline measures to the operational measures
36 Observable Motivation Children were highly motivated as they came to the spelling centers.They cheered when it was their turn.They declared that the spelling center was their favorite.
37 ConclusionResults from this study provide encouraging information about the impact of direct spelling instruction on students who are struggling with reading. Kindergarten children at risk for failure made unusually good progress on all of the study measures.
38 Substantiate past research Significant gains in 4 of the 5 major skill areas on the PALS-K, including word recognition in isolation, a precursor to reading.Significant gains made on the spelling element of the PALS-K, which is corroborated by the performance on the baseline measures.Near grade-level performance by the end of the school year
39 PlayfulnessPlayful presentation caught positive attention from kindergartenersGame formats were observed to hook and engage students in the learningInstruction was effective when presented playfully
40 Kindergarten literacy instruction Effective when an explicit systematic approach is combined with play